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13th CONGRESS, ? 20 SESSION. S

Message of the President, at the opening of the Session. [Sen. and H. of R. of each party, of the vessels of the other, for suspected will immediately be laid before the Senate for the exer offenders. This was objected to by this government, on cise of the constitutional authority of that body, with the principle, that, as the right of search was a right of reference to its ratification. It is proper to add, that the var of a belligerent towards a neutral power, it might manner in which this negotiation was invited and conhave an ill effect to extend it by treaty to an offence ducted on the part of the Emperor, has been very gtis. which had been made comparatively mild to a time of factory. peace. Anxious, however, for the suppression of this The great and extraordinary changes which have hap. trade, it was thought adviseable, in compliance with a pened in the government of Spain and Portugal, within resolution of the House of Representatives, founded on the last two years, without seriously affecting the friendly an act of Congress, to propose to the British Government relations wbich, under all of them, have been maintained an expedient which should be free from that objectio!, with those powers by the United States, have been ob. and more effertual for the object, by making it piratical stacles to the adjustment of the particular subjects of In that move the enormity of ihe crime would place the discussion which have arisen with each. A resolution offenders out of the protection of their government, and of the Senate, adopted at their last session, called for in. involve no question of search, or other question between formation as to thie effect produced upon our relations the parties, touching their respective rights. It was be- with Spain, by the recognition, on the part of the United lieved, also, that it would completely suppress the trade States, of the Independent South American Govern. in the vessels of both parties, and by their respective menis. The papers containing that information are now citizens and subjects in those of uther powers with whom communicated to Congress. it was hoped that the odium which would thereby he ato | A Charge d'Affaires has been receiver from the Inde. tached to it, would produce a corresponding arrange pendent Government of Brazil. That country, hereto. ment, and, by means thereof; its entire extirpation for fore a colonial possession of Portugal, had, some years ever. A convention to this effect was concluded and since, been proclaimed by the Sovereign of Portugal signed in London on the 13th day of March, by pleni. himself, an independent kingilom. Since his return to potentiaries duly authorized by both governments, to the Lisbon a revolution in Brazil has established a new goratification of which certain obstacles have arisen which vernment there, with an Imperial title, at the head of are not yet entirely removed. The difference between wluch is placed the Prince in whom the Regency had the parties still remaining, has been reduced to a point, been vestci by the King, at the time of his departure. not of sufficient magnitude, as is presumed, to be per. There is reason to expect that, by amicable negotiation, mitted to d-feat an object so near to the heart of both the independence of Brazil will, ere long, be recognized nations, and so desirable to the friends of liumanity by Portugal lierself. throughout the world. As objections, however, to the With the remaining Powers of Europe, with those principle recommended by the House of Representa- on the coast of Barbary, and witli all the new Soutli lives, or at least to the consequences inseparable from American States, our relations are of a friendly chance it, and which are understood to apply to the law, have ter. We have brinisters Plenipotentiary residing with been raise which may deserve a reconsideration of the the Republics of Colombia and Chili, and have received whole subi ct, I have thought it proper to suspend the Ministers, of the same rank, from Colombia, Guatimala, conclusion of a new convention until the definitive sen- | Buenos Ayres, and Mexico. Our commercial relations timents of Congress may be ascertained. The docu- with all those States, are mutually beneficial and in ments relating to the negotiation, are, with that intent, creasing. With the Republic of Colombia, a Treaty of submitted to your consideration.

Commerce has been formed, of which a copy is received, Our commerce with Sweden has been placed on a and the original daily expected. A negotiation for a footing of perfect reciprocity by treaty, and, with Russia, like Treaty would have been commenced with Buenos the Netherlands, Prussia, the free Hanseatic Cities, the Ayres, had it not been prevented by the indisposition, Dakedom of Oldenburgh, and Sardinia, by internal re- and lamented decease, of Mr. Rodney, our Minister there, gulations on each side, founded on mutual agreement and to whose memory the most respectful attention has between the respective Governments.

