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ed. I looked at the pit, where, every work-I have been eleven days con. night before, I had seen the lowest order fined here --Siberian weather has set of men mixing with the more tespectable, in. Thermometer ten degrees, somesfemales do riot sit in the pit in New times more, below zero! and I jumping York,] and saw what appeared to me all from a sick room to a stage, surroundgentlemen. This revived me. I looked ed with blasts (not draughts) of wind. at the boxes, and be held all elegantly A rhinoceros could not endure it! dressed people, such as I had never seen
All the illness of my fifty-eight years here before."
of life added up, is not equal to the It happened, however, and this was number of days I have been ill here. certainly to the credit of the popular
Forty days' perfect health at sea, suecharacter, that all this alarm was the ceeded by instantaneous effects of work ofimagination; that the audience miasma on landing." had too much of the original John Bull In another letter, of equal miserý, about them to cherish wrath against he writes_The worst description of a humorist, whose trade it was to ill luck overwhelms me. Every seat make all the world laugh with him, was taken in the Boston theatre, when and at each other; and that they had I totally lost my voice-nine days in no idea of regarding the pleasantest of one room!-On my recovery, the mimics as worthy of the national thun.
winter had commenced! I cannot de. der. As tu the placards and para. scribe it to an European; you have graphs which had denounced poor never seen any thing like it-twenty Mathews as only fit to be exhibited to degrees below zero at night, ten in the the public tarred and feathered, they daytime-houses warmed up to ninety had been evidently voted vulgur by the cold stage at night-no chance of a pit “ full of gentlemen," and the boxes partial thaw till March." full of ladies costumed à la Parisienne." Some of the most amusing parts of All was therefore charming. The bio. these memoirs consist of these little grapher proceeds:
sketches from America. Mrs Ma“ After the table and lamps were thews writes" I have not walked out placed, a dead silence ensued for a mi for days, until this morning, when I nute, (my heart almost died in that min begin to hope that the weather is renute ;) but, when the prompter's bell was laxing in a small degree. Nothing, rung, and before the curtain could rise, a however, but sleighs and buffalo skins burst of the most stunning applause I is to be seen-nothing is to be heard ever heard, put all my fears aside. The but the jingling of the bells attached curtain rose, and Mathews walked on to the horses' heads, which is truly sternly, but as pale as death, and was met distracting. Your poor father cannot by such plaudits and cheerings as can make the least effort towards air, and scarcely be imagined.”
much less exercise. I induced him on In his address, it was requisite that Wednesday to accompany me in a he should touch upon his expected re- 'booby hut, (so a covered sleigh is pulse. This was certainly a point called,) to make a few calls; but, which required some adroitness; but though the hut was almost air-tight, he had too often appealed to audiences the boobies within it were nearly froin his own country to feel much alarm zen ; and after I had got out once, and in any other. Among his topics, he grazed my leg from ankle to knee, by promised that he would perform his slipping through the iron steps on my is trip to America," word for word, first attempt to get in again, we all and leave it to an American audience returned home, where, after half an to say, whether he was the ñational hour's experiment, we were satisfied libeller that he was said to be. All that we had not lost our noses." this was received with good feeling Mathews, with all his oddity, had by the audience, and his popularity English feelings in his nature, and he was re-established, if it had ever been was therefore a hater of Whigs. He shaken.
provides for those lovers of place, a His health was now decaying, and place which all wellwishers of the emhis feelings of the bitter climate cer- pire would gladly see them possesstainly offer no encouragement to emi. ing. He thus writes from Boston: gration. In December, he thus writes « There are a few hundred thousand to his son:-" This will not do- I must Irish tyrants at least here, who, from a come back. I am blighted; I cannot hackney coach upwards, drive you as they please. I congratulate you on imaginative poct, like Coleridge or the return of the Tories. [1835.] I Shelley, could have seen what I have wish you could send all the Whigs seen ; what a beautiful account he here: I should like no better punish- would give of it! Oh, such heavenly ment for them, than their being com- visions 7". pelled to visit America in search of It is true that language of this kind liberty!"
