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and sinful violation of the Sabbath.' Again, ' We are like sheep exposed to the fury of tlie wolves.' Again, ' Forme, lam considered by them as one deprived of reason, a fool, and enthusiast.' And again, towards the conclusion of the letter, ' The only thing that keeps me here is our dear society, which languishes like a tree planted by the side of a Flaming Furnace !'—(See the Methodist Missionary Report of 1821, p. xciv.) The melancholy fact is, that St Domingo, once the garden, the Queen of the West Indies, is now inhabited, not exactly by savages, but by a race of beings, infinitely worse, degraded, in fact, beneath what they ever were before. The unsophisticated denizen of the African wilds is ennobled in comparison with the wretched degradation of his Haytian brethren; not merely relapsing into barbarism, but sinking fast under an odious combination of the darkness, ferocity, vices, and superstitions of all colours and all nations; unredeemed by the virtues of any. To this state of terrific desolation it is, that Mr Wilberforce and his friends are now finally labouring to reduce the whole of the British West Indies."
Our other extract on this head shall be from a letter addressed to Lord Liverpool by " a West Indian," (Mr S. P. Hurd.) It consists of a precis made from the Custom-house books of St Domingo.
"The island of Domingo, previously to the French revolution and the emancipation of the negro population, exported to France, in 353 ships, of from 800 to 1000 tons each, the under-mentioned produce :—
Quintals. Sugar, 1,239,673, which soldfor L.1,900,000 Coffee, 459,350, — 1,009,000
Indigo, 18,080, — 650,000
Cocoa, 5,790, — 17,000
Amotto, 518, — 1,500
Cotton, 26,900, — 300,000
Hides, 14,500, — 7,000
Rope-yarn, 44,000, — 2,000
Dye-woods, 193,000, — 40,000
Miscellaneous drugs, dec — 160,033
"This exportation arose from 385 sugar plantations for raw sugar, and 263 for clayed, or dried sugars; from 2587 plantations for indigo; 14,618,336 cotton plants; 92,893 coffee trees, and 757,000 cocoa trees.
* At that period, the cattle of the colony amounted to 76,058 horses and mules, and 77,904 head of horned cattle. The labour occupied 33,000 white persons of
all ages and both sexes; 6500 persons of free condition ; and between 3 and 400,000 slaves.
"In the year 1813, this once beautiful, rich, and happy colony was reduced to a miserable population, not exceeding 150,000. Its flourishing plantations, populous towns, and elegant residences, were fallen into one general mass of ruin. The soil produced barely sufficient to support its wretched inhabitants, under idleness and accumulating poverty. Instead of occupying in its trade 353 large vessels, the American merchants of the United States could barely obtain a return freight, for from 15 to 20 schooners and square-rigged vessels of about 180 tons each ; and England sent about onethird of that number; and, in the room of growing 1,230,673 quintals of sugar, the inhabitants were then supplied with that article from Jamaica."
We earnestly entreat such of our readers as really wish for complete and satisfactory information as to all these matters, to peruse without delay this "Official Letter" to Mr Chalmers: the "Report of the Debate in the Council of Barbadoes on the receipt of Lord Bathurst's Letter:" and last, not least important, "Remarks on the Condition of the Slaves in Jamaica, by William Sells, member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and many years practitioner in the parish of Clarendon, Jamaica."* The number and obviously total want of connection and concert among the writers of these, and the other recent pamphlets, take away everything like suspicion from the strong, uniform, overwhelming, and unanswerable evidence which they give, in regard to the rapid and decisive improvement that has been going on iu all our colonies, under the eye and through the exertions of the much calumniated planters, and their equally calumniated legislatures. The brief abstract in the Quarterly Review, as well as that given in our own last paper on this subject, will be found, on comparing them with these authentic documents of evidence, (for we can consider them in no other light,) to have stated the case throughout rather less favourably-for the planter's management than the facts would have warranted.
