Galaxy Formation and Evolution

Capa
Springer Science & Business Media, 17 de ago de 2005 - 198 páginas
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An Astronomical Life – Observing the Depths of the Universe” Though science as a subject can be di?cult, what has been more important for me is that its practice can also be rewarding fun! This book is crafted to expose the reader to the excitement of modern observational cosmology through the study of galaxy evolution over space and cosmic time. Recent extragalactic research has led to many rapid advances in the ?eld. Even a suitable skeptic of certain pronouncements about the age and structure of the Universe should be pleased with the large steps that have been taken in furthering our understanding of the Universe since the early 1990’s. My personal involvement in galaxy research goes back to the 1960’s. At that point, galaxies were easily recognized and partially understood as organized c- lections of stars and gas. What their masses were presented a problem, which I supposed would just fade away. But fade it didn’t. Distant active nuclei and quasars were discovered in the mid-1960’s. A c- mon view of QSOs was that they have large redshifts, but what use are they for cosmology or normal galaxy astrophysics? I shared that conclusion. My expec- tions fell below their potential utility. In short, the Universe of our expectations rarely matches the Universe as it is discovered.
 

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Conteúdo

Taking the Measure of the LowRedshift Universe
1
11 Local Galaxy Types and their Bulk Properties
2
112 The Hubble Classification Scheme
5
113 Morphological Breakdown of Nearby Galaxies
6
114 Surface Brightness Distributions
8
116 Distance Calibration
9
117 The Luminosity Functions of Local Galaxies
10
118 Gas in Nearby Galaxies
11
3122 The Question of Galaxy Biasing
102
313 Summary
105
Galaxies at the Contemporary Limits
113
412 Surveys at Energetic Wavebands
115
413 Millimeter and Submillimeter Galaxies at the Limit
116
42 Traditional Searches for Distant Objects
117
Galaxies at z 3 to z 65
118
422 Using the Lya Emission Line to Locate Extremely Distant Galaxies
121

12 Starbursts and ULIRGs
15
13 Merger Rates and Merger Signs
16
14 The Nature of AGN
19
142 Nearby Powerful Radio Galaxies
20
143 Xray Bright Nuclei
22
15 Groups Clusters and Rich Clusters of Galaxies
23
16 Astronomical Instrumentation at the Millennium
26
162 Radio Telescopes
28
163 The Spitzer Space Telescope
29
17 The Role of Large Sky Surveys
31
18 Summary
32
Which Properties of Galaxies can Likely Evolve and be Measured?
37
21 Galaxy Interactions
38
22 Evolution of the Stellar Content of Normal Galaxies
41
23 Evolution of the Gas Mass Fraction
42
24 The Chemical Evolution of Galaxies
43
25 The Chemical Evolution of AGN at Moderate Distance
45
26 Summary
47
Observations of an Evolving Universe
51
32 What is New in Galaxy Counts?
52
33 The Sizes and Morphologies of Galaxies at Fairly High Redshift
57
34 Explaining Building Block Galaxies at High Redshift
64
35 One Small Problem Resolving Galaxy Bars
66
36 Is there Evolution in the Stellar Content of E Galaxies?
68
37 Galaxy Clusters Now and as they were at Moderate Redshift
70
Changes from z 1 to Here and Now at z 0
73
39 Emission Lines as a Starformation Proxy out to z 1
74
310 Abundance Variations at Moderate Redshifts Different Targets and Methods
77
3101 Spectroscopy of Starforming Galaxies and their Metallicities
79
3102 AGN Chemical Abundance Evolution
82
3103 The Abundance Evolution of Damped Lya Absorption Systems
91
Evolution at Large Redshifts
93
312 Measures of Large scale Structure
99
423 Narrowband Detections
123
424 Distant Galaxies Detected as Lya Serendips
125
43 Record Redshifts
129
44 QSOs and AGN near the Contemporary Limits
130
45 Galaxy Morphology at Highz
134
46 Large scale Structure at Highz
135
Observational Cosmology
141
51 The Advent of the Cosmological Constant
145
52 Dark Energy
147
53 CMBderived parameters
151
532 The Correspondence between LargeScale Structure and P
157
533 Constraints on Hubbles Constant and the Age of the Universe
158
535 Checking on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
159
536 An Intriguing Discrepancy
161
54 Summary
163
Astronomical Instrumentation of the Future
167
62 New Techniques at the Focal Plane
168
Optimized Background Subtraction
172
63 New Tools to Reach Dim and Distant Galaxies
173
632 Allen Telescope Array
175
633 The Square Kilometre Array
176
635 The Spitzer Space Telescope SIRTF
178
636 The James Webb Space Telescope
179
64 Summary
180
Briefly Some Overall Conclusions and Problems
183
73 Proper Sizes
184
74 SFR and Mergers
185
76 The ReIonization State of the Early IGM
187
77 Evolution of QSOs
188
78 A Concluding Remark
190
Index
193
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