has been often uttered by enthusiasts He again expresses his horror of the and atfectors of enthusiasm ; but he climate in this graphic passage :- was neither, but a man of simple " When I came out [from his sick, mind, with all his acuteness, and doubtbed] the thermometer was at twenty- less spoke only what had solaced and four degrees below zero! I stood at my brightened his sleeping hour. table one hour and a half, and the bolt Since the appearance of these voof ice that then entered my head, and lumes, a statement has been published extended to my feet, has in fact re- by Arnold, the patentee of the Ly. mained in my lungs until this present ceum theatre, contradicting the bio. moment unthawed!".
grapher's account of the contract But the scene which closes on all in under which the" At Homes" had been their turn, was now about to close on given. The detail is long, curious, this clever, active, and rambling man and supported by much testimony; but of pleasantry. His return to England, we cannot, in our space, more than though delighting him by the sensa. advert to it now. It strongly denies tion that he had escaped the climate that Mrs Mathews could have been in of the States, severe to all, but despe. the state of ignorance relative to the rate to his frame, produced no renewal transaction which she affects; deof his health. The blow, in fact, was clares that, by Arnold's own desire, already struck. He tried Devonshire, it was fully and personally communibut unwisely, for mild as its coast cated to her ; that it produced from comparatively is in winter, it is harsh her expressions not merely of acquiand stormy in spring. The ice-bolt escence but of gratitude, pronouncing was still in him. After suffering much him " the saviour of the family," from difficulty of breathing, he died on &c. The manager's offer certainly his birthday, June 20th, 1835. His appears to have been a very handsome last hours were spent in a manner one-£1000 a-year for seven years' suited to his state, and which must be acting, and from this period an annui. gratifying to all who remember him ; ty of £1000 for life. If Mathews had he frequently read his Bible, and evi abided by this agreement, he would, dently thought deeply on its consola. in all probability, have been alive at tions. But two days before his death, this moment; it would have saved he awoke in a kind of rapture, yet him from all those dismal journeys without extravagance. Though speak- which undermined his health ; and, ing with difficulty, he said " Oh, I above all, from the American advenhave had such beautiful visions—such ture, which decidedly laid him in his lovely, heavenly visions- I wish some grave,
ON THE PRESENT POSITION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND.
The Church of Scotland, as it at rage of Sathan against us and against present exists, with its Presbyterian Christ Jesus, his eternal veritie laitlie form of government, was first establishe borne amangst us, that to this day na ed in 1592. To this period therefore, tyme hes bene grantet unto us to clear of all others, the greatest importance is oure consciences, as maist glaidlie we necessarily attached in a discussion' wold have done, ffor how we have bene like the present. But there seems to tosset a haill zier past, the maist parte be in the minds of some men, a strange of Europe (as we supois) dois under. misapprehension both as to the mode stand." This, be it observed, is not and the time in which the Presbyterian the ecclesiastical but the civil govern. Church of Scotland was first called into ment, not the Church but the Parlia. existence as a national establishment. ment, that is addressing itself to the The reverence which is entertained for people of Scotland, and explaining the the names and characters of Knox, and sum and substance of that Protestant the other early reformers, has led many, faith and doctrine which they had seen unconsciously perhaps, or at least fit to embrace. without due consideration, to look back Again, in 1567, we have a ratificaon the age in which they lived as a tion of the acts and proceedings of the period of prosperity, and as affording Parliament of 1560, and a republicathe purest and most perfect example tion, by civil authority alone, of “ The of Presbyterian polity. But there Confessioun of the Faith and Doctrine can be no greater mistake than this. believit and professit be the Protes. Popery, no doubt, was abolished so tantes of the realme of Scotland, ex. early as 1560; but this was pre-emi. hibitit to the Estatis of the same in nently the work, not of the Church Parliament, and be thair public votis but of the Legislature of Scotland. The authorisit as a doctrine groundit Records of Parliament, in 1560, con- upon the infallibill word of God."$ tain a summary of Protestant doctrine, The same Parliament declares, that addressed to the whole people of Scot- the “ jurisdiction” of “the true Kirk, Jand, under the following title:-" The and immaculate Spous of Christ Confessioun of Faith, profest and be. Jesus," (i. e. obviously of the Church leved be the Protestantes within the universal, “ consistis and standis in realme of Scotland, publisht be thaime preiching of the trew word of Jesus in Parliament, and be the estaites Christ, correctioun of manneris, and thereof ratifeit and approvitas hailsome administratioun of haly Sacramentis." and sound doctrine, groundit upon the No doubt, the examination and ad. infallible trewth of God's word."* mission of ministers was, at the same Not a syllable is said of “ The Church," time, committed to the general body or of any church, apart from the Uni. of the clergy, under a special reservaversall Church of Christ. † On the tion of the rights of the is just and auncontrary, the Parliament, in their own cient patrones."? But the whole policy name and authority alone, address of the Parliament of 1567, leads to themselves to “thair naturall countrey, the conclusion, that this Act was men, and to all utheris realmes and passed rather by way of experiment, natiounes." The opening passage of pending the discussion with the clertheir address is most remarkable :- gy, as to their rights and consti. “ Lang have we thristet, deir brethren, tutional position, than as the final to have notifeit unto the warld the establishment of a national Church. soume of that doctrine qlk we profest, Were it otherwise, however-even asand for the qlk we have sustenit infamy suming that, by virtue of the Acts of and dainger. Bot sick has bene the 1567, there existed, de facto, an Es.
