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national strength ? Let us turn to our Is Ireland a source of incessant discolonies, and there we shall find young quietude ?-Has experience now prov. and rapidly growing states, to which ed, that all the efforts made to engraft all that surplus population would civilisation and order on its semi-bar. prove the most inestimable of blessings, barous Celtic, priest-ridden population, and whose boundless wastes invite the are ineffectual ?-that we have given hand of laborious industry, and the them emancipation of which they were powers of European art, to convert unworthy, and reform which has been them into fruitful fields.

prolific only of ruin ? — that conDo we fear, in the rapid progress flagration, rapine, and murder, are and keen rivalry of European manu steadily advancing before the breath of factures, and the uniform and immor- an aspiring hierarchy, and atrocities able jealousy of European govern- the most frightful daily committed ments, the decline or extinction of the under the eyes of a democratic go. accustomed vents for our manufactured vernment, by a reckless, bloody-mind. produce, in the old world?-Let us look ed, infuriated peasantry? Even in these to the east, the west, and the south, melancholy circumstances—the dark. and we shall see empires rising up, est stain which the history of the world with the strength of an armed man, in has yet affixed to the Catholic faith, whose industry, wealth, and prospe. and the cause of freedom and tolerarity, is to be found the surest guaran. tion-a ray of hope, opening a vista of tee, not merely for the continuance, but ultimate felicity, is yet to be found in the boundless increase, of our manufac the capabilities for receiving the sur. tured exports and maritime strength all plus population of the country which over the world. Do we observe with the colonies afford. Here, as in almost dread the progress of anarchical prin all other cases where priestly ambition ciples amongst us, and mark the advent combined with revolutionary passion of that second, and well-known, and fires the torch, it is agrarian distress often-predicted period in revolutionary and widespread misery which has laid progress, where the working classes the train ; and, if we would apply who continue, are striving to revolt the only effectual remedy to the mul. against the rule of the middle classes tiplied evils which have so long fas. who command, the movement?- Even tened on that devoted land, we must here, too, the handwriting on the wall of commence with affording a vent to ages, while it marks our danger, points the overwhelming multitudes who now also to the only specific by which a overspread its surface, and finding em. remedy can be applied. These wide. ployment to the industrious poor who spread discontents - this monstrous may be left behind. Here, again, the revolutionary ambition, which would colonies start up to lend a helping convert the illiterate, and rash, and too hand to the empire, when almost sink. often corrupted and profligate opera. ing under the load of that passion, tives of great cities, into the rulers of desolated land in the waves. The the state, is chiefly dangerous, because innumerable bands of half-employed, it is pent up within narrow limits; it half-civilized, half-starving bigots, is by opening the safety-valve that the who now encumber its surface-the danger of the explosion is to be pre ready instruments, within its narrow vented. This violent democratic spirit and wasted bounds, of priestly ambi. is the mainspring of emigration—this tion or democratic vengeance-possess impatience of control, this desire to qualities which, if properly directed, rule, is the centrifugal force intended might be productive of prosperity, by Providence to overcome the cohe. wealth, and comfort, to themselves and sive effect of habit and civilized enjoy. all around them. Diffused over the ment; and send forth the burning boundless wastes of America, Southern democrat to the wilderness of nature, Africa, and Australia, they would find with the Bible in one hand and the ample employment in reclaiming the axe in the other, to attempt in new wilderness to the first stage of improveworlds those fabled dreams of liberty ment; converted, by comparative comand equality which never can be real fort, to industrious habits, they would ized in the old, and seek on distant cease to follow the hideous trade of shores that freedom, of which, in his assassination and conflagration ; en. apprehension, Europe has become un abled to bring up, in rude plenty, & worthy:

numerous offspring, they would be. to clime;

come the progenitors of a bold, and the wall of Antoninus to the foot of hardy, and independent yeomanry. Mount Atlas, and from the river Eu. Insensibly, in the course of a few phrates to the Atlantic Ocean, was generations, their ferocity would be actuated by one spirit, governed by converted into valour, their restless one set of laws, and inspired by one ness into activity, their indolence into unanimous sense of experienced obli. exertion, their disregard of human gation ? Simply because they con. blood into the love of country and quered for the interest of the provinces home. From elements the most dis. even more than themselves; because cordant, from materials the most un- they consulted their wishes and desires promising, from passions the most even more than those of the ruling desolating in their native seats, Great state, and employed the vast army Britain possesses the means, not only which the resources of the empire of effectually liberating her own ter- enabled them to keep on foot, in exe. ritory from the dreadful evils under cuting great public works, constructing which it labours, but of realizing in bridges, and formiog highways, to distant lands the beautiful vision of connect together their mighty dominthe poet :

ion. Why is not the navy of England

employed in similar beneficent pur“ Come, bright improvement, in the car poses, to cement together its vast coof time,

lonial empire, embracing the globe in And rule the spacious world from clime its circuit, by the strong chain of ex.

