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STREET SURFACE RAILROADS.

(Inspections and reports made by Electrical Expert.)

BROOKLYN HEIGHTS RAILROAD COMPANY.

(July 16, 1904.) On July 11th and 12th I made an inspection of the crossings at grade of the tracks of the different companies which are operated by the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, by steam railroad tracks, and submit the following:

In this inspection of these crossings your representative was accompanied by J. F. Calderwood, Vice-President and General Manager of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, D. S. Smith, General Superintendent of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, W.0. Wood, Superintendent of the elevated division of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company, and C. L. Addison, General Superintendent of Transportation of the Long Island Railroad Company.

A thorough and detailed inspection of each crossing of these companies' tracks at grade by steam road tracks are made, with a

view of sug: gesting what additional protection, if any, was needed at these points to make the crossing as safe as possible for the operation of both steam trains and electric cars. The conclusions arrived at, for the additional protection suggested in this report, were reached by consultation with the above-named representatives of the companies, and, when these suggestions are carried out, it is believed, that these crossings will be as safe as it is possible to make grade crossings of steam and electric road tracks, with the present devices available for crossing purposes.

On Vanderbilt avenue the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company cross the double tracks of the Atlantic avenue division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. An improvement is now in the course of construction on Atlantic avenue which, when completed, will remove the steam tracks from the surface of the avenue. At present this crossing is protected by two flagmen, one on each side of the avenue, at all hours. These men stretch ropes across the street on the approach of a steam train. They are notified of the approach of trains by electric bells, operated from either side of the crossing. Conductors of electric cars flag their cars over the crossing. On account of the contemplated change in the steam tracks no recommendation is made for further protection at this point.

At Kensington Junction the double tracks of the P. P. & C. I. R. R. Co. and the double tracks of the Kensington lines join. This junction is pro.tected by derails and signals on the tracks of both roads. These are interlocked, and all operated from a tower.

At Parkville the double tracks of the P. P. & C. I. R. R. Co. cross the double tracks of the Bay Ridge division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in condition. This branch of the Long Island railroad extends from Manhattan Beach Junction to Bay Ridge, a distance of about four miles. At present there is no passenger traffic over it. A freight business is done on this branch, which usually consists of about two round trips per day. Last summer four passenger trains each way per day were operated over this line. At times electric cars pass over this crossing at the rate of six per minute. This crossing is protected by a flagman, on duty at all hours. There are derails in the Long Island tracks on either side of the crossing. These are

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not at present operated. This crossing should be protected by derails and signals in the electric tracks, interlocked with derails and signals on the steam road, these arranged so that during the summer season they will be operated by a man located at this point, during the winter season by conductors of electric cars on Long Island trains. Copper troughs should be placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On West Eighth street, Coney Island, the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company cross the single track of the P. P. & C. I. R. R. Co. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. The Long Island Railroad Company do switching over the track of the P. P. & C. I. R. R. Co. This is done by a local switching crew twice a day. This crew protect themselves over this crossing. There is no protection at this point, and in consideration of the methods of operation none is recommended.

Near Sixty-second street the double tracks of the Sea Beach and West End lines of the Nassau Electric railroad form a junction on New Utrech

One hundred feet from the switch point of this junction the double tracks in New Utrech avenue cross the double tracks of the Bay Ridge division of the Long Island railroad. This is nearly a right angle crossing, It is a special work, cut crossing, in good condition. There are derails and signals in both the steam and electric tracks on either side of the crossing. These are interlocked and operated from a tower located near the junction. In this tower there are 24 levers, 18 of which are used for the junction, and 6 for crossing purposes. Two lines of elevated trains are opperated over the electric tracks, one, the West End, run on a minimum of 10 minutes headway; and the other, Sea Beach trains, are operated on minimum of 5 minutes headway. There is no passenger service operated over the steam tracks. Two freight trains in each direction are run over the crossing daily. A copper trough should be placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

At the intersection of Stillwell avenue and Railroad avenue in Coney Island, the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company, through each avenue, make a diagonal crossing. This is a cut crossing, with special work in good condition. The Long Island Railroad Company do switching over this crossing. This is done by local crews twice a day. These crews protect themselves over the crossing. There is no protection at this point, and, in consideration of the amount of traffic over the crossing, and the methods of operation employed, none is suggested.

