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ter—a conspicuous unity of aim and a moment the solemnity of such conequal devotion of patriotism-a love of templations, by turning aside to notice England, and of all that is implied the vulgar herds of faction which sue in that venerable name, which no cessively arrayed themselves in resistcaprice of fortune could abate or ex- ance to the royal and illustrious tinguish. Together they walked in champions of their country's independnoble sincerity of purpose, and heroic ence and fame. It has now pleased energy of resolution, throughout the fate to round the course of our late darkest periods of our modern history monarch's earthly career, without hay-struggling to defend the ark of the ing permitted them to make any senBritish constitution, and the majesty sible breach upon its magnificent conof the British name, against the storms tinuity; and the sceptre which has by which they were assailed-main- dropped from his hand has been taining the native hue of courage and transferred to a successor, who will constancy amid the wreck of empire never bend it to their fantastic inand the desolation of the civilized solence and presumption. Be it world—and putting their humble but their bitter portion to remember, that assured trust in the immortal energy they struggled to embarrass the career of principle, of which it did not please of a prince who was justly revered as the Providence that they should witness idol of his people, and that they strugthe final triumph, but which, through gled in vain-and that his fame is now the prevailing power of their spirit and equally beyond the scope of their patheir example, was destined, at last, negyric and invective-for it is recordto hold its rejoicings over the honoured ed in the triumph of all generous printomb of the great minister, and around ciple, and the glory of a mighty people, the unconscious solitude of his royal whose regrets now gather round his and revered master.

tomb, while their affections shall beam We cannot think of disturbing for for ever upon his blessed memory,

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Connexion of Moon and Weather.- that so abound in the calcareous forma. Dr Olbers denies that any connexion be- tions of Lower Normandy. One stratum tween the changes of the moon and of the in the vicinity of Caen is almost entirely weather is ever observable in the north of composed of them. They are in perfect Germany; and he asserts that, in the course conservation; and, from the singular chaof an extensive medical practice, continued racters which they exhibit, M. Lamouroux for a number of years, with his attention gives figures of the natural size, with some constantly directed to the lunar periods, he essential parts magnified by the aid of ophas never been able to discover the slightest tical glasses. The work will be of use to connexion between those periods and the geologists, by making them acquainted with increase or decrease of diseases, or their antediluvian animals of a description not symptoms.

visible or known at present. Some constiGreenland.-Gieske, the mineralogist, af- tute new genera, and others belong to known ter a residence of eight years, draws a som- genera : among these latter are sponges, brous picture of the colony of East Green- and other animals of a similar kind. The land, which he visited and explored to the work will include a figure and description 62d degree of latitude. He is confident, of the fossile crocodile that has been disfrom the information given him by the na- covered near Caen. tives, that at present that rigorous coast is State of German Literature in Sweden. not inhabited, or even habitable, beyond German literature has been very much cul. the 64th degree at farthest; and that it tivated of late years in Sweden. Excluwould be difficult, if not impossible, to pe- sive of a collection of classical German aunetrate further.