been shewn by the Government of that Republic. An The principles upon which the commercial policy of advantageous alteration in our 'Treaty with Tunis has the United States is founded, are to be traced to an early been obtained by our Consular-Agent residing there, period. They are essentially connected with those upon the oficial document of which, when received, will be which their independence was declared, and owe their laid before the Senate. origin to the enlightened men who took the lead in our The attention of the Government has been drawn with allairs at that important epoch. They are developed in great solicitude to other subjects, and particularly to that their first treaty of commerce with France of sixth Feb. relating to a state of maritime war, involving the relative ruary, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, rights of neutral and belligerent in such wars. Most of and by a formal commission, which was instituted imme. the difficulties which we have experienced, und of the diately after the conclusion of their Revolutionary strug- losses which we have sustained, since the establishment gle, for the purpose of negotiating treaties of commerce of our Independence, have proceeded from the unset with every European power. The first treaty of the tled state of those rights, and the extent to which the United States with Prussia, which was negotiated by tha: belligerent claim has been carried against the neutral commission, affords a signal illustration of those princi- | party. It is impossible to look back on the occurrences ples. The act of Congress of the third March, one thou of the late wars in Europe, and to behold the disregard sand eight hundred and fifteen, adopted immediately which was paid to our rights as a neutral power, and the after the return of a general peace, was a new overture waste which was made of our Commerce by the parties to foreign nations to establish our commercial relations to those wars, by various acts of their respective Gowith them on the basis of free and equal reciprocity. /vernments, and under the pretext, by each, that the That principle has pervaded all the acts of Congress, other had set the example, without great mortification, and all the negotiations of the Executive on the subject and a fixed purpose never to submit to the like in fusince.

ture. An attempt to remove those causes of possible A convention for the settlement of important questions variance by friendly negotiation, and on just princiin relation to the Northwest Coast of this Continent, and ples, which should be applicable to all parties, could, its adjoining seas, was concluded and signed at St. Pe- it was presilined, be viewed by none other than as a tersburg on the fifth day of April last, by the Minis- proof of an carnest desire to preserve those relations ter Plenipotentiary of the United States, and Pleni. with every power. In the late war between France potentiaries of the Imperial Government of Russia. It and Spain, a crisis occurred, in which it seemed proba18th CONGRESS, 2 21 Session.

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Message of the President,

Message of the President, at the opening of the Session. [ Sen. and H. of R.

S ble that all the controvertible principles, involved in Hollars of the loan authorised by the act of the twentysuch wars, might be brought into discussion, and set. sixth of May last. In this estimate is included a stock of tled to the satisfaction of all parties. Propositions, hay. seven million dollars, issued for the purchase of that ing this object in view, have been made in the Govern amount of the capital stock of the Bank of the United ments of Great Britain, France, Russia, and of other States; and which, as the stock of the Bank, still held Powers, which have been received in a friendly manner by the Government; will at least be fully equal to its reby all, but as yet no treaty has been formed with either imbursement, ought not to be considered as constituting for its accomplishment. The policy will, it is presumed, a part of the public debt. Estimating, then, the whole be persevered in, and in the hope that it may be suc amount of the public debt at seventy-nine million dollars cessful.

and regardir:g the annual receipts and expenditures of the It will always be recollected that with one of the par Government, a well-founded hope may be entertainer, ties to those wars, and from whom we received those in that, should no unexpected event occur, the whole of the juries, we sought redress by war. From the other, by public debit may be discharged in the course of ten years, whose then reigning Government our vessels were seized and the Government be left at liberty thereafter, to apply in port as well as at sea, and their cargoes confiscated, such portion of the revenue as may not be necessary for indemnity has been expected, but has not yet been ren current expenses, to such other objects as may be most dered. It was under the influence of the latter, that conducive to the public security and welfare. That our vessels were likewise seized by the Governments the sum applicable to these objects, will be very consiof Spain, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Naples, and derable, may be fairly concluded, when it is recollected, from whom indemnity has been claimed and is still er. that a large amount of the public revenue has been appected, with the exception of Spain, by whom it has plied since the late war, to the construction of the been rendered. With both parties we had abundant public buildings in this city; to tlie erection of fortifcause of war, but we had no alternative but to resist that cations along the coast, and of arsenals in different parts which was most powerful at sea, and pressed us nearest of the Union; to tlie augmentation of the nuvy; to the at home. With this,all differences were settled by a irea-extinguishment of the Indian title to large tracts of ferty founded on conditions fair and honorable to both, and tile territory; to the acquisition of Florida; to pensioas which has been so far executed with perfect good faith. to revolutionary officers and soldiers, and to invalids ot It has been earnestly hoped, that the other would; of the late war. On many of these objects the expense its own accord, and from a sentiment of justice and will annually diminish, and cease at no distant period on conciliation, make to our citizens the indemnity to which most or all. On the first of January, one thousand eight they are entitled, and thereby remove from our relations hundred and seventeen, the public debt amounted to any just cause of discontent on our side.