On Neptune avenue the double tracks of the Coney Island and Gravesend railroad cross the double tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. Electric cars and steam trains pass over this crossing at times almost continuously: This crossing is protected by derails and signals in the electric tracks, interlocked with signal on the steam road, all operated from a tower. There should be a copper trough placed on the trolley wires extending over this crossing.

On Ocean avenue, the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company cross the double tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. There are 60 regular trains per day operated over the steam tracks, and electric cars are run over it on the minimum interval of two minutes, This crossing is protected by derails and signals in the electric track, interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, also by gates, these operated from a tower at all hours. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On Flatbush avenue, the double tracks of the Broklyn City railroad cross the double tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. This crossing is protected by derails in the electric tracks, interlocked with home signals on the steam road, also by gates, all operated from a tower. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing, and the special work of the crossing should be renewed.

On Liberty avenue, the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company cross two main line and two switch tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. This crossing is protected by derails and signals in the electric track, interlocked with home signals on the steam railroad, also by gates, all operated from a tower. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing, and the special work of the crossing should be repaired.

On Rockaway avenue, the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company cross the double tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. This crossing is protected by derails and signals in the electric tracks, interlocked with home signals on the steam road, also by gates, all operated from a tower. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On Rockaway avenue, the double tracks of the Nassau Electric Railroad Company cross two main line tracks of the Atlantic avenue division of the Long Island railroad. At present a change of grade of the steam tracks is in course of constructon. This crossing is protected by two flagmen, on duty at all hours, who stretch ropes across Rockaway avenue on the approach of steam trains. Conductors of electric cars flag their cars over the crossing. On account of the contemplated change in the steam tracks no further protection is suggested at this crossing.

On Broadway, the double tracks of the Brooklyn, Queens County and Suburban railroad cross two main line tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island Railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. The steam track is on a curve and down a 142 per cent. grade descending to the east, or toward Manhattan Junction Station. The electric tracks are on a tangent and level on either side of the crossing. The view of the steam tracks from the electric tracks is obstructed in each direction on either side of the crossing. There are 60 regular trains per day operated on the steam tracks, in addition to irregular movements. At times there is almost a continuous movement of electric cars over the crossing. This crossing is protected by derails in the electric tracks, interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, on the west side of the crossing, and with home signals on the east side of it, also by gates, all of these operated by a the ground at all hours. This crossing is located 250 feet west of Fulton street crossing. The man located at this crossing is notified of the approach of trains from the west by an electric bell, manually operated, from Bushwick avenue, a distance of about 1,500 feet. He is notified of their approach from the east by a bell, operated from Fulton street, a distance of about 250 feet. The home signal on the west side of the crossing is 200 feet, and the distant signal about 1,500 feet from the crossing. The home signal on the east side of the crossing is located 1,000 feet from it, and it also controls the movement of trains over the Fulton street crossing,

On Fulton street, the double tracks of the Brooklyn, Queens County and Suburban railroad cross the double tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. This crossing is located 750 feet west of Manhattan Crossing Junction Station, at which point all west-bound trains come to a stop. The track between the station and the crossing is on a one per cent. up grade to the crossing. There is the same operation on the steam tracks over this crossing as described over the Broadway crossing, and about the same number of electric cars are run over both crossings. The view of the steam tracks from the electric tracks is obstructed in each direction on either side of the crossing: This crossing is protected by derails in the electric tracks, interlocked with the signals on the steam road which protect the Broadway crossing.

These crossings are so located that, as far as protection for them is concerned, they must be considered together. Both are very dangerous crossings. All of the usual precautions for protection at crossings have been taken at

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these points. The signals on the steam road are so arranged that when set at “danger" by either the man at the Fulton or the Broadway crossings they cannot be changed from that position by the other man.

All electric cars come to a stop, and conductors flag them over the crossing. This is done even when the derails are set in position to permit an electric car to pass over them.

On account of the dangerous physical conditions existing at this point, including the curve in the steam tracks on the west side of the crossing, the descending grade approaching the crossing from that direction, the limited view of the steam tracks from the electric tracks, the fact that the crossings are only about 250 fet apart, and both operated by the same set of signals on the steam road, and in consideration of the large volume of traffic on both the steam and electric tracks the unusual suggestion is made of placing a derail in the eastbound steam track on the west side of the crossing. As all trains approach the crossing from this direction at a slow rate of speed, it is considered that this can be done with a reasonable degree of safety, and materially add to the safety or operation of these crossings. There should be a copper trough placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing. The special work of the Fulton street crossing should be renewed.