thors printed at Upsal, in the original lanSalt Mines of Meurthe. The researches guage (sixty-six volumes in the whole), the for the discovery of rock-salt, which com- best works of various authors have been menced in July last at Moyenire, in the translated into Swedish. department of La Meurthe, is carried on Lalande's Journey to India.-M. de La. to advantage. After exploring to the lande, associate naturalist to the king's depth of 200 feet, and reaching the first garden, Paris, has just set out on his tralayer, which is eleven feet in thickness, vels to the Cape of Good Hope, where the workmen had to perforate a bed of he will pursue his researches in botany, gypsum and clay of 516 feet, when they zoology, and the various departments of came to a second stratum of salt, eight feet natural history. From thence he will proin thickness. It is intended to remove the ceed to India to prosecute the ulterior obresearches to two other neighbouring points, jects of his mission in the Indian Seas. to ascertain the breadth and magnitude of Killing Animals by Carbonic Acid. the whole bed. The two points form a A new method of putting animals to triangle nearly equilateral, each side of death, without pain, has been proposed by which may be about 6 or 700 toises in Dr Thornton ; in consequence of the emlength. One of these points is in the city ployment of which, it is said, the meat of Vic, and the other to the south of it. would look better, last better, keep better, On this latter point, they have already and salt better. These desiderata are propierced to the depth of twenty-five feet of posed to be attained by means of fixed air. vegetable earth : the orifice of each bore is Crocodiles' Flesh an Article of Food 34 inches, which constantly fills up with At Sennaar crocodiles are often brought fresh water. The salt of the first bed is ex- to market, and their fesh is publicly sold tremely white, and transparent as rock-crys- there. I once tasted some of the meat at tal. It is likewise very pure, and free from Esne, in Upper Egypt; it is of a dirty every noxious or terrene substance. The white colour, not unlike young veal, with a second appears to be intermixed with gyp- slight fishy smell ; the animal had been segus or argilaceous substances, but in a caught by some fishermen in a strong net, very small proportion. This salt is brown, and was above twelve feet in length. The not unlike a clouded flint; both the kinds Governor of Esne ordered it to be brought are very compact, well crystallized, the frac. into his court-yard, where more than a hun. tures cubical, and the saline taste superior dred balls were fired against it without any to that of any salt obtained by evaporation. effect, till it was thrown upon its back, and It contains but very little of muriate of the contents of a small swivel discharged at magnesia, or of sulphate of time.

its belly, the skin of which is much softer Work on Petrifactions.---M. Lamou- than that of the back.--Burckhardt's roux, Professor of Natural History in the Travels. Royal Academy of Caen, is about pub- Remarkable Phenomena at Christiana.lishing a work' (with 40 plates), contain- The following curious details have been ing some account of the marine polypi received from Christiana, in Norway :

On the 7th instant, the barometer rose to Some of our northern constellations, such as the extraordinary height of 29 inches, 16 the Great and Little Bear, on account of lines, which has not taken place here for a their depth in the horizon, appear of an asgreat number of years. The sea was eight tonishing size. feet lower on that day than it has been for Machine for crossing Rivers.--The methe last twenty years. Professor Hansteen, chanist, Xavier Michel, residing at Offenwho measured its height, made also some bach, has invented a very simple and comexperiments as to the intensity of the mag. paet machine, by the aid of which rivers netic force, and found the needle in such may be crossed, and even the sea attemptagitation that he could obtain no fixed re- ed, without any danger of sinking. It is sult from his experiments. These different nearly five feet in diameter when unfolded. phenomena appear to portend some extra- An opening of about thirteen inches in the ordinary revolution in nature.

centre is destined to receive the waveller. Calcareous Formations, with enclosed Skele. When dismounted, this apparatus is easily tons and Bones of the Human Species. transported from place to place for its enThe absence of calcareous mountains, and tire weight scarcely exceeds five pounds. even of considerable masses of that sub. The inventor has made a number of exstance, is one of the geological charac. periments on the Rhine, all of which have teristics by which Trinidad,

Tobago, and been crowned with entire success. He can the chain of Cumana, differ essentially make the machine move forward, or otherfrom the Antilles, or Caribbean Islands, wise, at pleasure, and without any great which have calcareous rocks, and even exertion. In order more fully to prove the mountains in strata, in which are found va utility of his invention, M. Michel las de rious kinds of agglomerated and petrified termined to embark at Khel, and descend shells.

the Rhine to its mouth. Of all these calcareous rocks, the most Pedes Scansorii of Birds.-" The toes of remarkable and worthy of fixing the atten- Woodpeckers," says Ray, "stand two fortion of naturalists, is a bank of carbonate wards, two backwards; which disposition of lime, rather hard, on the sea shore, in (as Aldrovandus well notes) Nature, or rathe district of Moule in Guadaloupe. ther the wisdom of the Creator, hath grant

