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14th amendment action administrative adopted American apply areas authority BEARD believe Board Brown Chairman Chief Justice citizens clear colored committee Congress Constitution constitutional amendment course decided decision deny determine District doctrine effect equal established exclusive express facilities fact Federal Government FENSTERWALD follows give Governor granted hearings held individual intent interest interpretation judge judicial land language legislation legislature matter mean ment MORROW Negro never Office operated opinion passed person Plessy political position present President principle problem proposed protection public education public schools question race ratified reason record referred resolution respect rule school system segregation Senator Dodd Senator KEFAUVER Senator TALMADGE separate separate but equal Society South statement statute subcommittee Supreme Court Thank things tion United Virginia
Página 249 - We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.
Página 2 - State, being 21 years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 21 years of age in such State.
Página 76 - I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people...
Página 93 - If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation : for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed.
Página 83 - I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races...
Página 41 - ... requiring, their separation in places where they are liable to be brought into contact do not necessarily imply the inferiority of either race to the other, and have been generally, if not universally, recognized as within the competency of the state legislatures in the exercise of their police power. The most common instance of this is connected with the establishment of separate schools for white and colored children, which has been held to be a valid exercise of the legislative power even...
Página 93 - If men were angels, no government would be necessary If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.
Página 252 - ... to achieve a system of determining admission to the public schools on a non-racial basis, and revision of local laws and regulations •which may be necessary in solving the foregoing problems.
Página 228 - What is this but declaring that the law in the States shall be the same for the black as for the white ; that all persons, whether colored or white, shall stand equal before the laws of the States, and, in regard to the colored race, for whose protection the amendment was primarily designed, that no discrimination shall be made against them by law because of their color?
Página 43 - The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is in fact, and must be, regarded by the judges as a fundamental law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning as well as the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body.