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NEW PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

THEOLOGY AND RELIGION.

Sketch of the Life and Ministry of the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon. New York: Sheldon, Blakeman, & Co. 12mo. pp. 141.

Sermons on Special Occasions. By Rev. John Harris, D. D. First Series. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1857. 8vo. pp. 363.

HISTORY AND POLITICS.

The Biographical History of Philosophy, from its Origin in Greece down to the Present Day. By George Henry Lewes. Library Edition, much enlarged and thoroughly revised. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1857. 8vo. pp. 801. (To be reviewed.)

A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, with Chapters on the History of Literature and Art. By Henry G. Liddell, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford. Illustrated by numerous woodcuts. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1857. 12mo. pp. 768. (Uniform with the “ Student's Gibbon.” An every way admirable and thoroughly prepared manual.)

A Child's History of Greece. By John Bonner. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1857. 16mo. 2 vols. pp. 315, 292. (Written in brisk and pleasant style, with abundant and neat illustrations, and brought, by a rapid closing sketch, down to the present time.)

POETRY AND FICTION.

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The Dead Secret. By Wilkie Collins. Authorized edition. New York:
Miller & Curtis. 1857. 8vo. pp. 144. _(paper.)
The Professor. A Tale. By Currer Bell. New York: Harper & Broth-

1857. 12mo. pp. 330. The Romany Rye, a Sequel to "Lavengro.” By George Borrow. Ibid. 8vo. pp. 141. (paper.)

Leonora D'Orco. "By G. P. R. James, Esq. Ibid. 8vo. pp. 149. (paper.) Waverley Novels. Household Edition :- Old Mortality, 2 vols. "Black Dwarf, and Legend of Montrose. 2 vols. Married or Single? By C. M. Sedgwick. New York: Harper & Broth

1857. 2 vols. 12mo. pp. 261, 284. The Athelings, or the Three Gifts. By Margaret Oliphant. Ibid. 8vo. Pp. 192. (paper.)

White Lies. A Novel. By Charles Reade. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. Part I. 18mo. pp. 118.

Harper's Story Books. No. 33. Jasper. - No. 34. Congo.

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EDUCATION.

The Grammar of English Grammars, with an Introduction Historical and Critical; the whole methodically arranged and amply illustrated ; to which are added four Appendixes, pertaining separately to the four Parts of Grammar. By Goold Brown. Second Edition, revised and improved. New York: S. S. & W. Wood. 1857. 8vo. pp. 1070. (From Brown, Taggard, & Chase, Boston.)

MISCELLANEOUS.

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Characteristics of Women, Moral, Political, and Historical. By Mrs. Jame

From the last London edition. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 1857. 16mo. pp. 467. (Blue and Gold.)

The Olynthiac and other Public Orations of Demosthenes, and the Orations of Demosthenes on the Crown and on the Embassy. Translated, with Notes, &c., by Charles Bonn Kennedy. New York: Harper & Brothers. 12mo. pp. 320, 418.

Fashionable Amusements, with a Review of Rev. Dr. Bellows's Lecture on

the Theatre. By Rev. D. R. Thompson. New York: M. W. Dodd. 1857. 12mo. pp. 230.

Virginia Illustrated; containing a Visit to the Virginian Canaan, and the Adventures of Porte Crayon and his Cousins. Illustrated from Drawings by Porte Crayon. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1857. 8vo. pp. 299.

Boston Sights and Stranger's Guide. Sights in Boston and Suburbs, or Guide to the Stranger, by R. L. Midgley. Illustrated by Billings, Hill, Barry, and John Andrew. Boston: James Munroe & Co. 1857, 112mo. Pp. 224. (Maps.)

Chile con Carne; or, The Camp and the Field. By S. Compton Smith, M.D., Acting Surgeon with General Taylor's Division in Mexico. New York: Miller & Curtis. 1857. 12mo. pp. 404.