one hindred and twenty-three million four bundred and It is estimated that the receipts into the Treasury ninety-one thousand nine hundred and sixty-five dollars during the current year, exclusive of loans, will exceed and sixteen cents; and notwithstanding the large sums eighteen million five hundred thousand dollars, which which have been applied to these objects, it has been with the sum remaining in the Treasury at the end of reduced since that period, thirty-seven million four hunthe last year, amounting to nine million four hundred tired and foriy-six thousand nine hundred and sixty-one sixty-three thousand nine hundred twenty-two dollars dollars, and seventy-eight cents. The last portion of eighty-one cents, will, after discharging the current dis- the public debt will be redeemable on the first of Ja. bursements of the year, the interest on the public debt, nuary one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five; and and eleven million six hundred and thirty-three thousand while there is the best reason to believe, that the redollars fifty-two cents of the principal, leave a balance sources of the Government will be continually adequate of more than three million dollars in the Treasury on to such portions of it as may become due in the inter. the first day of January next.

val, it is recommended to Congress to seize every op. A larger amount of the debt contracted during the portunity, which may present itself, to reduce the raie late war, bearing an interest of six per cent. becoming of interest on every part thereof. The high state of redeemable in the course of the ensuing year, than the public credit, and the great abundance of money, could be discharged by the ordinary revenue, the act of are at this time very favorable to such a resuli. It must the twenty-sixth of May, authorized a loan of five million he very gratifying to our fellow-citizens, to witness this dollars, at four and a half per cent, to meet the same. By Aourishing state of the public finances, when it is recolthis arrangement an annual saving will accrue to the lected, that no burthen whatever has been imposed public of seventy-five thousand dollars.

upon them. Under the act of the twenty-fourth of May last, a loan The Military Establishment, in all its branches, in the of five millions dollars was authorized, in order to performance of the various duties assigned to each, jusmeet the awards, under the Florida Treaty, which was lifies the favourable view which was presented, ofthe eft. negotiated at pa:, with the Bank of the United States, at ciency of its organization, at the last session. All the four and a half per cent. the limit of interest fixed by appropriations have been regularly applied to the ob. the act. By this provision the claims of our citizens, who ljects intended by Congress ; and, so far as the disbursebad sustained so great a loss by spoliations, and from ments have been made, the accounts have been render whom indemnity had been so long withheld, were ed and settled, without loss to the public. The condipromptly paid. For these advances, the public will be tion of the Army itself, as relates to the officers and amply repaiil, at no distant day, by the sale of the landsmen, in science and discipline, is highly respectable. in Florida. Of the great advantages resulting from the The Military Academy, on which the Army essentially acquisition of the territory in other respects, too high rests, and to which it is much indebted for this state of an estimate cannot be formed.

improvement, bas attained, in comparison with any other It is estimated that the receipts into the Treasury, institution of a like kind, a high degree of perfection. during the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty. Experience, however, has shewn, that the dispersed five, will be sufficient to meet the disbursements of the condition of the Corps of Artillery is unfavourable to year, including the sum of ten million dollars, which is the discipline of that important branch of the Military annually appropriated by the act, constituting the Sink Establisliment. To remedy this inconvenience, eleven ing Fund, to the payment of the principal and interest companies have been assembled at the fortification of the public debt.

erected at Old Point Comfort, as a school for Artillery The whole amount of the public debt on the first of instruction, with intention, as ihey shall be perfected in January nest, may be estimated at eighty-six million the various duties of that service, to order them to other Jollars, inclusive of two millions five hundred thousand posts, and to supply their places with other companic

NGRESS, Oil SESSION.

(Sen. and H. of R. Ś

Message of the President, at the opening of the Session. for instruction in like manner. In this mode, a complete military will be incorporated with the civil, and unfoundknowledge of the science and duties of this arm, willed and injurious distinctions and prejudices, of every be extended throughout the whole Corps of Artillery. kind, be done away. To the corps themselves, this serBiut, to carry this object fully into effect, will require the vice cannot fail to be equally useful, since, by the knowaid of Congress ; to obtain which, the subject is now ledge they would thus acquire, they would be eminently submitted to your consideration.

better qualified, in the event of war, for the great purof the progress which has been made in the construc- poses for which they were instituted. tion of Fortifications, for the permanent defence of our Our relations with the Indian tribes within our limits, maritimde frontier, according to the plan decided on, and have not been materially changed during the year. The to the extent of the existing appropriations, the Report hostile disposition evinced by certain tribes on the Misof the Secretary of War, which is herewith communica- souri during the last year, still continues, and has exted, will give a detailed account. Their final completended, in some degree, to those on the Upper Missistion cannot fail to give great additional security to that sippi and the upper Lakes. Several parties of our citifrontier, and to diminishi, propoitionably, the expense of zens have been plundered and murdered by those tribes. defending it in the event of war.

