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the wind over the sylvan mansion; while the meandering river widening into the æstuary, called the Treath Vychan, or Little Tide, in opposition to the Treath Mawr, into which it opens to the South, gives' a view of the ocean, and the peninsula forms a pleasing termination to the view.
This gentleman unites the refinement of English manners, with the hospitality of the country in which he has fixed his residence. Instead of being a dead weight upon society, and a drawback upon the exertions of less opulent neighbours, his spirit is a blessing to all around him. He invents methods of improvement, and sets the example. Along tract of marshy soil, rendered useless by the overflowing of the tide, Mr. Oakly has regained from the sea,* by an ingenious method of embankment. The banks are ornamented with white rails, and form pleasing walks to visit tiese regenerated meadows. By means of the grand discovery in agriculture, Underdraining, this land before useless, is become worth £3 per acre per annum. The Traeth abounds with NYMPHÆA ALBA, and in the tide ditches the rare and extraordinary plant, the RuPPIA MARITIMA, displays its truly wonderful properties. This blossomless plant consists of several linear
This design, now in part executed, was conceived by Sir John Wynne, of Gwedir, in the year 1625. He consulted his illustri. ous countryman, Sir Hugh Middleton, the great projector of the new river ; but the scheme was never carried into execution, owing to want of money and encouragement for so vast an undertaking at that period.
hair-like leaves, proceeding from a tuberous root; formed below in the mud, with little umbels of oval seeds pendant upon single foot-stalks, which distinguish it from the POTOMOGETON, to which ia its habit it is closely allied. These foot-stalks consist of elastic spiral lines, having the power of elongating or contracting themselves; and thus adaping themselves to the varying heights of the water, for the preservation of their seeds. Swimming, like the little Nautilus, upon the bosom of the wave, appeared the CONFERVA VAGABUNDA. This plant, destitute of a root, is composed of jointed threads, of a pale green colour, about two inches long, greatly branched and waved in various directions, the branches being divided and sub-divided into many capillary segments, appearing like wool. As this plant swims along upon the ocean, it may be called an itinerant vegetable, and from being wafted from one shore to another, a Plant of Passage. This, and others of the Order Algæ, must confound those positive people, who pronounce decisively upon things, and prescribe bounds to nature, making locomotion the test between the animal and vegetable kingdoin.
Here are two neighbouring plants, the one endued with the power of depressing or raising itself at pleasure, and the other of moving from place to place. And if these are not sufficient to demonstrate, that plants possess a power of volition, let the doubting naturalist watch the different motions of the HeDYSARUM GYRANS, and the tacking andveering
of the vegetable Mariner, the Conferva ÆGAGRO: PILA. The proximate links which form the grand chain of nature, though of such different shapes and sizes, yet are so similar, as to defy the skill of man to say, where a division should take place. It was long contested, whether Funguses should be arranged in the animal or vegetable department. Their animal smell, when burnt, and taste in cookery, with a tendency to putrefaction, and many of them growing without light, shew they approach towards animals. They certainly form an isthmus between the two great continents of animal vegetable nature.
Nothing can exeeed the beauty of this little vale of Maentwrog; it may, as Mr. Pennant observes, be justly called the Tempe of Wales. We pursued the course of the stream by which it is divided. It is a tract about four miles in length, composed of rich meadows, whose sides are edged with thick groves, and barren rugged precipices close the enchanting scene. The little river which beautifully meanders through it, is named Dwy’ryd, or the Two Fords, from the Cynfael and another stream, whose name we could not learn, uniting their waters just above.
The Cynfael tumbles through a deep rocky chasm, covered with large trees, whose collateral branches meet and form a dark shade, and thence by three falls descends foaming into a deep pool, encircled with bold impending rocks. In the midst of the torrent rises a columnar rock, termed Pulpit Hugh Llwyd C: nfael, Hugh lived in the time of James the
First, was esteemed a magician of the highest magnitude; and is said invariably from this station to have delivered his incantations,
Near the village of Festiniog is a portion of a Roman road, Fford or Sarn Helen. It is a high. military way, thrown up with stones about eight yards wide, for the convenience of the Roman army across this almost impassable tract. There is every reason to suppose, that there were several roads of this kind, communicating through the whole Principality. A similar one is discoverable at Craig Ferwyn, in Merioneth; at Y Gym Wynas, in Caernarvon; and Llanbeder, in Cardigan; and the road from Neath to Brecon is distinguished by a similar appellation : from which Camden conjectures, it was one of the many public works performed during the reign of Helena, mother of Constantine the Great. Brit. Vol. II. p.791.
Near Rhyd Halen * is the celebrated hill of Micknant, on which are the monumental remains of the Men of Ardudwy, called Beddeu gwyrArdudwy. They are almost six feet in length, with a small stone at the head, and another at the feet: they are about thirty in number, from two to three feet high, and twelve inches broad: there were probably many more. Near them are still remaining a Carnedd and several circles of stones, the largest fifty feet in diameter. A circular wall of stones once encompassed the whole, which is no longer complete ; the stones having been
* Here grows LEPIDIUM PETRÆUM and CARDAMINE PETRÆK
carried away for the purposes of building. That these are monumental remains of men slain in battle, at a very early period, there is no room to doubt ; but on what occasion it is not easy to develope: Tradition attributes their cause to a battle fought between the Men of Dyffren Ardwdwy, and the Men of Denbighshire, on an affair of gallantry:
The former wishing to increase the population of their country, as a means of becoming better able ia future to cope with their more powerful neighbours, made a speculative inroad into Dyffryn Clwyd ; and laying hands upon a number of the beautiful damsels, for which the vale was famed, proceeded with their fair booty towards their own country; and had arrived thus far in safety. Here the ravishers were overtaken by the Men of Denbigh ; when a desperate conflict ensued, in which most of the Men of Ardudwy were slain ; and the prey rescued out or their hands. The story adds, that the ravishers had so far won the hearts of the fair, that, on their defeat, they refused the offered protection, and rather than return home, unanimously rushed into an adjoining lake, thence demoninated Llyn y Morwynion. I need not observe,' that in the story, you will readily recognise the Rape of the Sabines.