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The Penal Code.



(As amended to and including the session of the Legislature of 1905.)

Punishments, how determined.

§ 13. Whenever in this code, the punishment for crime is left undetermined between certain limits, the punishment to be inflicted in a particular case must be determined by the court authorized to pass sentence, within such limits as may be prescribed by this code. In all cases where a corporation is convicted of an offense for the commission of which a natural person would be punishable with imprisonment, as for a felony, such corporation is punishable by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

Refusal to permit employes to attend election.

§ 41f. A person or corporation who refuses to an employe entitled to a vote at an election or town meeting, the privilege of attending thereat, as provided by the election law, or subjects such employe to a penalty or reduction of wages because of the exercise of such privilege, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Duress and intimidation of voters.

§ 41s.

3. Being an employer, pays his employes the salary or wages due, in “pay envelopes," upon which there is written or printed any political motto, device or argument containing threats, express or implied, intended or calculated to influence the political opinions or actions of such employes; or within ninety days of a general election, puts or otherwise exhibits in the establishment or place where his employes are engaged in labor, any hand-bill or placard containing any threat, notice or information that if any particular ticket or candidate is elected or defeated, work in his place or establishment will cease, in whole or in part, his establishment be closed up, or the wages of his employes reduced, or other threats, express or implied, intended or calculated to influence the political opinions or actions of his employes, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and if a corporation, in addition, forfeits its charter.

See, also, section 109, Election Law.

Making arrests, etc., without lawful authority.

§ 119. No sheriff of a county, mayor of a city, or officials, or other person authorized by law to appoint special deputy sheriffs, special constables, marshals, policemen, or other peace officers in this state, to preserve the public peace or quell public disturbance, shall hereafter, at the instance of any agent, society, association or corporation, or otherwise, appoint as such special deputy, special constable, marshal, policemen, or other peace officer, any person who shall not be a citizen of the United States and a resident of the state of New York, and entitled to vote therein at the time of his appointment, and a resident of the same county as the mayor or sheriff or other official making such appointment; and no person shall assume or exercise the functions, powers, duties or privileges incident and belonging to the office of special deputy sheriff, special constables, marshal or policemen, or other peace officer, without having first received his appointment in writing from the authority lawfully appointing him. Any person or persons who shall, in this state, without due authority, exercise, or attempt to exercise the functions of, or hold himself out to any one as a deputy sheriff, marshal, or policeman, constable or peace officer, or any public officer, or person pretending to be a public officer, who, unlawfully, under the pretense or color of any process, arrests any person or detains him against his will, or seizes or levies upon any property, or dispossesses any one of any lands or tenements without a regular process therefor, or any person who knowingly violates any other provision of this section, is guilty of a misdemeanor. But nothing herein contained shall be deemed to effect, repeal or abridge the powers authorized to be exercised under sections one hundred and two, one hundred and four, one hundred and sixty-nine, one hundred and eighty-three, eight hundred and ninety-five, eight hundred and ninety-six and eight hundred and ninety-seven of the Code of Criminal Procedure; or under chapter three hundred and forty-six of the laws of eighteen hundred and sixty-three, as amended by chapter two hundred and fifty. nine of the laws of eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and chapter one hundred and ninety-three, of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-five; or under chapter two hundred and twenty-three of the laws of eighteen hundred and eighty; or under chapter five hundred and twenty-seven of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-three; or under chapter two hundred and five of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-five; but all places kept for summer resorts and the grounds of racing associations in tie counties of New York, Kings and Westchester, are hereby exempted from the provisions of this act.

Thus amended by chap. 272, Laws of 1892

Compelling employes to agree not to join any labor organization

a misdemeanor.

§ 171a. Any person or persons, employer or employers of labor, and any person or persons of any corporation or corporations on behalf of such corporation or corporations, who shall 'hereafter coerce or compel any person or persons, employe or employes, laborer or mechanic, to enter into an agreement, either written or verbal from such person, persons, employe, laborer or mechanic, not to join or become a member of any labor organization, as a condition of such person or persons securing einployment, or continuing in the employment of any such person or persons, employer or employers, corporation or corporations, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. The penalty for such misdemeanor shall be imprisonment in a penal institution for not more than six months, or by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

Murder in the first degree.

$ 183a. A person who wilfully, by loosening, removing or displacing a rail, or by any other interference, wrecks, destroys or so injures any car, tender, locomotive or railway train, or part thereof, while moving upon any railway in this state, whether operated by steam, electricity or other motive power, as to thereby cause the death of a human being, is guilty of murder in the first degree, and punishable accordingly.

Added by chap. 548, Laws of 1897.
See section 635, Penal Code, section 30, Rapid Transit Act, post.

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Liability of persons in charge of steam engines.

§ 199.. An engineer or other person having charge of a steam boiler, steam engine, or other apparatus for generating or appir. ing steam, employed in a boat or railway, or in a manufactory, or in any mechanical works, who willfully, or from ignorance or gross neglect, creates, or allows to be created, such an undue quantity of steam

to burst the boiler, engine apparatus, or to cause any other accident whereby the death of a human being is produced, is guilty of manslaughter in the second degree.



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Use of force or violence, declared not unlawful, etc.

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§ 223. To use or attempt, or offer to use, force or violence upon or toward the person of another, is not unlawful in the fol lowing cases :

5. When committed by a carrier of passengers, or the authorized agents or servants of such carrier, or by any person assisting them, at their request, in expelling from a carriage, railway car, vessel or other vehicle, a passenger who refuses to obey a lawful and reasonable regulation prescribed for the conduct of passengers, if such vehicle has first been stopped and the force or violence used is not more than sufficient to expel the offending passenger, with a reasonable regard to his personal safety.

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Sunday labor.

§ 263. All labor on Sunday is prohibited, excepting the works of necessity or charity. In works of necessity or charity is included whatever is needful during the day for the good order, health or comfort of the community.

§ 290.

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6. Or who, being the owner, keeper or proprietor of a junk shop, junk cart or other vehicle or boat or other vessel used for the collection of junk, or any collector of junk, receives or purchases any goods, chattels, wares or merchandise from any child under the age of sixteen years, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Subdivision 6 added by chap. 309, Laws of 1903, taking effect September 1, 1903.

Mismanagement of steam boilers.

§ 362. An engineer or other person having charge of a steam boiler, steam engine, or other apparatus for generating or employing steam, employed in a railway, manufactory, or other mechanical works, who, willfully or from ignorance or gross neglect, creates or allows to be created such an undue quantity of steam as to burst the boiler, engine or apparatus, or cause any other accident whereby human life is endangered, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Innkeepers and carriers refusing to receive guests and passengers.

§ 381. A person who, either on his own account or as agent or officer of a corporation, carries on business as innkeeper or as common carrier of passengers, and refuses, without just cause or excuse, to receive and entertain any guests, or to receive and carry any passengers, is guilty of a misdemeanor.



Protecting civil and public rights.

§ 383. A person who:

1. Excludes a citizen of this state, by reason of race, color or previous condition of servitude, from the equal enjoyment of

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