In order to establish relations of friendship with them, The provisions in the several acts of Congress, of the Congress, at the last session, made an appropriation for last session, for the improvement of the navigation of the treaties with them, and for the employment of a suitable Mississippi and the Ohio, of the Harbour of Presqu'isle, military escort to accompany and attend the Commission. on Lake Erie, and the repair of the Plymouth Beach, ers at the places appointed for the negotiations. This are in a course of regular execution; and, there is rea object has not been effected. The season was too far son to believe, that the appropriation, in each instance, alvanced when the appropriation was made, and the diswill be adequate to the object. To carry these improve. tance too great to permit it, but measures have been ments fully into effect, the superintendence of them has taken, and all the preparations will be completed, to acbeen assigned to officers of the Corps of Engineers. complish it at an early period in the next season.

Under the act of 30th April last, authorizing the Pre-l Believing that the hostility of the Tribes, particularly sident to cause a survey to be made, with the necessary on the upper Mississippi, and the Lakes, is in no small deplans and estimates, of such roads and canals, as he might gree owing to the wars which are carried on between deem of national importance, in a commercial or milita- the Tribes residing in that quarter, measures have been ry point of view, or for the transportation of the mail, a taken to bring about a general peace among them, which, Board has been instituted, consisting of two distinguish- if successful, will not only tend to the security of our ed officers of the Corps of Engineers, and a distinguish- citizens, but be of great advantage to the Indians themed Civil Engineer, with assistants, who have been ac- selves. tively employed in carrying into effect the object of the. With the exception of the Tribes referred to, our react. They have carefully esamined the route between lations with all the others are on the same friendly footthe Potomac and the Ohio rivers ; between the latter ing, and it affords me great satisfaction to add, that they and Lake Erie: between the Alleghany and the Susque are making steady advances in civilization, and the imhannah; and the routes between the Delaware and the provement of their condition. Many of the Tribes have Rariton, Barnstable and Buzzard's Bay, and between already made great progress in the arts of civilized life. Boston Harbour anıl Narraganset Bay. Such portion of This desirable result has been brought about by the huthe corps of Topographical Engineers as could be spar- mane and persevering policy of the Government, and ed from the survey of the coast, has been employed in particularly by means of the appropriation for the civilsurveying the very important route between the Poto.ization of the Indians. There have been established, unmac and the Ohio. Considerable progress has been der the provisions of this act, thirty-two schools, containmade in it, but the survey cannot be completed until the ing nine hundred and sixteen scholars, who are well in. next season. It is gratifying to add, from the view al- structed in several branches of literature, and likewise learly taken, that there is good cause to believe, that in agriculture, and the ordinary arts of life. this great national object may be fully accomplisbed. Under the appropriation to authorize treaties with the

