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a few feet only from the great brow under the high woods, that we sus. of the huge mass—the brow, that as it pect it will not afford much variety were conceals under it the roof, is the for the painter. As a seat, Hafod is cavern, dark and gloomy; at its edge finely situated; yet, though there is some rich-coloured fern is growing, plenty of wood, it wants shelter. which makes the gloom the greater. There do not appear any deep glens The sweeping lines of the rock are in which you could embower yourself very grand, their breaking being only in shade : the heat of the day was at the cataract, where great frag- oppressive, which made us look for this ments jut out boldly into the foam, cool repose—thegreat beauty, after all, and around them the water thunders. of landscape. We read what has been The ledge which forms the foreground said of Hafod in the guide-books, and is divided into many channels, though thought there was much exaggeration. now dry, and runs upwards to the We do not presume to be judges of right, forming a pass to the upper architecture beyond its effect upon the rock, yet marking its magnitude by artist's eye, and its agreement with the the division. The sky above the scenery around it. It would be diffi. cataract is broken by some bold trees, cult to define its order : it is not Go. or rather trunks of trees, for there thic, it is not Venetian, nor Turkish, was scarcely any foliage on them. but a mixture of all. The little obeThis scene would make a very fine lisks, two to each pinnacle, look very picture in the hands of a skilful artist. little indeed. It is fair to say, that as Still lower, there may be even a finer it is undergoing great alterations, and subject. As we intended visiting the is partly boarded up, it must be imposspot again, we did not attempt the sible to judge of it as a whole. It is at descent—and now regret we left the present in a semi-neglected state. We Devil's Bridge without reaching the walked to the flower-garden, or what extreme depth of this awful place. was the flower-garden, and returned The colour of the rock is well suited with melancholy reflections. For whom to the grandeur of the scene. The was it made, how was it cherished, and artist will not be content with general how desolate is it?-a deserted ruined views; he will find an infinite variety garden is at all times a dire, a dismal of detail to occupy much of his time, sight. There is a trifling matter here and fill his portfolio with advantage. that gave offence to the imagination, Nothing can be easier of access-it is by rudely snapping its finest chain. close to the inn, where he can have There are some carved grotesque the very best accommodation, and, if heads in the doorways entering this he pleases, on terms of boarding. We garden. The sculptor had cut, large spent two days here, before we pro- enough to catch the eye, the date, and ceeded to Hafod.

“ London," and probably his name, for The road lies still among moun- part was obliterated. Who, in such tains-about five miles, or scarcely a spot, would wish to be reminded of so much, half up hill and half London, or Bath, or marble-cutters' down. Shall we venture to say we yards or desire to know that these were disappointed in Hafod ? We

heads came from any part of the world had come from almost savage wild. but the garden-or that they were not ness, and were not prepared to see left there by the genii of the garden, mountains dressed. The great ex. whose creation the whole circumfertensive ranges of wood are very fine, ence should be? Another remark, in and not the less striking from the our architectural ignorance, we will freshness, the youth, yet fulness venture to make. There is something of the trees; the woods are trees, not pleasing in seeing bright freestone. not coppice, but they are not of that yellow buildings arise, where there is massy, matted growth we are accus- nothing of the kind in the soil to harmotomed to see in old dressed places. nize with them. Should not houses in We have vigour for antiquity--each the country be AutoXbores as if they has its peculiar charm. You see at sprung from the ground-should they once you are upon the very verge of not be of the stone of the country, or as extreme barrenness; the high woods, much like the stone of the country as at their summits and nearly at their possible? The eye cannot be deluded, base, terminating, or rather flowing and is sensible of an intruder nature off, into wild mountain. The river never intended to be seen there. It is was very low-it is so immediately like a woman with false hair, which, though it may be better than her own, were surprised to see an odd, fantasticnever looks so well, and pretty surely looking semi-castle building, erected mars her beauty. Would not Hafod be by, above all persons in the world, the better of another colour ? Its lightness late Sir Uvedale Price! How very ill accords with the wild majesty of strange!“ Aliquando bonus dormitat." the mountain dominion in the centre Hour about five o'clock-looking on of wbich it is placed. It was very the sea. Never saw we any thing singular at such a season of the year more lovely-never any colouring of to see so brown a hue. The oaks had nature that more convinced us of the been frost-bitten, and the leaves truth of Claude's Embarkation of St crumbled into dust under the hand- Ursula, and his other marine subjects. it had the strange effect of blending Nearly the whole of the sea, to the summer and autumn in one landscape. horizon, lighter than the skyIs the mixture of the Scotch fir with and yet that is not dark, but all lu. oaks and other forest trees in good minous, the whole expanse of water taste? Even the firs in such cases seem of a warm grey, changing occasionto lose their natural character, and ally into the most tender green. The look too spruce.