Memoirs of the Loves of the Poets. Biographical Sketches of Women celebrated in Ancient and Modern Poetry. By Mrs. Jameson. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 1857. 16mo. pp. 517. (Blue and Gold.)

Lectures on Temperance. By Eliphalet Nott, D. D., President of Union College. With an Introduction by Tayler Lewis, LL.D., Professor of Greek in Union College. Edited by Amasa McCoy. New York: Sheldon, Blakeman, & Co. 1857. 12mo. pp. 341.

Essays in Biography and Criticism. By Peter Bayne, M. A. First Series. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1857. 12mo. pp. 426. (See page 288.)

The American Railway Library. Biographical and Historical Essays, by T. B. Macaulay. Punch's Pocket-Book of Fun. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 16mo. pp. 394, 237.

The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years’ Residence in Washington Territory. By James G. Swan. With numerous Illustrations. New York: Harper & Brothers.

1857. 12mo. pp. 435.

PAMPHLETS.

Catalogue of the Lots in Mount Auburn Cemetery, with the Names of the Proprietors and Representatives of Deceased Proprietors, the Charter, ByLaws, &c. Boston: Rand & Avery. 1857. 12mo. pp. 159.

The Church of Christ, – the Church of the Future. A Sermon delivered at the Installation of Rev. Stillman Clarke, as Pastor of the Congregational Society in Wilton, N. H., June 11, 1857, by Martin W. Willis, of Nashua. Nashua: Published by Albin Beard. 1857.

Thirty-Sixth Annual Report of the Board of Direction of the Mercantile Library Association of the City of New York. May, 1857. Baker & Godwin. pp. 48.

A Legal Review of the Case of Dred Scott, as decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. From the Law Reporter for June, 1857. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, & Co. pp. 62. Slavery and the Remedy;

or, Principles and Suggestions for a Remedial Code. By Samuel Nott. Fifth Edition, with a Review of the Decision of the Supreme Court in the Case of Dred Scott. New York: D. Appleton & Co. pp. 137.

Sixth Annual Report of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association, presented May 20, 1857. pp. 48.

Fifth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Free Public Library. Presented April 4, 1857. New Bedford : E. Anthony. pp. 16.

Inaugural Address delivered in the Chapel of Harvard College, Tuesday, July 14, 1857, on his Induction to the Professorship of Systematic Theology in the Divinity School of the University, by George E. Ellis. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, & Co.

Appendix to a Catalogue of Theological Books in Foreign Languages, on sale by David Nutt and Trübner & Co. London. 1857. pp. 50.

Ninth Annual Report of the Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feebleminded Youth. Boston: William White. 1857. pp. 35.

THE

CHRISTIAN EXAMINER. .

NOVEMBER, 1857.

ART. I. - GENTILE AND JEW BEFORE CHRIST.

1. Kritische Geschichte des Urchristenthums, (Critical History of Primi

tive Christianity,) durch August GFRÖRER. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart. 1831 – 1838. Including:- Introd. Philo und die JüdischAlexandrinische Theosophie. 2 Abth.– Vol. I. Jahrhundert des Heils. (Century of the Redemption.) 2 Abth. — Vol. II. Die Heilige Sage. (The Sacred Tradition.) 2 Abth. — Vol. III. Das Heilig

thum und die Wahrheit. (The Sanctuary and the Truth.) 2. Die Philosophie der Griechen. Eine Untersuchung über Charakter,

Gang und Hauptmomente ihrer Entwicklung. (Philosophy of the Greeks ; an Investigation as to the Character, Course, and Chief Points of its Development.) Von' DR. EDUARD ZELLER. Dritter Theil. Die Nacharistotelische Philosophie. (Part III. After Aristotle.) Tübingen. 1852. pp. 453 - 982.

Before Gfrörer's “ Primitive Christianity” becomes quite obsolete, its existence at least, and the place it holds in literature, require a recognition at our hands; we wish it might be a more full and elaborate treatment than we have

space

for at present. We have to do, just now, only with the introductory portion of it, which traces the gradual transformation of Jewish thought under the influence of the Greek culture which it encountered in the schools of Alexandria. Excepting the condensed chapters of Zeller, we know no statement of the subject nearly so interesting, or on the whole more satisfactory. Gfrörer comes to the handling of it fresh from an 5th S. VOL. 1. NO. III.