* Thomson's Acts, vol. ii. p. 526.
Ibid. p. 526. || Ibid. p. 24,
+ Ibid. p. 530. Ar.-" of the Kirk."
tablished Church in Scotland-it was, which we have undertaken, if we fail. at least, not the Presbyterian Estab. ed to call the attention of our readers lishment to which we belong, but a very shortly to the state of ecclesiasti. mixed and anomalous body, compo. cal affairs at the two great eras of the sed to a great extent of Episcopa. Usurpation and the Revolution, as af. lians, holding general assemblies,* in fecting the rights and influence of the which bishops sat and voted under people in the choice and settlement of the recognised title and with the ministers. authority of bishops.t Presbyteries Whatever opinion may be formed were formed for the first time in the respecting the conduct and motives of year 1581, and the Presbyterian the General Assemblies which sat du. Church, thus gradually modelled and ring the period between 1638 and 1649, organized, was, as already stated, es- there can be no doubt that the power tablished as the National Church in and influence of the Church was then 1592
practically both more varied and more The conditions and limitations of extensive than it has ever been since the the Acts of Parliament by which this times of Popery, To this cause must establishment was effected, have been be attributed the abolition of patronage already sufficiently explained. The by Parliament in 1649, and the large power of collation was given to pres- discretion committed to the General byteries, under the special condition Assembly of that year, to provide for that they should be “ bound and as the “ just and proper interests of tricted'' to admit qualified presentees. presbyteries and congregations' under Here, therefore, our historical enqui. the new system. I The result of their ries might fairly enough be brought deliberations was the celebrated “Di. to a close. But we formerly intima. rectory," which yested the election of ted an intention of adverting to some the pastor in the session, not in the more recent passages in the history of people. In the event of the acquiescence the Church ; and we feel that we should of the congregation, the presbytery hardly acquit ourselves of the task are directed to proceed to take trial of
* An able and ingenious pamphleteer (the Reverend Andrew Gray, minister of Perth, author of “ The Present Conflict between the Civil and Ecclesiastical Couris Examined,” 8vo, Edin. 1839,) has expended much labour in proving that the General Assemblies which sat during the period from 1560 to 1592, were convened without the authority, permission, or sanction of Parliament; and from this fact, which we presume no one will dispute, he draws the inference, that the Church, as it then existed, was possessed of inherent and independent powers derived directly from God. But does the reverend gentleman not perceive that the very same powers are (except under a system of intolerance) vested in every dissenting body? A private associatioa formed for a religious, or any other legal purpose, may make and enforce rules affecting the management of its own affairs, and binding on its members, so long as these are not opposed to, or inconsistent with, the civil law,
| See numerous instances of this in the “ Buik of the Universal Kirk."