perienced obligation? Why are the Thy handmaid Art shall every wild ex- royal ships of England employed du. plore,

ring peace merely in naval parades, Trace every wave, and culture every shore.

useless cruises, or inglorious observaOn Erie's banks, where tigers steal along,

tion of insult to the British flag, when And the dread Indian chants a dismal song; Where human fiends on midnight errands

their co-operation is so loudly called

for to relieve one part of the empire walk, And bathe in brains the murdering toma.

of its superfluous load of inhabitants, hawk

and transfer to another the muchThere shall the flocks on thymy pastures

needed supply of civilized industry ? stray,

Could foreign nations entertain any And shepherds danee at summer's opening jealousy of the British navy, if employ: day;

ed in great part in such a work of Each wandering Genius of the lovely glen manifest necessity and utility ? Could Shall start, to view the glittering haunts of fifty sail of the line, a hundred frigates, men;

and two hundred smaller vessels, be And silence mark, on woodland height better employed than in such a trans. around,

ference of the resources of the empire The village curfew as it tolls profound." from those places where they are su

perfluous to those where they are re. Is money awanting to carry these quired ? If such a system was judi. generous designs into effect ?-are the ciously adopted, how rapid beyond all resources of the state, and more than that the world has ever seen, would its resources, required to meet the be the growth of the British colonies ?. numerous foreign and domestic ene. What would it signify that our Euromies by which its independence and pean trade was declining under the tranquillity are menaced ?--and is go withering embrace of reciprocity trea. vernment unable to lay its hand upon ties, if new fields of adventure were any funds at all commensurate to the daily arising, and new markets opening magnitude of the remedies which re. on the shores of the St Lawrence, the quire to be applied to the state ?– Here, wilds of Australia, or the mountains of too, the colonies afford a certain source New Zealand ? How soon would dis. of strength; and, in providing for their appear the discontents of the colonies, growth and protection, the surest thus constantly supplied by the grafoundation is laid for the independence tuitous efforts of the parent state, with and security of the parent state. How what to them is a perennial source was it that the Romans, for so many of strength, of wealth, and prosperity ages, held together the vast and un -a continued influx of skilled and wieldy provinces of their empire, and civilized labourers? And what need we established a dominion which, from fear either the armies or navy of Rus.

sia, if fifty British line-of-battle ships, But it is not only by sins of omis. and twice as many frigates, regularly sion that the British Government has employed in the transport of emigrants been found wanting to its colonial to our colonial dependencies, were ever subjects; its sins of commission have ready, with their crews which have been still more serious and flagrant; braved every breeze of the ocean, to and there is perhaps no parallel to be protect the majesty of the empire from found, in the long annals of human injury or insult ?