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VOL. LXIII.

enthusiastic and abundant study of Jewish learning, and deals with it in distinct reference to a plan embracing the critical exposition of all the early documents touching the origin of Christianity. The rough vigor of his style, his affectation of a purely historical treatment, his obtrusive claim of a monopoly of his subject and method, his scorn of mere pedantry and metaphysics, as well as the ingenuity, if not always novelty, of his constructive criticism, are all so many clear helps to the reader, who needs a considerable motive force in the guide, to bring him over the roughness of the way. Altogether, his is the most racy and readable German it has been our fortune to fall in with, in this field. The more pity, that one cannot repose quite securely in his good faith. No little of sophistry and prejudice and rationalistic effrontery betrays itself here and there, and Gfrörer's halfstealthy adhesion to the Roman Church at last is a phenomenon which reconciles itself less easily with the tone of historic dogmatism than with the undertone of moral scepticism to be discerned here and there in these volumes.

To characterize them more precisely. The “ Jahrhundert des Heils” is chiefly an account of the Messianic expectations of the Jews at the time of Christ, derived from the Talmudic literature, with their political results, in the ruin of the Jewish state. Of this we propose to avail ourselves more fully in a future number. The “ Heilige Sage” is a critical discussion of the origin and character of the first three Gospels, treated as local traditions of Galilee, first gathered after the fall of Jerusalem, - that of Luke being earliest. The “ Heiligthum und Wahrheit” contains the author's exposition of the real facts of the sacred narrative, based mainly on the Gospel of John, the genuineness of which he assumes, and sturdily defends from his naturalistic point of view.

With this rapid and summary statement, we come to our own subject, - namely, the preparation which was silently going on in the human mind for the advent of Christianity as a spiritual and universal faith. The importance of the period of which we treat, in the study of intellectual and dogmatic Christianity, has never been wholly overlooked; and recent scholarship, besides reaffirming that importance, has succeeded in bringing the age, with its religious constructions, into new prominence and comparatively clear light. We shall consider it, briefly, in the regard already hinted, namely, as the transition period between Paganism and Judaism on the one hand, and Christianity on the other.

A word, first, of the course of Greek, or Gentile thought.

Without concealing the deceptive character of such generalizations to those who accept them instead of the facts they are designed to interpret, we may divide the whole history of Grecian philosophy into three pretty nearly equal periods.* In the first, it was mainly a theory of Nature and Thought, and was summed up in its completest form by Aristotle, the teacher of Alexander. In the second, it was mainly a theory of Life, taught by the contending schools of Epicurus and Zeno, — the purely speculative element degenerating into an impotent scepticism. In the third, it was mainly a theory of Religion, as taught by the later Platonists, springing from the same soil with the Christian doctrine as taught by the Alex. andrian school of Clement and Origen, and for three centuries disputing with it the intellectual sovereignty of the Empire. This last belongs to the era of Christian history, and need not be considered here. It is with the second period that our concern chiefly lies.

The history of pure speculation after Aristotle shows a steady declension into the vanity of barren jargoning, and the helplessness of an intellectual scepticism. The special sciences of mathematics and astronomy were cultivated, indeed, with brilliant success, in the later schools of Greece. Euclid and Hipparchus rank highest in a long list of eminent names that adorn the Institute established by Ptolemy in his splendid capital. But, besides this success in the analytic and inductive sciences, the most marked intellectual feature of the age is seen in the philosophy of Life held by the sects of Epicureans and Stoics. A very few words will serve to show the result to which they led.

The pleasant and plausible style of Epicurean ethics reflects well the average mind of an age when the state was crumb

* Any chronological division is necessarily artificial and arbitrary. As best illustrating our point, we adopt the dates of Zeller.

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