† We have no intention of discussing the policy of this measure, but the language of the Act is well worthy of attention, as indicative of the irresistible influence which the Church at this time exercised over the deliberations of the Committee of Estates. The preamble contains a sanction and approval, almost in the words of the Serond Book of Discipline, of all those doctrines on the subject of presentation and admission of ministers, which had been consistently and successfully reprobated and opposed by every parliament, from the year 1560 downwards. Now, the Legislature seems to have been compelled, in the most literal sense, jurare in verba magistri :-“ The Estates of Parliament being sensible of the great obligation that layes upon them by the National Covenant, and by the Solemn League and Covenant, and by many deliverances and mercies from God, and by the late solemn engagement unto duties to preserve the doctrine, and maintain and vindicate the liberties of the Kirk of Scotland, and to advance the work of reformation therein, to the utmost of their power: And considering that patronages and presentations of kirks is an evill and bondage under which the Lord's people and ministers of this land have long groaned, and that it hath .no warrant in God's word, but is founded only on the Canon law, and is a custom merely Popish, and brought into the Kirk in time of ignorance and superstition, and tbat the same is contrary to the Second Book of Discipline, in which, upon solid and good ground, it is reckoned among abuses that are desired to be reforined, and unto several the person elected; “ but if it happen person to the whole congregation, to that the major part of the congregation be either approved or disapproved by dissent from the person agreed upon them; and if they disapprove, that the by the session, in that case the matter disapprovers give in their reasons, to shall be brought unto the presbytery, the effect the atrair may be cognosced who shall judge of the sume : and if upon by the presbytery of the bounds." they doe not find their dissent to be Not one word is to be found in this grounded on causeleșse prejudices, they statute which can by possibility be are to appoynt a new election in man, stretched to support the principle of ner above specified.” * The presby- giving effect to dissent without reasons tery are to enquire into the reasons of assigned. The statute follows the the people's objections, and to judge unbending rule of Church law, that whether they be sufficient, or be in all cases the objections of the con. grounded on causeless prejudices. It gregation are to be considered and is impossible to imagine a more favour- judged of by the presbytery. able opportunity than was afforded to It has been already observed, that the Church at this time of executing after an experiment which lasted for any fundamental law, or carrying into twenty-one years, the Act of 1690 was practical operation any fundamental repealed, and the “ ancient patrons" principle of the Church in the settle- were restored to precisely the same ment of ministers. The General As- rights which they had enjoyed of old, sembly was intrusted with full discre under the same condition that their tion-the Church was all-powerful- choice should be confined to persons the leaders of that day, Rutherford, qualified in the judgment of the Church. and Guthrie, and Livingstone, and The 10th Anne is in effect simply a Gillespie, were the most zealous and revival or re-enactment of that part of uncompromising reformers-the most the Act of 1592 which relates to pa. enthusiastic, and in the judgment of tronage and settlements; the law has many men the most bigoted, Presby. now remained unchanged for more terians known in the history of the than 120 years, and the rights of paChurch; and yet, under such auspices, trons, therefore, are at the present day the people were still deprived of a the same, both in kind and extent, as sacred privilege, to which we are told those of their ancestors in the sixteenth they have right by a fundamental law century; and the powers of the Church of the Church-no dissent, without and the influence of the people in set- reasons, being competent to be enter- tlements, are confined within the same tained by a presbytery under the Din limits which were marked out and rectory of 1649.
approved of, or at least acquiesced in, After times of unprecedented trial by all parties at the first establishment for the Church of Scotland, the Pres. of the Reformed Presbyterian Church byterian form of ecclesiastical govern. in Scotland. We are told, indeed, that ment was again established at the the absolute exercise of the right of Revolution, and the right of patronage patronage, and the exclusion of the was then, not abolished altogether, but people's voice in the election of minis. transferred from the ancient patrons" ters, was never cordially approved of to the heritors and elders in each by the Church ; and that the ecclesi. parish. But what provision was made astical history of the last century fur. for listening to the wishes of the peo- nishes numerous instances of attempts, ple? It is enacted that the heritors unsuccessful certainly, but zealous and and elders “ name and propose the sincere, to extend the influence of the
Acts of General Assemblies; and that it is prejudicial to the liberty of the people, and planting of Kirks, and unto the free calling and entrie of ministers unto their charge : And the saids estates being willing and desirous to promove and advance the Reformation foresaid, That everie thing in the House of God may be ordered according to his word and commandment, doe therefore, from the sense of the former obligations, and upon the former grounds and reasons, discharge for ever hereafter, all patronages and presentations of kirks, whether belonging to the King or to any laicke patrone, presbyteries, or others, within this kingdome, as being unlawfull and unwarrantable, by God's word, and contrary to the doctrine and liberties of this Kirk." - Thomson's Acts, Vol. VI. p. 411.
• Acts of Assembly, 1649. Svo ed. p. 649,