misrule and oppression, to the cataThe British empire exhibits at this logue of injuries with which the domi. moment, on the opposite side of the nant multitude in the British islands ocean, a social aspect so peculiar and have alienated the affections of their remarkable, that the intention of Pro. West Indian possessions. In treating vidence in regard to it, the purposes of this momentous subject, we shall not it is destined to serve in the moral immerse our readers and ourselves in improvement of mankind, and the a sea of details : we shall not quote means which remain for the delivery angry resolutions of the House of Comof itself from impending ruin, are as mons, or semi.rebellious speeches in the clearly marked out as if they were House of Assembly; we shall not go declared in thunders from the clouds into details of prison acts, or comof Mount Sinai. On the one side of plaints against Baptist missionaries, the ocean, is an old, densely peopled, or misdeeds of prejudiced stipendiary and highly civilized nation, teeming magistrates. All these are important with energy, buoyant with spirit, but topics, which are the proper subject cramped by want of territory, and of consideration for Government or suffering under numerous real, and still the Legislature, when the specific submore numerous imaginary, evils. On jects to which they relate are brought its opposite shore, at the distance of under consideration ; but they are not many thousand miles, other provinces the real causes of the discord. Like of the same empire are to be seen, the last angry notes in a diplomatic boundless in extent, teeming with correspondence which terminates in riches, overflowing with fertility, but war, they bespeak a previously excited covered with the jungle and the forest, rancour and state of exasperation, and the abode of the tiger and the rhino. may be held out as the ostensible ceros, yet requiring nothing but the causes of difference, but they are not superfluous hands of the parent state the real grounds of hostility. It is in to convert them into a terrestrial pa. previous injuries, in deep and irreradise. To give effectual relief to the mediable wounds inflicted by the inold empire, nothing is needed but to justice of the parent state, that the adopt the measures which would at real cause of discord is to be found. once give life and vigour to the new. It is evident that the rule of a disBetween the two lies the British navy, tant parent state, over powerful, and raised upapparently by providential vigorous, and distant colonies, can only care to universal dominion, and once continue for a succession of ages if numbering a thousand pendants on the founded on three principles :-ist, A ocean; capable, while it protects the fair and equal reciprocity of advantages integrity of the whole empire, of afford- between the central empire and the ing the means of rapid, safe, and gra- colonial possessions. 2d, The esta. tuitous transmission of the surplus of blislıment in the colonies of the same one part to supply the wants of an general frame of government as obtains other. Yet, oh, incredible blindness in the parent state: under such modiof mankind! this navy, at once the fications only, as necessarily are sugglory, andcement, and strength of this gested by the difference in their phy. mighty empire, which could convert sical or social situation. 3d, The the ocean into a secure paved high- maintenance of such an armed force, way encircling the globe, has, under naval and military, by the mother democratic influence and direction, country, as may compensate to its re. been suffered almost to become ex- mote offspring the want of independtinct, and not a king's ship has ever ence by the certainty of protection. been employed in that useful labour It is remarkable, that while demo. which could at once enrich, strength. cratic institutions in the parent state en, invigorate, and mutually endear are the mainspring of all colonial advenevery part of the empirc.

ture-the centrifugal force by which, in every age and country, mankind twenty years ago, hurled Napoleon have been driven abroad from the from his throne. Jamaica is in such luxuries and endearments of home, to a state of exasperation, that Govern. seek better fortunes in distant lands— ment have deemed it necessary to they are the institutions, at the same bring forward two different bills for time, which have rendered it most the suspension of its constitution, and difficult to prevent those colonial settle the entire subjection of its inhabitants ments from breaking off in anger from to the rule of a despotic Governor and the parent state. Such was the smo. Council. New South Wales is brood. thered discontent which prevailed in ing over injuries which absorb almost all the colonies of the republics of an- the whole ample columns of their tiquity, that, on the first serious reverse local press; and a spirit of discontent to the parent state, they all proclaimed is there awakened, which only requires their independence, and the vast colo. a little more strength to make that nial dominion was at once dissolved. distant colony break off the connexion The revolt of all the Athenian colo, with the mother country, even at the nies, after the disaster of Argospota- hazard of losing that extraordinary mos; of the Spartan confederacy, prosperity which, in twenty-five years, after the defeat of Leuctra ; of the has augmented its shipping and com. Roman colonies, after the slaughter of merce above thirty-fold. Such is the Cannæ ; of the Carthaginians, upon dissatisfaction prevalent at the Cape, the overthrow of Zama, have all their that not only has the emigration to parallels in modern times"; when, on that noble settlement nearly stopped, the first serious reverse to more recent but the settlers are actually crossing republics, their whole colonial depend over with their herds and families to encies at once proclaimed their inde. the Caffre territories, and voluntarily pendence, and, so far from supporting incurring the risks of savage rule, the mother country, fearfully swelled rather than the protracted insolence the ranks of its enemies. Upon any and injustice of civilized democratic considerable reverse to Venice, Flo- government. Even the Ionian islands rence, or Genoa, the cities of which have fallen into a state of discontent; they formed the head broke off from and Sir Howard Douglas has just fol. a subjection which they hated, to de- lowed the common example of dissol. stroy that invidious authority in which ving the House of Assembly in Corfu, they were not permitted to bear any on account of the rebellious spirit of part. The American war, and loss of our Greek subjects. If any man imaher magnificent transatlantic posses, gines that a colonial empire, agitated sions to Great Britain, is another in- by such passions, suffering under such stance of the inherent tendency of de evils, is in a tranquil state, or possessed mocratic societies to lose their full. of the cohesion and moral attachment grown offspring, at the very time requisite to make it hold together unwhen they have arrived at the period der the shocks of adverse fortune, he of life when they might zealously ex. is little versed either in the history of pect from them efficient assistance, mankind, or its secret spring, the and some return for the long anxieties workings of the human heart. and protracted solicitude of maternal It is remarkable that this tendency care.