It is contemplated to commence early in the next sea- Crceks, and Quapaw Indians, commissioners have been son, the execution of the other branch of the act, that appointed, and negotiations are now pending, but the which relates to roads, and with the survey of a route result is not yet known. from this city, through the southern states, to New Orl for more full information respecting the principle Jeans, the importance of which cannot be too highly which has been adopier for carrying into effect the act estimated. All the officers of both the corps of Engi- of Congress authorizing surveys, with plans and estineers, who could be spared from other services, have mates, for canals and rous, and on every other branch been employed in exploring and surveying the routes of duty incirlent to the Department of War, I refer you for canals. To digest a plan for both objects, for the to the Report of the Secretary. great purposes specified, will require a thorough know. The squadron in the Mediterranean has been mainledge of every part of our Union, and of the relation of tained in the extent which was proposed in the Report each part to the others, and of all to the seat of the Ge- of the Secretary of the Navy of the last year, and has Beral Government. For such a digest it will be neces- afforded to our commerce the necessary protection in sary that the informacion be full, minute, and precise. that sea. Apprehending, however, that the unfriendly With a view to these important objects, I submit to the relations which have existed between Algiers and some consideration of Congress the propricty of enlarging both of the powers of Furope, might be extended to us, it the corps of Engineers, the military and topographical. has been thought expedient to augment the force there, It need scarcely be remarked that the more extensively and, in consequence, the " North Carolina,” a ship of these corps are engaged in the improvement of their the line, has been prepared, and will sail in a few day's country, in the execution of the powers of Congress, and to join it. in aid of the states in such improvements as lie beyond the force employed in the Gulph of Mexices, and in that limit, when such aid is desirer!, the happier the the neighboring seas, for the suppression of Piracy, las effect will be in many views of which the subject is sus-likewise been preserved essentially in the state in wlicit ceptible. By profiting of the'r science, the works will it was during the last year. A persevering effort has always be well executed; and, by giving to the officers | been made for the accomplishment of that object, and such employment, our Union will derive all the advan. much protection has thereby been afforled to our comTage in peace as well as in war, from their talents and merce, but still the practice is far from being suppressservices, which they can afford. In this mode, also, the led. From every view which has been taken of the sub

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ect, it is thought that it will be necessary rather to aug- his favor, throughout every portion of our l'nion, and alment than to diminish our force in that quarter. There fectionate invitations have been given him to extend liis is reason to believe that the piracies now complained of, visits to them. To these he has yielded alltbe accommo. are committed by bands of robbers who inhabit the dation in his power. At every designated point of renland, and who, by preserving good intelligence with the dezvous, the whole population of the neighboring coun. towns, and seizing favorable opportunities, rush forth try has been assembled to greet him, among whom it and fall on unprotected merchant vessels, of which they has cxcited, in a peculiar manner, the sensibility of all, make an easy prey. The pillage thus taken, they carry to behold the surviving members of our Revolutionary to their lurking places, and dispose of afterwards, at contest, civil and military, who had shared with him in prices tending to seduce the neighboring population. the toils and dangers of the war, many of them in a de. This combination is understood to be of great extent; crepid s'ate. A more interesting spectacle, it is belier. and is the more to be deprecated, because the crime of ed, was never witnessed, because none could be foundpiracy is often attended with the murder of the crews, ed on purer principles--none proceed froin higher or these robbers knowing, if any survived, their lurking more disinterested motives. Ühat the feelings of those places would be exposed, and they be caught and pun- who bad fought and bled with him, in a common cause, ished. That this atrocious practice should be carried to should have been much excited, was natural. There such extent, is cause of equal surp: re and regret. It is are, however, circumstances attending these interviews, presumed that it must be attributed to the relaxed and which pervaded the whole community, and touched the fecbie state of the local Governments, since it is not breasts of every age, even the youngest among us. doubted, from the high character of the Governor of There was not an individual present who had not some re. Cuba, who is well known and much respected here, that lative who had not partaken n those scenes, nor an intaot if he had the power, he would promptly suppress it. who had not heard the relation of them. But the circunWhether those robbers should be pursued on the land, stance which was most sensibly felt, and which his prethe local authorit:es be made responsible for these atro- sence brought forcibly to the recollection of all was the cities, or any other measure he resorted to, to suppress great cause in which we were engaged, and the bless them, is submitted to the consideration of Congress. ling, which we have derived from our success in it. The

In execution of the laws for the suppression of the struggle was for independence and liberty, public and slave trade, a vessel has been occasionally sent from that personal, and in this we succeeded. The meeting with squadron to the coast of Africa, with orders to return one who had borne so distinguished a part in that great thence by the usual track of the slave ships, and to seize struggle, and from such lofty and disinterested mctires, any of our vesseis which might be engaged in that trade. could not fail to affect, profoundly, every individual, and None have been found, and, it is believed, that none are of every age. It is natural that we should all take a deep thus employed. It is well known, however, that the interest i. bis future welfare, as we do. His ligh claims trade still exists under other tlags.

on our Union are felt, and the sentiment universal, that The health of our squadron while at Thompson's they sliould be met in a generous spirit. Under these Island, has been much beiter during the present, than it impressions, I invite your attention to the subject, with was the last season. Some improvemenis have been a view that; regarding his very important services, loss inade, and others are contemplated there, which, it is es, and sacrifices, a provision may be made, and endei. believed, will have a very salutary effect.