This calcareous bank is on a level with ed them because it is very convenient for the sea, and covered at high-water. General the climbing of trees." The attempt to Ernouf, having heard that it contained hu. prove this assertion, adopted by so many man skeletons, sent, towards the end of and able naturalists, to be altogether un1804, M. Gerard, a naturalist of Brussels, founded, must appear to savour of preto make excavations there. He extracted a sumption in one who has so little of the block from it, in which was found a human philosopher about him ; nevertheless, I hope skeleton perfectly encrusted in the stone, to convince you, that such disposition of the and completely identified with it. I was in toes in the Woodpecker-tribe, was intended Guadaloupe at that period, and ordered by the Author of Nature for a very differworkmen to dig there on my own account. ent though equally wise purpose. I know I could not obtain an entire skeleton, but of but six genera, viz. Psittacus, Cuculus, heads, arms, legs, and fragments of the Picus, Ramphastos, Trogon, Bueco, that dorsal spine. With a sufficient number of are furnished pedibus scansoriis, i. e. with workmen, I might have obtained complete two toes before and two behind ; and of skeletons, and more accurately delineated this number I am acquainted with the man. than that of M. Gerard. There are several ners of the three first only. parts of his skeleton of which the linea- To begin with Cuculus I speak only ments cannot be clearly distinguished with- of our common species-Here is a bird furout the assistance of a magnifying glass. Inished with two toes before and two behind, remarked, that all those anthopolites are and yet is actually never known to climb at placed east and west, according to the an- all--a convincing proof that such confirmacient custom of the Asiatics and Ameri- tion does not necessarily bring with it the cans. By the side of the skeletons were power of climbing ; more especially, when found pestles, mortars, hatchets, clubs of a we consider that the Nuthateh (Sitta Exbasaltic or porphyritic stone, and instru- ropæa) and Tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris) ments similar to those which the savages have their toes placed in the usual manner, still use. Those instruments are petrified. and yet run up and down trees with as But I found no trace, nor the smallest ves- much facility as the Woodpeckers. The tige of organic bodies, though there are use of the Pedes scansorii, then, to the banks of madrepores quite near them. Cuckoo (as they evidently, in this case, con

The Fixed Stars. The most beautiful duce not to climbing), í judge to be this: part of the southern celestial hemisphere, It is well known that this bird will oftenwhich comprehends the Centaur, Argo, and times sit by the half hour together, on the Cross, is always hidden from the inhabi. bough of a tree, vociferating its loud and tants of Europe. It is only under the pleasing note. In doing this it sits remarkEquator that the magnificent spectacle is to ably forward, and appears in constant agi. be enjoyed, of seeing, at the same time, all tation, continually moving its body up and the stars of the two celestial heniispheres. down with great elegance. Now, as it sits so forward whilst using this exertion, it expected astronomical facts. The author would be liable to lose its balance, and quit deduces the motion of the whole of our sysits hold, had it only one toe behind ; where. tem from the progressive motion of the sun as, by the contrivance of two, it is enabled itself; a quality which, he says, must be strongly to adhere to the branch.

equally possessed by all the heavenly bo. Psittacus also has the pedes scansorii, and díes, resulting from the universally acknowis actually a climbing gemus ; yet this con- ledged laws of gravitation. He argues, a firmation does not, in my opinion, in any priori, that from progressive motion rotamanner induce thereto. To say that Paretion is produced, and, a posteriori, that a rots assist themselves with their beaks in body in free space, having rotation round climbing, would not argue the pedes scanso. its own axis, is a clear indication of its berii to be of no utility. Their real use to ing in progressive movement. This he corthis genus seems to be not only to grasp roborates by the general belief now enter. their food (for the foot of a Parrot serves tained, that our sun and planets are advancthe purpose of a hand in that respect), buting towards the constellation Hercules. The to enable them to step securely from one opinion that the sun has progressive motion, branch to another, and likewise to hang was not entertained till long after its rotasuspended as they often do ; in which case, tory motion was discovered. Captain B. the two toes before, and two behind, certain states his conviction, that if, from the discoly give stability to their hold.