Throughout this discussion we have abstained from everything that could bear the least semblance of personal attack upon the individuals whose schemes we have been compelled to expose and denounce. Some other journals, and in particular, the Sunday paper John Bull, have adopted a somewhat different course: and Mr Bull, we observe, has seen a prosecution commenced against him by Mr Zachary Macaulay, the great" Solon, or perhaps he would rather have us style him, the great Moses of Sierra Leone. Of the facts of the case between John Bull and Mr Zachary Macaulay we know nothing. One thing, however, we do happen to know, and that is, that statements not very dissimilar, so far as we could observe, and certainly quite as strong, were made against Mr M. seven or eight years ago in certain pamphlets, to which a gentleman well known in the House of Commons put his name at the time when they were published. Now, we humbly think that if Mr Macaulay was resolved to prosecute, he ought to have attacked the first, the open, and the equal enemy—not the Sunday paper—tut gentlemen will no doubt follow their own feelings in matters where they suppose, rightly or not, their personal honour to be concerned.
* Published by Richardson, Cornhil), and Ridgeway, Piccadilly. Vol. XV. L
The Rulers of the African Institution, however, have sometimes had the fortune to stand in situations at least as undignified us Mr Bull can on the present occasion be exposed to: and we venture to refresh their memory, in case that faculty should be more inert than their imagination appears to be, with a short abstract of what occurred in regard to a certain Mr Hatchard, who, we observe, still continues to act as bookseller for the African Institution and its pamphleteers.
Among many other goodly matters, then, we find, in a Report made at a meeting of the African Institution in 1817, some allusions to what is designated as " the unfortunate and singular circumstance, of an innocent man, Mr Hatchard, the publisher of their 10th Report, having been convicted of a libel against the Aides-de-Camp of Sir James Leith, and the Courts of
Criminal Justice at Antigua." It is stated, " that the Directors, on being made acquainted with the proceedings instituted against Mr Hatchard, had come to certain Resolutions, and had addressed letters to their correspondents, in order to ascertain the truth or falsehood of the allegations contained in their 10th Report; but had obtained no satisfactory answer. The Directors then thought it expedient to acquaint Mr Hatchard of this, and recommended him to contradict the statement he had published, through every channel, and by every means in hiy power, and to advise with Counsel on the sttbject."
Mr Hatchard put in an affidavit in mitigation of punishment, in which he swore that " he had used all possible diligence to discover the author, but was unable so to do."—In what light this transaction was regarded by the Judge who tried the case, the following sentences of his speech will sufficiently shew :—
"It is inaininlctl, that this originated in a letter from the Weit Indies. There is no affidavit that any such Utter existed. That somebody is very highly criminal in this case, no one who has read the publication can at all doubt. That it has originated in wilful and wicked fabrications, no man alive can doubt. That it is defeating the purpose of justice, to prevent the information by which, the wicked calumny might be traced up to the original author, is obvious." *
This is what Mr Stephen in his speech at the Anniversary meeting of 1817, called " a singular andunfortunaic case." The African Institution libelled the administration of criminal justice in Antigua in their tenth report, and their bookseller was punished severely for the publication of their production: and this they call unfortunate. If Mr Hatchard was unfortunate, it is easy to see who ought to have stood between him and his misery; and if the punishment was a singular instance in Mr Hatehard's life, perhaps the offence was not quite so in the career of the " great and good men," (to use their own phrase,) who have so long employed him.
NOTE ON THE QUARTERLY HE VIE WEBS.
We cannot allow the preceding article to pass through the press, without embracing the opportunity which it affords us of saying a single word in regard to the last number of the Quarterly Review. Our much esteemed correspondent has had occasion to bestow his energetic eulogy upon one particular paper in that number; but We cannot refuse ourselves the gratification of speaking our mind as to the whole of it. We have no hesitation, then, in saying distinctly, that we consider this as the very best Number of the Quarterly Review that ever yet appeared; and the pleasure we have had in observing this, has certainly not been the less, in consequence of various circumstances of what we may call an external kind; more especially, of the rumours that have been of late so widely circulated, concerning the failing state of Mr Gilford's health, and the malevolent joy with which the writers of the Whig, Radical, and Infidel Journals, have been expatiating upon the supposed likelihood that the best days of the Quarterly would be at an end whenever that gentleman ceased to be its principal conductor. Earnestly do we hope that Mr Gilford's health and strength may endure much longer than these cowardly ruffians flatter themselves; but the fact is evident enough, that Mr Gilford has done, comparatively speaking, nothing about this number of the Quarterly—which, nevertheless, is, and will be universally admitted to be, more than equal, taken as a whole, to any of those which Mr Gifford ever wrote or superintended. It is the assurance which this gives us of a wide and increasing store of intellectual vigour, far above the chance of being impeded in its exertions by anything that can happen to any one person, however eminently gifted and distinguished—it is this assurance that has filled us with a proud pleasure—a pleasure not a bit the less, because we very well know we shall not obtain credit for really feeling it in certain quarters.
