## The Logic of Scientific DiscoveryDescribed by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day. |

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#### Review: The Logic of Scientific Discovery

Comentário do usuário - John Peralta - GoodreadsKarl Popper is a leading philosopher of science. In this book he introduced the concept of falsifiability. Put simply, no theory can be considered a scientific theory unless it can be scrutinized ... Ler resenha completa

### Conteúdo

T A Survey of Some Fundamental Problems 1 The Problem of Induction 2 Elimination of Psychologism 3 Deductive Testing of Theories | 3 |

The Problem of Demarcation | 4 |

Experience as a Method | 5 |

Falsifiability as a Criterion of Demarcation | 17 |

The Problem of the Empirical Basis | 21 |

Scientific Objectivity and Subjective Conviction | 22 |

On the Problem of a Theory of Scientific Method | 27 |

1o The Naturalistic Approach to the Theory of Method | 29 |

Relative Frequency within a Finite Class | 143 |

Selection Independence Insensitiveness Irrelevance | 145 |

Finite Sequences Ordinal Selection and Neighbourhood Selection | 147 |

nFreedom in Finite Sequences | 148 |

Sequences of Segments The First Form of the Binomial Formula | 152 |

Infinite Sequences Hypothetical Estimates of Frequency | 154 |

An Examination of the Axiom of Randomness | 159 |

ChanceLike Sequences Objective Probability | 163 |

Methodological Rules as Conventions | 32 |

Some Structural Components of a Theory of Experience | 35 |

Theories | 37 |

Causality Explanation and the Deduction of Predictions | 38 |

Strict and Numerical Universality | 40 |

Universal Concepts and Individual Concepts | 42 |

Strictly Universal and Existential Statements | 47 |

Theoretical Systems | 50 |

Some Possibilities of Interpreting a System of Axioms | 51 |

Levels of Universality The Modus Tollens | 54 |

Falsifiability | 57 |

2O Methodological Rules | 61 |

Logical Investigation of Falsifiability | 64 |

Falsifiability and Falsification | 66 |

Occurrences and Events | 68 |

Falsifiability and Consistency | 72 |

The Problem of the Empirical Basis | 74 |

Concerning the SoCalled Protocol Sentences | 76 |

The Objectivity of the Empirical Basis | 79 |

Basic Statements | 82 |

The Relativity of Basic Statements Resolution of Friess Trilemma | 86 |

3o Theory and Experiment | 88 |

Degrees of Testability | 95 |

How are Classes of Potential Falsifiers to be Compared? | 97 |

Degrees of Falsifiability Compared by Means of the Subclass Relation | 99 |

The Structure of the Subclass Relation Logical Probability | 100 |

Empirical Content Entailment and Degrees of Falsifiability | 103 |

Levels of Universality and Degrees of Precision | 105 |

ºſſilſhillCRºſſ to Dimensions | 110 |

The Dimension of a Set of Curves | 115 |

Two Ways of Reducing the Number of Dimensions of a Set of Curves | 116 |

Simplicity | 121 |

Elimination of the Aesthetic and the Pragmatic Concepts of Simplicity 42 The Methodological Problem of Simplicity | 122 |

Simplicity and Degree of Falsifiability | 126 |

Geometrical Shape and Functional Form | 128 |

The Simplicity of Euclidean Geometry | 129 |

Probability | 133 |

The Problem of Interpreting Probability Statements | 134 |

Subjective and Objective Interpretations | 135 |

The Fundamental Problem of the Theory of Chance | 138 |

5o The Frequency Theory of von Mises | 139 |

Plan for a New Theory of Probability | 141 |

6o Bernoullis Problem | 164 |

The Law of Great Numbers Bernoullis Theorem | 168 |

Bernoullis Theorem and the Interpretation of Probability Statements | 171 |

of the Fundamental Problem of the Theory of Chance | 176 |

The Problem of Decidability | 181 |

The Logical Form of Probability Statements | 183 |

A Probabilistic System of Speculative Metaphysics | 188 |

Probability in Physics | 190 |

Law and Chance | 198 |

7o The Deducibility of Macro Laws from Micro Laws | 200 |

Formally Singular Probability Statements | 202 |

The Theory of Range | 204 |

Some Observations on Quantum Theory | 209 |

Heisenbergs Programme and the Uncertainty Relations 74 A Brief Outline of the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Theory | 211 |

A Statistical ReInterpretation of the Uncertainty Formulae | 218 |

An Attempt to Eliminate Metaphysical Elements by Inverting Heisenbergs Programme with Applications | 224 |

Decisive Experiments | 232 |

Indeterminist Metaphysics | 243 |

Corroboration or How a Theory Stands up to Tests | 248 |

Criticism of Probability Logic | 252 |

Inductive Logic and Probability Logic | 261 |

How a Hypothesis may Prove its Mettle | 264 |

Corroborability Testability and Logical Probability | 268 |

Remarks Concerning the Use of the Concepts True and Corroborated | 273 |

The Path of Science | 276 |

APPENDICES | 281 |

Definition of the Dimension of a Theory | 283 |

The General Calculus of Frequency in Finite Classes | 286 |

Formula | 290 |

Examination of an Objection The TwoSlit | 297 |

Remarks Concerning an Imaginary Experiment | 305 |

i Two Notes on Induction and Demarcation | 312 |

ii A Note on Probability 1938 | 319 |

iii On the Heuristic Use of the Classical Definition | 325 |

vii Zero Probability and the FineStructure | 374 |

viii Content Simplicity and Dimension | 392 |

Statistical Tests | 402 |

x Universals Dispositions and Natural | 440 |

xi On the Use and Misuse of Imaginary | 464 |

xii The Experiment of Einstein Podolsky and Rosen | 481 |

489 | |

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The Logic of Scientific Discovery Karl Raimund Popper,Sir Karl Raimund Popper Visualização de trechos - 1959 |

### Termos e frases comuns

accepted according appendix application argument assert assume assumption atomic atomic statements axiom system basic statements believe Bernoulli's theorem binomial formula called Carnap chance-like concept contradict conventionalist criterion of demarcation criticism deduced defined definition degree of corroboration degree of falsifiability derived discussed Einstein elements empirical science epistemology Erkenntnis example existential statement fact finite formula frequency theory given Heisenberg hypothesis idea imaginary experiment induction inductivist infinite initial conditions interpretation knowledge logical probability mathematical means measure ments metaphysical method methodological momentum n-tuple objective observation obtain occurrence p(ab particle philosophy physical position possible Postscript postulate potential falsifiers precision predictions principle prob probability statements problem problem of induction protocol sentences quantum theory question random refuted regarded relative frequencies result rule satisfied scientific segments selection sense sequence simplicity singular existential statement singular statements statistical tautology testable tests tion universal names universal statements