very of the sun's rotation, and the acknow. With respect to the Pici, rather a clumsy ledged universality of gravity, its progrestxibe, the very stiff feathers in the tail are of sion had been inferred, when Kepler first material service to prop them up in the act suggested that the planets moved round the of climbing : not so the pedes scansorii, for sun by means of its atmosphere, the system the Nuthatch, without them, runs up trees of this philosopher would have obtained imequally well of what use then can these mediate and lasting credit, and that the hybe to the Woodpecker? I answer, that in pothesis of these bodies being continued in boring trees, in which occupation the bird motion by an original projectile impulse, is often engaged for a considerable length of would not have been resorted to in accounts time, its weight is thrown backward, and ing for the phenomena of their motions. thus the supply of two toes behind is ren- Potato.— The general opinion is, that dered extremely necessary for its support. this vegetable is indigenous in America, and What makes me think the wise Author of that it was brought from that Continent to Nature had this end principally in view is, Europe by the Spaniards, soon after the that the Nuthatch, from the want of this discovery of America by Columbus. A fact confirmation, is, when breaking muts, under mentioned in the Transactions of the Linthe necessity of sitting with its head down. pean Society, vol. xii. p. 585, may, perwards. It may be alleged, that its flexible haps, be considered as a corroboration of tail compels it to this position ; but, as I this opinion. Don Jose Pavon, of Madrid, have before observed, it runs up trees with one of the authors of the Flora Peruviana, equal or greater facility than the Woodpeck. states, in a letter to Mr Lambert, that he er, notwithstanding this disadvantage and his companions, Ruiz and Dombey,

It would be a curious circumstance, and had found the potato (Solanum tuberosum) a conclusive argument in my favour, should growing wild in the environs of Lima, and it ever be ascertained that the three-toed fourteen leagues from thence on the coast Woodpecker (picus tridactylus), which has of Peru, as well as in Chili ; and that it is only one toe behind, bores trees in the atti- cultivated very abundantly in those coun. tude assumed by the Nuthatch when break. tries by the Indians, who call it papas. ing nuts. REVETT SHEPHARD. Portable Gas Lamp.-The ingenious idea

of compressing gas for the purpose of renNlumination of Coal Mines. The inge- dering it portable, and thus adapting it to nious plan for illuminating cities by the various economic purposes, appears to have means of an electrifying machine, appears been suggested by Professor Brande, in a well adapted for the use of coal mines, &c. lecture delivered May 1810. But the merit and bids fair to reduce the number of those of using condensed gas for economical purterrific explosions of such frequent occur. poses, is due to Mr Gordon, who lately ob. rence in an inflammable atmosphere. The tained a patent for gas lamps, &c. electric fluid, in Professor Meinecke's ap- Phosphoric Acid in Vegetables.--Mr Barparatus, acts on a similar principle to the ry, in making experiments on pharmaceutigalvanic column lately applied to the fore eal extracts obtained by carrying on the mation of a self-moving machine.

evaporation in vacuo, “became acquainted Nere Theory of the Motions of the with the singular fact, that phosphoric acid, Planetary System.-A curious commen- in a soluble state, was found in all the extary, or rather an attack upon the received tracts. On further investigation, it was assystem of the planetary motions, has re certained that this acid, besides that porcendy been published, in a smal pamphlet, tion of it which exists as phosphate of lime, by Captain Burney, which is likely to is contained in a vist variety of vegetables. excite the attention of the scientific world, All those which are cultivated seem to conand may lead to the discovery of very un- tain phosphoric salt in great abundance."

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

LONDON. The Second Part of Mr Galt's Life of A manuscript of undoubted authenticity, B. West, Esq. President of the Royal Aca- calculated to excite an extraordinary degree demy, will shortly be published, forming of interest, has just reached this country, the Life and Works of Mr West subsequent it is already in the hands of a translator, to his arrival in England, compiled from and will be published both in English and materials furnished by himself; with a Por- in the original French during the ensuing trait, from an original picture painted by month ; it is entitled, “ DOCUMENTS Mr West some years since.