There is not, from the beginning to the end of this Number, one single article of a mediocre kind. Talent the most various, erudition the most various, are here displayed; but there is always just that talent and that erudition which the particular subject in hand ought to have engaged. The Review seems to have paid off a host of heavy worthies, whose lumbering virtue acted as a dead-weight upon the spring of intellect, both within the work and among its readers. Above all, there is displayed throughout (what our correspondent has observed in regard to the article on his own subject) a certain Liberality of thought and feeling, which, as a general feature of this work, is certainly somewhat of a novelty. There is almost nothing of the old monastic leaven perceptible. The writers shew themselves to be learned in all the learning of the Egyptians, at least as much as heretofore; but they seem to have laid aside their caps and gowns, and written their respective contributions, not within the cold vaulted chambers of Cambridge and Oxford, but amidst the hum of St James's and the Park. In short, we feel that we are in the society of people of the world, and enjoy the talk of gentlemen, scholars, and Christians, with considerably the greater zest, because our eyes have not been awed by a long row of " fire-shovels" on the hall table, as we entered the house.
The first article, on " Pulpit Eloquence," for example, we pronounce to be, in spite of the theme, not the work of a clergyman. It is a very admirable paper, exhibiting a thorough acquaintance with the whole stream of our literature, a severe and scholarly taste, and the generosity, at the same time, and open candour of a man of genius, above being kept in intellectual leading-strings by any authorities, however grave and venerable. We doubt if any churchman, if any man that ever either read or spoke a single sermon, could have discussed these matters in a tone so likely to meet the feelings of the general reader. Considering the high standards according to which everything is tried by this far-seeing Rhadamanthus, we assuredly think that our hair-brained countryman, Mr Irving, lias goodreason to be proud of the admission which has been made as to his talents j and we would fain hope that he is not yet so far gone in selfconceit, as to shut his eyes upon all the good and kind hints that his betters have thought fit to bestow upon him. Of the second article, it is sufficient to say, that we recognize in it the exquisite literature, and the flowing pen, of the translator of Aristophanes, and that it will probably operate as a complete quietus upon the very inferior scribe whom the Edinburgh Review has been suffering to insult the manes of Demosthenes. The article on French Comedy is, we cannot doubt, the work of Mr Chevenix, since, if there be any other man in England so thoroughly ;is he is;rfoc/H* iitriusqiic lingucB, the chances certainly appear iufinitesiinally small, that that person should also possess the wit and the eloquence, and the strong original conceptions, of this remarkable man. We cannot speak positively as to the author of the paper on Mr Faux's Memorable Days. It is done, like all the Quarterly's papers on such books, with infinite labour and skill; but surely, surely it is rather too much of a joke to treat such a work as this with so much gravity. To affect to consider a stupid, bilious, ignorant, indelicate, gross-minded, and foul-mouthed old fusty of a Zummerzetshire clodhopper, a.s a person upon whose ipse dixit the whole society and statesmanship of that great country,—ay, that English country, are to be judged and condemned!! This is the solitary effervescence of the old bigot gall of the Quarterly. The papers on Central India and on Bornou, are distinguished by the same merits, and by the total absence of these defects. They are both of them most valuable contributions to the stock of public knowledge,-and every way worthy of Mr Barrow.