ed to him, which shall correspond with the sentiinents, On the Pacific, our commerce has much increased, and and be worthy the character, of the American people. on that coast, as well as on that sea, the United States In turning our attention to the condition of the civil. have many important interests wirich require attention ized world, in which the United States have always and protection. It is thought that all the considerations taken a deep interest, it is gratifying to see how large a which suggested the expediency of placing a squadron portion of it is blessed with peace. The only wars wbich on that sea, operate with augmented force, for maintain now exist within that limit, are those between Turkey ing it there at least in an equal extent.

and Greece, in Europe, and between Spain and the nec For detailed information respecting the state of our Governments, our neighbors, in this hemisphere. In maritime forci, on each sea, the improvement necessary both these wars, the cause of independence, of liberty, to be made on either, in the organization of the Naval and humanity, continues to prevail. The success of Establishment, generally, and of the laws for its better Greece, when the relative population of the contending government, I refer you to the Report of the Secretary parties is considered, commands our admiration and apof the Navy, which is herewith communicated.

plause, and that it has had a similar effect with the The revenue of the Post Office Department lias re neighboring Powers, is obvious. The feeling of the ceived a considerable augmentation in the present year. whole civilized world is excited, in a high degree, in The current receipts will exceed the expenditures, al. their favor. May we not hope that these sentiments, though the transportation of the mail, within the year, winning on the hearts of their respective Governments, has been much increased. A Report of the Postmaster may lead to a more decisive result? that they may proGeneral, which is transmitted, will furnish, in detail, the duce an accord among them, to replace Greece on the necessary information respecting the administration and ground wbich she former!y held, and to which her hepresent state of this Department.

roic exertions; at this day, so eminently entitle ber? In conformity with a resolution of Congress, of the last With respect to the contest, to which our neighbours Session, an invitation was given to General Lafayette to are a party, it is evident that Spain, as a power, is scarcely visit the United States, with an assurance that a ship of felt in it. These new states had completely achiered war shoull attend at any port of France which he their independence, before it was acknowledged by the might designate, to receive and convey him across United States, and they have since maintained it, with the Atlantic, whenever it might be convenient for little foreign pressure. The disturbances which have him to sail. He declined the offer of the public ship, appeared in certain portions of that vast territory, bare from motives of delicacy, but assured me that lie proceeded from internal causes, which had their origin had long intended, and would certainly visit our in their former governments, and have not yet been Union, in the course of the present year. In August thoroughly removed. It is manifest that these causes last, he arrived at New York, where he was received are daily losing their eilect, and that these new states with the warmth of aflection and gratitude to which his are settling clown under governments elective and reprevery.important and disinterested services and sacrifices, sentative in every branch, similar to our own. In this in our Revolutionary struggle, so eminently entitled himn. course we ardenily wish them to persevere, under a A corresponding sentiment has since been manifestcd, infirm conviction that it will promote their happiness. In

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this their career, however, we have not interfered, be- ( honor of the nation. Their civilization is indispensable lieving that every people have a right to institute for to their safety; and tliis can be accomplished only by themselves the government, which, in their judgment, degrees. The process must commence with the infant muy suit them best. Our example is before them, of state, through whoin some effect may be wrought on the the good effect of which, being our neighbours, they parental. Difficulties of the most serious character preare competent judges, and to their judgment we leave sent themselves to the attainment of this very desirable it, in the expectation that other powers will pursue the result, on the territory on which they now reside. To same policy. The deep interest which we take in their remove them from it by force, even with a view to their independence which we have acknowledged, and in own security and happiness, would be revolting to hu. their enjoyment of all the rights incident thereto, espe.manity, and utterly unjustifiable. Between the liinits of cially in the very important one of instiluting their own our present States and territories, and the Rocky Moungovernments, has been declared and is known to the tain and Mexico, there is a vast territory, to which they world. Separated, as we are from Europe by the great might be invited, with inducements, which might be suc. Atlantic ocean, we can have no concern in the wars of cessful. It is thought if that Territory should be divided the European Governments, nor in the causes which into Districts, by previous agreement with the tribes now produce them. The balance of power between them, resident there, and ciyil Governments be established in into which ever scale it may turn in its various vibra. each with schools, for every branch of instruction in literations, cannot affect us. It is the interest of the United ture, and the arts of civilized life, that all the tribes now States to preserve the most friendly relations with every within our limits might gradually be drawn there. The power, and on conditions fair, equal, and applicable to execution of this plan would necessarily be attended all. But, in regard to our neighbours our situation is with expense, and that not inconsiderable, but it is different. It is impossible for the European Govern-doubted whether any other can be devised which would ments to interfere in their concerns, especially in those be less liable to that objection, or more likely to sucalluded to, which are vital, without affecting us ; indeed ceed. the motive which might induce such interference in the In looking to the interests which the United States present stats of the war between the parties, if a war have on the Pacific Ocean, and on the western coast of it may be called, would appear to be equally applicable this Continent, the propriety of establishing a military to 13. It is gratifying to know that some of the powers post at the mouth of Columbia river, or at some other with whom we enjoy a very friendly intercourse, and to point in that quarter, within our acknowledged limits, whom these views have been communicated, have ap is submitted to the consideration of Congress. Our peared to acquiesce in them.

