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the concern. Notwithstanding, perhaps, what we term prejudice, may in the issue prove to be the result of sterling sense and accurate reasoning. The passion for these artificial rivers has of late broken out in paroxysms of epidemic rage ; and because one set of aquatic speculators have discovered a new mode to acquire wealth, the whole country must be laid under contributions to support the vanity or rashness of future adventurers.
Much has been advanced on the probable advantages and disadvantages of an extensive inland navigation, and probably the decision of the question must be left to the judgment and experience of future generations.
The partizans of canals have not failed to adopt a mode of reasoning, more specious than solid, by adverting to the advantages of this kind of communication between the extreme parts of the vast and populous Empire of China, and the swampy morasses of Holland, which, without drains, would not only be impassable, but absolutely uninhabitable. Neither of which are apposite cases to make deductions from, for this island, the remotest parts of which from the sea are so small a distance, that with the assistance of its navigable rivers, land carriage becomes a small object in the value of its exports or imports. The very
idea of a navigable river, the expences and the profits of which are to be defrayed out of the incumbent trade,pre-supposes much to be brought in, and much to be carried out, and consequently
includes not only produce, but population.* It might be therefore reasonable ground for hesitation, whether the benefit of a partial water carriage, in an inland part of the kingdom, where the produce and the consumption preserve nearly an equal pace with each other, will compensate for the loss of thousands of acres of the most valuable land thus rendered useless for the purposes of agriculture, and the multifarious injury done to the adjacent meadows by the oozing of the water through the banks; not to mention the abundance of depredations to which all kinds of property in the vicinity of a canal is obviously and unavoidably exposed.
To a few individuals, whose extensive manors are covered with timber advantage will accrue, from the easy conveyance it affords for this heavy article to a market, and the increased demand and advance in the price. But an advantage of this kind must be partial in the extent, confined in its continuance, and at the same time operate as a bar to improve ment' among the less opulent Landholders. Onefourth of the money thus expended, laid out upon the roads of a country, would have a far greater tendency to improve the soil, and ameliorate the condition of its inhabitants. Every man' possesses some portion of ambition, and not less perhaps is possessed by the
* This remark has been justified in the canal cut through the heart of Herefordshire from Leominster, forming a junction with the Severn at Stourport, in the county of Worcester, which has not paid the proprietors 1 & per cent.
encourages à good breed of cattle and horses, by
class of people denominated Farmers, than any other, Ambition produces rivalry. Every man is proud of exhibiting a good team or plough on the road; this
which the labours of agriculture are performed; and it requires very little science to know, that to possess the power of performing labour, is proportionate wealth, and by which alone its relative value is diminished or increased,
This place acknowledged the same Lord with the adjoining Castle of Powis, (as we learn from Powel, page 300,) when the prince of Wales came to Chester, 29th of Edward's reign, A. D. 1301, to receive fealty of all the principal Freeholders of Wales; among those who did homage was Gryffydd, Lord of Poole, for the Lordship of Powis.
A pleasant walk of a mile brought us to Powis CASTLE. This venerable pile is built, in the caste lated form, of red sand-stone, upon the ridge of a rock of very small extent. Its plan, a mixture of Castle and Mansion. The entrance is by an ancient gateway, between two massy round towers, into the area. Several other towers are still standing, flanked with semi-circular bastions. The inside exhibits nothing worthy of notice, saye a long gallery, 1.17 feet by 20. It was once much longer, but an apartment has lately been taken from it. The hanging gardens, composed of terrace upon terrace, are as-. cended by flights of steps cut out of the solid rock; the clipped shrubs, and the remains of water works, discovering the imitations of the wretched taste dis
played at St. Germains en Laye, which the late possessors had unfortunately too great an opportunity of copying, are removed.
We discovered on the walls, profiting by the negligence of the owner, the DIANTHUS ARMERIA ; D. Deltoides; COTYLEDON LUTEA; and PARIETARIA OFFICINALIS, in great profusion. It would appear sanguine to acquiesce with Lord Lyttelton, that 30001. judiciously laid out, would make Powis Castle the most august place in the kingdom ; yet it must be allowed, that the building is magnificent, and the situation delightfully grand. The devotee of nature would not, I am sure, refuse to ride a hundred miles to obtain a view from the terrace. The situation is peculiarly commanding. To the North, rises abruptly from the vale, Moel y Golfa, Breddyn, and Cefn Castyl, the trifid summits of a rock more than 1000 feet in height. On the highest peak the loyalty and gratitude of the country has erected an obelisk, in commemoration of the important victory obtained by Rodney over the French fleet in 1781. The advantageous ground upon which this column stands, renders it a striking object to the traveller for a great extent.
Beneath lie the vales of Montgomery and Shrewsbury, through which the Severn winds her placid stream, and, seen in different places interrupted by the meadows, heightens the pleasing scene.
The distant views are peculiarly fine, the Wrekin, like a sugar loaf, rising solitary in the Plain of Salop: the extensive chain of the Freidden Hills; to the
North, the summits of Snowdon ; and Westward, the Giant Cader Idris mingling with the clouds, terminates the prospect.
The park is formed of spacious and verdant lawns, with swelling hills, well clothed with wood. The venerable oak, wide-spreading beech, and ornamental chesnut, diversify the views in rich variety, and highly contribute to render Powis Park an enviable place to the lovers of forest scenery.
The first mention of this place is A. D. 1108, when Cadwgan ap Cynvyn, flying from the persecution of his relation, Madwc, came to a place called Trallwng, (now Poole,) and having begun to erect a castle, intended to make it his constant residence. But such was the spirit of revenge and treachery in Madwc, that with a desperate party he lay in ambush for him, and slew him. In 1191, it was besieged, and taken by Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury. It was then the property of Gwynwynwyn, and, styled his Castle at the Poole. * In '1233, Llewellyn ap Jorwerth overthrew this fortress, which now assumed the name of Castell Coch. Hence the conjecture is probable, that Gryffydd had joined the English, or refused the usual and legitimate submission to Llewellyn, out of courtesy to the English Monarch. . This victory, like most others of the same period, was only temporary, as we find Qwen, the grandson of Gryffydd, in possession of the place. By the marriage of his daughter, Hawys, it came to
* Vide Powel,