The Essay on the Ecclesiastical Revenues of England is another production of gresit labour ; and the conclusions to which it leads are such, that we have been infinitely rejoiced in seeing them established beyond all future cavil. We speak of the conclusions to which this paper leads in respect to the Church of England; for, as to the very different, and certainly the more difficult question about the Protestant Church of Ireland, the writer has passed it over altogether for the present; a defect which we would fain see filled up by the same pen on some early occasion. We assure him, in case he has not seen it, that Dr Doyle's letter to Lord Wellesley is the most insidious attack which has ever yet been made against the Protestant establishment of Ireland, and an answer it must have. The reviewer, by the way, does not know so much as he thinks he does of Scotland. It is very true, that the Scotch clergymen are individually paid very little below the average rate among the clergymen of the Church of England ; but the Quarterly author entirely loses sight of the fact, that the Church of Scotland is proportionably the much cheaper establishment of the two, for this reason, and for this alone, that she has proportionably a much smaller number of livings. The proportion between the 10,000 parishes in England, and the 948 parishes in Scotland, is not what we would expect from the comparative amount of population in the two countries. We mention this merely to set the Reviewer right as to a matter of detail. As to the principle of the thing, our opinion is, that the parishes in Scotland are too large and too few; that they ought to be subdivided both in the towns and in the country; and consequently, that the expense of the Church establishmerit of Scotland ought to be increased, not diminished. It is entirely, or almost entirely, owing to the extent of the parishes, that any dissenters have thriven in Scotland; for the people quit their own church only when it is too far off for their pedestrian powers, or when they do not like the pulpit eloquence of the parish priest; which last would be very seldom a reason for abandoning-The Kirk herself, if the fastidious Presbyterian had twoor three other parish priests not very far off, whose sermons he might choose among without one farthing of cost. It always appears to us, that it must be highly disgusting to pay so much per annum to a dissenting minister, if one could possibly avoid it. The luxury is dearly bought; and We, for One, should always stretch a point to keep ourselves free from its indulgence.
We think we have now particularized all the articles except the very peppery ones on Lord Johnny Russell's tragedy, and M. le Due dc Rovigo. These two Liberals are well dished. His lordship will not, we guess, be in a hurry with any more attempts to trip up the heels of Schiller and Alfieri. Mr GifFord himself has, we think, been the executioner here. The exit of Savary appears to have been accomplished under the auspicesof his able ally, MrCroker. But what, in the name of wonder, does Croker, or whoever the writer is, see in old Talleyrand, to make him gulp the whole of his ante-revolutionary bile the moment that archapostate appears upon the stage? It seems very true, that the ex-bishop stands clear as to the Duke of Enghien's death; but what avails this? Thurtell himself does not seem to have murdered many people; and we are quite sure he did not murder either Johnny Keats or Begbie. As for M. Savary, we conclude the rip is sewed up for ever and a day.
We beg pardon; we observe that we have overlooked the article on superstition. It is probably Southey's, but the doctor has shone brighter of yore. Somebody has been bamming him a little about Noma: she has been dead more than ten years.
As to the paper on the negroes, we need not interfere with our correspondent, who has so warmly lauded it. Our own opinion is, that the papers we ourselves have published upon this subject, have effectually set things to rest, so far as rational beings are concerned. The pieces of evidence from the private letters of clergymen in the colonies, were, however, well timed; and, altogether, we have no doubt, such a paper as this was wanted for the benefit of certain classes of readers. If, in spite of all that has been done, the clamours of the Macaulay faction are again raised within the walls of Parliament, we have very humbly to submit, that the first and most obvious duty of the House of Commons will be, to insist upon being furnished with data before they go into any decision ; nay, before they listen to one word more of discussion. As to facts, the two parties are completely at issue. Why fight about minute points of law, before the facts of the case to which they must be applied have been ascertained in so far as we have the means of ascertaining them? Why not comply with the petitions which these ill-starred colonists have, it appears, been eternally reiterating during the last two years? Why not send out, since that is all they ask, some of their enemies themselves to be their judges? If Mr Brougham goes out, we trust he will shew himself the same good fellow which we all found him here in Scotland last summer; and if our jolly friend does make the tour of the region of rum and turtle in that temper, we have no doubt the results will be highly beneficial to the country, and highly injurious to the Whigs. But "pattcas palabras," quoth Nyin. C. N.