High-rising trees sun, which is yet high up, flashes should not be placed among lower and about the edged clouds, and down spreading--they hurt each other- below them, a purple grey, tipped making one too low, and the other too with brightest gold. Now, ihere are high. Scotch firs are not to be de- more distant clouds immediately un. spised; they make grand dark-shading der the others, half obscured in haze, woods—they have a gigantic person.. edges brilliant. They must be thun. ality about them, when grown to any der clouds—the most azure blue, if we size, and proudly centinel a domain. might call it by the name of one Their gloom is awful ; and when the colour, is above. Immediately below sun is behind them, and just gleams the sun's pavilion the blue is lost in a partially through them, the effect is thicker atmosphere, almost of a greenmagical ; and how wonderfully, by ish hue, and that melts off into a warm their depth of colour, they throw off luminous grey, in which the red is the azures, and set off the warmer tints very discernible, and from the sunof nearer distances !

cloud, as from a centre, broad bands We have left Hafod; and all on of shadow spread abroad, reaching the our way to Aberystwith, ranges and water to its utmost verge. The sea, ranges of mountain again and again without a wave,- but a gentle ripple present themselves—all fine. With- plays about the shore, here edged with, in sight of Aberystwith, they gra- and throwing off, drops of the purest dually lower on all sides, and at gold. Starting distinct from the their bases lies in rich beauty an ex- grey, there is a mass of the sun's light tensive valley, through which the river upon the very centre of the sea, but winds, and loses itself-or at least it it is interrupted by a grey streak, and did to our view-in an ultramarine, does not quite reach the shore-a rocky yet warm, baze, that flooded with azure ledge or two seems to run out, as it light the whole vale. The first burst were, to meet and salute it, and that of this view, with the great arms of alone is dark. Behind us lay the the mountain stretching down into the large and shattered fragments of the depth before us, would make a very old castle, the ruins of which, particufine subject for a picture, and would larly the tall upright tower, are still well suit Copley Fielding's water-col. fine. Aberystwith did not seem to ours. Why do they do their utmost have much company. These sort of to make all sea bathing places look as places are all alike a semicircular hot as possible? Facing the unmiti. range of yellow or white lodging, gated sun we have houses, and a whole houses, facing the sea-white painted range of them, as hot as yellow ochre bathing machines the beach can make them. Seek for shelter in- loungers about the seats, smoking ci. side, and you have little shade—the sun gars—and ladies, by twos and threes, still persecutes you there - curtains in green veils, poking among the and carpet are sure to be red-you fly pebbles with the ends of their parasols. from the yellow to the scarlet fever. Our piscator friend was very busy Aberystwith seems a poor place, ex- making enquiry respecting some fish cepting where the company-the gen- said to be caught and catchable here try lodging-houses are built. We with the rod and line. To him it



seemed a wonderful thing—to us, who single otter,” said he,“ will consume had never hooked but one fish, and a ton of fish in a year;" and, while that in the side, it did not sound won speaking, he referred to a paper in his derful at all, remembering more of fishing-book. We observed one side Homer than of Isaac Walton.

of it denoted rhyme. “Ah," said he, We did not remain at Aberystwith. when questioned, “ for nearly forty On our return to the mountains we years have I had many a fishing day went to a very neat newly-built church, with old Will Hill of Millslade, and the exterior of which reminded us of being at the lonely but comfortable Italy. The service was in Welsh, little inn there the other day, my old the sermon in English ; the Welsh we haunt, I thought over the days past ; thought must be a powerful language; and I suppose a thankful heart, and no we imagined it to be in sound be- one to tell it out to, makes a happy tween Greek and German. The de- man a rhymster, if not a happy rhym. meanour and devotion of the congre. ster, and so I made my trial. Here gation was very gratifying, and the it is. I am as proud of dedicating my extreme neatness and cleanness of their verse to poor old Will Hill, as Pindar persons. A retired tradesman from his to Hiero. So here goes :Aberystwith, with great civility, offered us seats ; and, when the service was TO MY OLD FISHING COMPANION, WILL over, conversed with us with great natural politeness and simplicity. He

Old Will with thee, told us his condition, showed us his gar

In youth and glee, den, and offered the use of his stable

I've spent some sunny

hours ; should we at any time revisit the

But now, I fear, place for the sake of fishing. The

The winter drear manners of the Welsh in these parts

Of age upon us lowers. is very pleasing, and their intelligent way of speaking very much above that Yet still a dish of the generality in England. They are We catch of fish, unaffected, simple, and single-mind.