On Jamaica avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn, Queens County and Suburban railroad cross two main line tracks of the Montauk division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. This crossing is protected by derails in the electric tracks, interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, also by gates, all operated by a man on the ground at all hours. This man is notified of the approach of trains from either direction by a bell, operated from a tower, located 500 feet east of the crossing. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On Myrtle avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross two main line tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. It is protected by derails and signals on the electric tracks, interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam roads, also by gates, all operated from a tower at all hours. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing, and the crossing special work should be renewed.

On Cypress avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross two main line tracks of the Manhattan Beach division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing with special work in fair condition. This crossing is protected by derails and signals on the electric tracks, interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, also by gates, all operated from tower at all hours. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

At the junction of Myrtle and Gates avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross the single tracks of what is known as the Greenpoint division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing with special work in fair condition. There is no operation over the steam tracks, except sufficient to comply with charter requirements. When a train is run on this track the crews protect themselves over the crossing. There is no protection at this crossing. None is suggested.

On Halsey street, near Wyckoff avenue, the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross the single track of what is known as the Greenpoint line of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in good condition. The same conditions of traffic and protection exist at this crossing as at the Myrtle and Gates avenue crossing above described. No suggestion for additional protection at this crossing is made.

On Freshpond road the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross two main line tracks of the Montauk division and one main line track of the Bushwick division of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in good condition. This crossing is protected by derails and signals on the electric tracks, interlocked with home and distance signals on the steam road, these operated from a tower located at Metropolitan avenue crossing, 100 feet east of this crossing. The crossing

is also protected by gates, operated by a man on the ground at all hours. There are copper troughs on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On Metropolitan avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn, Queens County and Suburban railroad cross two main line tracks of the Montauk division, and one main line track of the Bushwick branch, of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. It is protected by derails and signals in the electric tracks on the east side of the crossing, and a derail on the west side interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, also by gates, all of which are operated from a tower. Bushwick Junction station is located 200 feet east of the crossing. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing

On Flushing avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross two main line tracks of th Montauk division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in fair condition. This crossing is protected by derails and signals in the electric tracks interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, these operated from a tower. It is also protected by gates, which are operated by a man on the ground at all hours. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On Flushing avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross the single main line track of the Bushwick branch of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. The crossing is protected by derails in the electric track, interlocked with home signals on the steam road, also by gates. All are operated by a man on the ground at all hours. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing. The special work of the crossing should be renewed.

Un Flushing avenue, near Wyckoff avenue, the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross the single track of the Gre point branch of the Long Island railroad. There is no traffic over the steam track, except sufficient to meet charter requirements. As crews of trains operated on the steam track protect themselves over this crossing no additional protection is suggested.

On Metropolitan avenue, near Woodward avenue, the double tracks of the Brooklyn, Queens County and Suburban rairoad cross the single track of the Bushwick branch of the Long Island railroad. This is a diagonal, cut crossing, with special work in poor condition. This crossing is protected by derails in the electric tracks, interlocked with home signals on the steam road, also by gates, all operated by a man on the ground at all hours. The special work of this crossing should be repaired, and copper troughs should be placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

On Greenpoint avenue the double tracks of the Brooklyn City railroad cross two main line tracks of the Montauk division of the Long Island railroad. This is a right angle, cut crossing, with special work in good condition. It is protected by derails in the electric tracks, interlocked with home and distant signals on the steam road, also by gates, all operated from a tower located at the crossing. There should be copper troughs placed on the trolley wires extending over the crossing.

A copy of this report was sent to the company, with a letter making the recommendations in the report the recommendations of this Board. The company replied as follows:

BROOKLYN, N. Y., Sept. 20th, 1904. State Board of Railroad Commissioners, Albany, N. Y.: GENTLEMEN.

:-We have your letter of the 8th ultimo with report dated July 16tn of the electrical expert of the Board of Railroad Commissioners as to crossing at grade of the Long Island railroad and the electric railroads of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company (lessee of the Brooklyn City railroad and the Prospect Park and Coney Island railroad) the Brooklyn, Queens County and Suburban railroad, the Nassau Electric railroad and the Coney Island and Gravesend railroad, and beg to advise that after carefully

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