HISTORIQUES ET REFLEXIONS SUR LE Mr James Wilson has in the press, a GOUVERNEMENT DE LA HOLLANDE Journal of two successive Tours upon the PAR LOUIS BONAPARTE Ex Roi DE Continent, performed in the years 1816, HOLLANDE.” 1817, and 1818; containing an account of This work contains every event relating the principal places in the south of France ; to the political or financial situation of Hol. of the great road over the Alps, and of the land, from the commencement of the reign chief cities and most interesting parts of of Louis until the close of his government ; Italy ; accompanied with occasional Re- Sketches of the invasion of Italy and Expemarks historical and critical.

dition in Egypt, in both of which the author In a few days will be published, Original was present-Relations of most of the imMiscellanies, in prose and verse ; by John portant events in Spain, and his refusal of Laurens Bicknell, F. A.S. This volume the crown of that kingdom on the renunciacontains a dedication to the members of a tion of Charles 4th to Ferdinand his son, society instituted under the auspices of the and the formal cession of the latter to Naauthor's late lamented friend, the Rev. Dr poleon-copies of the letters of Charles 4th Burney, and a preface, including strictures to Ferdinand, relating to the conspiracy of upon many of the novel writers of the day. the latter against his father. The hitherto The first subject of the book is a burlesque secret motives of the marriage of the author novel, entitled Sarah Lloyd, in which the with the daughter of the Empress Josephine, heroine and the incidents are placed in a and their subsequent mutual agreement to ludicrous point of view, something in the a separation. The events which occurred on style of the Musical Travels of Joel Col- the separation of the Emperor Napoleon and lier," written by the author's father. A the Empress Josephine. The various Princomplete analysis of the play of Hamlet cesses proposed to Napoleon, and the reason follows—a plan which the author proposes of his selecting the daughter of the Emperor to pursue with the rest of the plays of of Austria. Numerous characteristic and Shakspeare, if he can find leisure for the highly interesting letters from Napoleon to employment ; and the present specimen the author, exposing his views, situation, and shall be found useful to the readers of our purposes. An indisputable genealogical immortal bard. The burletta of the “ Siege history offthe family of Bonaparte, extracted of Troy," hitherto published anonymously, from various histories of Italy and other and a selection of poems and a drama, form public documents, all of which prove bethe remainder of the volume.

yond doubt the illustrious rank they held in Should the present volume be fa. Ítaly even in the 12th Century, and it is vourably received by the public, the author somewhat singular that 600 years ago, Anintends to print a small volume of the drolius Bonaparte was Grand Podesta or writings of his late father, the writer of the Governor of Parma, where is now the wife beautiful poem of the Dying Negro, which of Napoleon as Grand Duchess! An imwas the composition of the late Mr Bick- portant letter from the Duc de Cadore, exnell,

the barrister, and corrected by the late plaining the intentions of the Emperor reMr Day.

lating to Holland, the various united pro

positions of France and Russia to accommoThe Rev. John Jebb, author of a volume date with England, and a variety of anecof Sermons, is preparing for the press, Cri- dotes of the author of Napoleon and of his tical Observations on Select Passages of the family. New Testament; the style and structure of Although this work may contain many which are examined and illustrated, ac- events already known to the public in a cording to the principles of poetical and general way, yet coming from the hand of sententious parallelism, established in the one who was on a throne, and who had an prelections of the late Robert Lowth, D. D. immediate share in all that occurred, joined Lord Bishop of London.

to his universally acknowledged probity and Mr Fuseli, Professor of Painting in the good faith, form together an unanswerable Royal Academy, is about to reprint his three motive for giving it the preference over Lectures on Painting formerly published, every other modern publication, and it is with three additional ones that have not assuredly next in point of interest to a work yet appeared.

from the pen of Napoleon himself. It is

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