As well as some that brag ; ed people, and are not contaminated No more we ply by that bane to morality, the beer.

The treacherous fly, shop. They are the very reverse of The brandling fills the bag. “the vulgar." The sermon, wbich

Here in this glen, was in English, was very good; and,

Apart from men, had the preacher paid more attention

We lift our grateful hearts; to stops, would have been more effec

And feel the joy, tive. "He read it as if English had Without alloy, been an acquired language. His

That Nature wild imparts. Welsh seemed to flow naturally, gracefully, and powerfully. The following

From Providence, day our friend hoped to have some

Our confidence, fishing at Rhayader, as there had been This boon we anglers crave, rain; and, as we had closed our port

That we anon folios, we gave ourselves up to his Mayangle on amusement if we might be found Safe to a peaceful grave. worthy to carry his basket. It would

“ Come, then," continued he, “let not do. The fish were not to be

us to the inn," and as if to apologise caught. We saw some fine otter for his versehounds; coarse, wiry, strong animals, that would bear as well as give a bite

“Dulce est de-sipere in loco." and a tug under or above water. So let us, like true artist and piscaOur friend was eloquent upon the sub- tor, sip our souchong, and be wise ject, and described many an otter hunt, enough to play the fool after our inand made the description more inter- nocent fashion. esting by his calculation of the mischief Finis chartæque viæque. these amphibious creatures do. “A


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The unhappy contest which has where proved, what reason might now arisen between the local legisla- a priori have anticipated, that trade ture of Jamaica and the mother coun- with independent states, how extensive try, has recently attracted a large soever, invariably comes in the later portion of public attention, both in con- stages of society to fall more and more sequence of it having been the cheval into the hands of foreign shipowners, de bataille on which the two parties and that, in the very magnitude of a which divide the state have come to a great manufacturing state, foreign decisive conflict, and from its invol. commercial intercourse, is laid, but for ving within itself the great question the intervention of its own colonies, of the government of our colonial de- the sure foundation for its ultimate pendencies by the reformed legis- subjugation. The reason is to be found lature. The powerful excitement of in the lower value of money, and conthe first of these circumstances, was sequent higher price of shipbuilding that which in the outset brought and seamen, in an old opulent commer. it so prominently forward ; but to cial community than a young and the thoughtful and far-seeing, the rising one, which has the materials of last is the one which gives it such a a commercial navy within its own momentous and enduring character. bounds, and the consequent cheaper Recent events, both in Canada and rate at which goods can be transporied the West Indies, have made it but and ships maintained abroad than at too apparent, that the capability of home. From this cause, the debility the new constitution to withstand the of advanced years necessarily and very shock of adverse fortune, and maintain shortly comes over every maritime inviolate the unseen chain which binds community which is not perpetually together the vast fabric of the British reunited by the trade with its own empire, is ere long to be put to the colonies, just as the weakness of age test; and that the time is rapidly prostrates every family which is not approaching when the strain is to be upheld by the growing strength of its applied to its dependencies, under own ygynger branches, which all former maritime dominions, History abounds with the proofs of from the beginning of time, have been this great and leading truth, which snapped asunder.