to break off from the mother country, No person who surveys with a dis. and separate into a multitude of indepassionate eye the relative situation of pendent states on the first serious na. Great Britain, and her astonishing tional reverse, is peculiar to the colo. colonial empire, can entertain a doubt nial dependencies of democratic gothat we are on the verge of a similar vernments, and does not exist in any catastrophe, and that nothing but the degree in firm or strongly cemented long duration of European peace, and monarchies. Such monarchies have the halo of renown which England has none of the inherent vigour and energy inherited from the deeds of other days, which is requisite to produce proper prevents a general separation of her colonial offshoots; but in the domi. colonies from taking place. Canada, nions which they have acquired by though in profound peace, has twice conquest, or succeeded to by inheri. broken out into open revolt; albeit tance, there is none of that restless provoking, by so doing, the undivided desire of emancipation, which forms strength of a nation which, five-and. so strong a feature in the character of dependencies. Deep and apparently look long enough before we saw fatal were the wounds inflicted at dif- friendly sails from the St Lawrence, ferent times by the arms of Napoleon the Gulf of Mexico, or the shores of on the Austrian monarchy; but not a Australia, arriving to raise the blocksymptom of impatience at the imperial ade of the heart of the empire. Now rule was manifested, when the French all this is possible—all this might eagles approached Vienna, in any part happen without the once powerful, of its multifarious empire; on the but now democracy-paralysed, emcontrary, the most animating episodes pire of England being able to fit out of modern history are to be found in a fleet for its defence ;' and yet we the heroic efforts made by the Tyrolese, are doing nothing either to strengthen and the mountaineers of Croatia and our means of national defence, or Carinthia, to preserve their connexion secure the allegiance and co-operawith their beloved Kaisar, even after tion of those numerous colonial settlehe was driven from the palace of his ments, on the prosperity and connexion fathers on the banks of the Danube. of which not only our welfare, but Did Russia exhibit any symptoms of our very existence as a nation, de dissolution did her provinces rise up pends. in rebellion against the Moscovite M r Hume has explained, with his rule_when the eagles of Napoleon wonted sagacity and wisdom, the reaapproached the Kremlin, and the son why the remote provinces and fortunes of the empire were apparently colonial dependencies of a despotic wrapped in a funeral conflagration in empire are always better administered the flames of Moscow ? Certes, the than those of democratic societies. legions of Napoleon felt the reverse « The reason,” says he," is, that an amidst the ruins of Malaroslavitz, in absolute sovereign, being equally elethe snows of Krasnoi, on the banks of vated above all his subjects, and not the Beresina. Did Spain fall to pieces, more dependent on one class than and each province declare its inde another, views them all, comparatively pendence, when Madrid was occupied speaking, with equal eyes ; whereas a by the battalions of Murat, and the free state is ruled by one body of insurrection of its brave inhabitants citizens who have obtained the mastery quenched in innocent blood? The of another, and govern exclusively the ramparts of Saragossa, the walls of more distant settlements of the empire, Gerona, the unconquered bastions of and are consequently actuated by perCadiz, proclaim the contrary. Ex. sonal jealousy or patrimonial interests amples of this sort are common in all in their endeavours to prevent them ages; they are scattered down the from obtaining the advantages of stream of time, and form the bright equal and uniform legislation." It is spots which console the historian for in this circumstance-the government his labours, and fascinate the eye of of one body of citizens in one part of the reader in the dark and turbid waves the world, by another body in another of human events.

that the true cause of the general disIs any man sanguine enough to be contentandexasperation of democracylieve tbat a similar devotion, in its ruled colonies is to be found. A distant colonies, would illustrate the monarch equally interested, from the British empire, if assailed in its heart security and strength of his throne, in by similar dangers ? Would Canada the prosperity of all his subjects, become a La Vendée, Jamaica a Tyrol, whether in one part of the world or Australia a Saragossa, India a Spain, another, may rule them all with equal if Nicolas had laid his iron grasp on justice and equity : but it will always the arsenals of Woolwich, Portsmouth, be found impossible to make a body and Plymouth ? If a Russian fleet of of citizens in one country—the tenthirty ships of the line lay across the pounders of England, for exampleNore--if Portsmouth and Plymouth sacrifice their own interests or inclina. were closely blockaded, and the estu. tions to those of the distant colonies of aries of the Mersey and the Clyde the empire. It was the stern refusal were closed by hostile fleets-We should to give them a share in the representa

• In the beginning of last November, the Powerful, of 84 guns, was put in commission, and began to take in seamen, under that gallant and popular officer, Captain Napier : in the end of May she put into the Cove of Cork, still a hundred deficient of her complement !

FOL. XLVI, NO. CCLXXXV.

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