commerce and fisheries on that sea, and along the coast, The augmentation of our population, with the expan have much increasell, and are increasing. It is thought sion of our Union, and increased number of states, have that a military post, to which our ships of war might reproduced effects in certain branches of our system, which sort, would afford protection to every interest, and have merit the attention of Congress. Some of ulir arrange a tendency to conciliate the tribes to the north-West, ments, and particularly the Judiciary Establishment, with whom our trade is extensive. It is thought, also, were made with a view to the original thirteen states only. that, by the establishment of such a post, the intercourse Since then the United States have acquiredla vast extent of between our western states and territories, and the Paterritory; eleven new states have been admitted into the citic, and our trade with the tribes residing in the inteUnion, and territories have been laid off for three others, rior, on each side of the Rocky Mountain, would be eswhich will likewise be admitted at no distant day. An sentially promoted. To carry this object into effect, the organization of the Supreme Court, which assigns to the appropriation of an adequate sum to authorize the emJudges any portion of the duties which belong to the in-ployment of a frigate, with an officer of the corps of terior, requiring their passage over so vast a space, under engineers, to explore the mouth of the Columbia river, any distribution of the states that may now be made, if and the coast contiguous thereto, to enable the Execunot impracticable in the execution, must render it im- live to make such establishment at the most suitable possible for them to discharge the duties of either branch point, is recommended to Congress. with advantage to the Union. The duties of the Supreme. It is thought that attention is also due to the improved Court would be of great inportance, fits decisions were ment of this city. The communication between the confined to the ordinary limits of other tribunals; but public buildings, and in various other parts, and the when it is considerell that this court decides, and in the grounds around those buildings, require it. It is prelast resort, on all the great questions which arise under med also, that the completion of the canal, from the our Constitution, involving those between the United Tiber to the Eastern Branch, would have a very salutary States, individually, between the states and the United effect. Great exertions have been made, and expenses States, and between the latter and foreign powers, too incurred, by the citizens, in improvements of various high an estimate of their importance cannot be formed. kinds; but ihose which are suggested, belong exclusive. The great interests of the nation seem to require, that ly to the Government, or are of a nature to require er. the Judges of the Supreme Court should be exempted penditures beyond their resources. The public lots from every other duty, than those which are incident to which are still for sale, woul!, it is not doubted, be more that high trust. The organization of the inferior courts than adequate to these purposes. would, of course, be adapted to circumstances. It is from the view above presented, it is manifest, that the presuined that such an one might be formed, as would situation of the United States is, in the highest degree, secure an able and faithful discharge of their duties, and prosperous and happy. There is no object which, as it without any material augmentation of expense.

people, we can desire, which we do not possess, or which The condition of the Aborigines within our limits, and is not within our reach. Blessed with governments the especially those who are within the liinits of any of the happiest which the world ever knew, with no distinct states, merits likewise particular attention. Experience orders in society, or dividerlinterests in the vast territory has shown, that, unless the tribes be civilized, they can over which their dominion extends, we are every mo. never be incorporated into our system, in any form what. tive to cling together, which can animate a virtuous and ever. It has likewise shown, that, in the regular aug.enlightened pcopic. The great object is to preserve mentation of our population, with the extension of our those blessings, and to hand them down to the latest pos. Seitlements, their situation will become deplorable, if terity. Our experience ought to satisfy us, that our pro. their extinction is not menaced. Soine well digested gress, under the most correct and provillent policy, will plan, which will rescue them from such calamities, is due nou be exempt from danger. Our institutions form an to their rights, to the rights of humanity, and to the !important epoch in the history of the civilized world,

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