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And makes what happiness we juftly call
Subfifts not in the good of one, but all.
There's not a blessing individuals find,
But some way leans and hearkens to the kind.
Each has his share; and who would more obtain,
Shall find, the pleasure pays not half the pain,

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He observes that as it is necessary for order, and the peace and welfare of society, that external goods should be unequal, happiness is not made to consist in these: for notwithstanding that in inequality, the balance of happiness among mankind is kept even by Providence, by the two passions of hope and fear.

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If then to all men happiness was meant,
God in externals could not place content.
Fortune her gifts may variously dispose,
And these be happy callid, unhappy those;
But Heav'ns just balance equal will appear,
While those are plac'd in hope, and these in fear :
Not present good or ill, the joy or curse,
But future views of better, or of worfe.

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He tells us what the happiness of individuals is, as far as is confiftent with the constitution of this world ; and here it appears that the good man has evidently the advantage.

Virt

nob pice Wh nese nal

;

Know, all the good that individuals find,
Or God and nature meant to mere mankind
Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense,
Lie in three words, health, peace, and competence.
But health consists with temperance alone,
And peace, oh virtue! peace is all thy own. .
The good or bad the gifts of fortune gain,
But these less taste them, as they worse obtain.

CON her

POE dee

After this he points out the error of impating to virtae what are only the calamities of nature, or of fortune, and also the folly of expecting that God should alter his general laws in favour of particulars. He proves that we are unable to judge who are good, but concludes that whoever they are they must be happy. He observes that

was inf the rea

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external goods are so far from being the proper rewards
of virtue, that they are very often inconsistent with,
and destructive to it.

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What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy,
The soul's calm sun-ihine, and the heart-felt joy,
Is virtue's prize: a better would you

fix ?
Then give humility a coach and lix,
Justice a conqueror's sword, or truth a gown,
Or public spirit, its great care, a crown.
Weak, foolish man! will Heav'n reward us there
With the same trailh mad mortals with for here?
The boy and man an individual makes,
Yet figh’st thou now for apples and for cakes ?
Go, like the Indian, in another life
Expect thy dog, thy bottle and thy wife ;
As well as dream such are assign'd,
As toys and empires, for a god-like mind.
Rewards, that either would to virtue bring
Nojoy, or be destructive of the thing:
How oft by these at fixty are undone
The virtues of a faint at twenty-one!

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To

prove that these can make no man happy without virtue, he has considered the effect of riches, honours, nobility, greatness, fame, superior talents, &c. and given pictures of human infelicity in men poffefs'd of them all; whence he concludes, that virtue only constitutes happiness, whose object is universal, and whose prospect eternal; and that the perfection of virtue and happiness consists in a due conformity to the order of providence here, and a refignation to it here and hereafter.

We have dwelt long enough, perhaps too long, on this poem; but it was necessary to give the whole scope and design of the poet ; that the reader might see what art was required to make a subject so diy and metaphysical, instructive and pleasing : and that it is so will appear by the extracts we have taken, which we hope will induce our readers to peruse attentively the poem itself. From the nature of his plan, the reader will see that the poet was deprived of many embellishments which other subjects will admit of, and tied down as it were to a chain of

1

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argument, which would allow of no digressions, fcudied fimiles and descriptions, or allusions to ancient fables; the want of which he has supplied, however, with feafonable remarks, and moral reflections ; all of them juft, and many of them truly sublime.

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