strikes at once at the root of the reci. The slightest acquaintance with procity system, and demonstrates that history must be sufficient to convince it is to our own colonies, and not the every well-informed person, that colo. trade with independent states, that we nial jealousy and discontent is the rock must look for the means both of upon which all the great maritime powers holding our maritime superiority, and of the world have bitherto split. As obtaining subsistence or employment the formation of a great maritime to our numerous and rapidly increasing dominion without colonies is altogether population. But it is sufficient to reimpossible—for this plain reason, that fer, amidst a host of others, to two facts the carrying trade is generally enjoy- which are of themselves decisive of ed as much by foreigners as patives, the position. America and Canada and the only traffic which can be per- are both rising states of European manently relied on as a nursery for descent, with the same language, haseamen, is that which is carried on bits, occupations, and external circumwith your own dependencies, and of stances ; but the one is a colonial which foreign jealousy or hostility dependency of Great Britain, and the cannot deprive you-so the loss of otheris an independent state. And what such colonies has invariably been is the result ? Why, our North Ameri. the certain forerunner of approach- can colonies, with a population of only ing rujn. To trust to the carry- 1,500,000 souls, employ 560,000 tons ing trade, as a resource which can be of British and 530,000 of native shiprelied on when colonial dependencies ping; while America, with a populahave been severed from the mother tion of 14,000,000 of souls, only gave country, is of all delusions the most employment, in 1831, to 91,000 Brideplorable. Experience has every tish tons; though the exports to it, in 1836, rose to L.13,000,000. The therto, as if by a miracle, been prowhole remainder was taken off in tected, by aristocratic foresight, from American bottoms, which amounted the ruinous explosions which in almost to 250,000 tons, proving thus, incon- every other instance have torn asunder testably, how rapidly an increasing the state machine where such a power trade with a foreign state, in an old has been generated within its bosom. commercial community, comes to glide The consequences of this extraordinary into the foreign in preference to the combination of popular energy with home vessels. Again, the tonnage of patrician direction, of natural advanGreat Britain employed in the trade tages with adaptation of character, have with all the states of Europe, is now been, that here trade has been raised considerably less than it was thirty- to a colossal magnitude, amounting five years ago; while that with our own last year to one hundred and five mil. colonies, during that period, has in. lions of exports; that her flag is seen, creased more than five-fold.* In fact, and her influence is felt, in every it is the vast extent and rapid increase quarter of the earth; that in the east, of our colonial commerce, which has in the west, and in the south, vast compensated the decline of the foreign empires are arising out of her overtrade with independent states, and flowing numbers; and that it is already rendered the nation blind to the rapid the boast of her transatlantic descen. strides which the reciprocity system is dants, that to the Anglo-Saxon race is making in destroying our shipping destined the sceptre of the globe. employed in such intercourse with Numerous are the evils, both social, other states ; and yet, by a singular physical, and political, which have perversity of intellect, the reciprocity arisen, perhaps unavoidably, from so advocates continue to refer to the sum extraordinary a destiny being reserved total of our exports and shipping re- for a little island in the Atlantic ; and turns, as evidence in their favour, obvious as are the dangers, both exter. when it is produced only by the pro. nal and internal, which now menace gressive growth of the system they the very existence of society, and the deprecate over that which they sup- duration of all those blessings and this port.

godlike career of usefulness in the There never was a country so evi- British islands, there is ye none of dently destined by Providence, so them which does not admit of an easy nobly endowed by nature, with all the ultimate remedy, by a due attention to gifts requisite to make it the heart and our colonial dependencies ; nor any soul of all the European colonies over one which may not be converted into the globe, as Great Britain. Placed a source of strength, if the obvious on the edge of the European States, destiny of Great Britain, as the procradled in the Atlantic waves, she is pagator of Christian principles and the “ the midway station given" between European race through the globe, is the energy, wealth, and enterprise of not forgotten, amidst the insane jeaEurope, and the boundless realms of lousy or monstrous folly of the domifuture greatness and population in dis- nant multitude in these islands. Are tant parts of the world. Abounding we overwhelmed with a redundant and to overflowing with coal and ironstone, rapidly increasing population? Do we she possesses within herself, in inex- find twenty-four millions-an enor. haustible profusion, the means of cre- mous multitude of inhabitants in two ating both the moving power and the islands of such limited extent as Great manufacturing implements necessary Britain and Ireland ? Are we reasonto cover the earth with her fabrics. ably anxious how such a prodigious Blessed for ages with a free constitu- crowd of human beings, increasing at tion, teeming in all quarters with the the rate of a thousand a day, in a great ardour of freedom, singularly temper. degree dependent, directly or indirected with moderation and ultimate so- ly, on foreign commerce, are to be briety of judgment, she is powerfully maintained, if the outlets of that com. moved by the ardour and energy which merce come to be impaired or closed are the great characteristics of demo- up amidst the vicissitudes of future cratic societies ; and yet she has hi- war, or the fast increasing decay of

See Porter's Progress of the Nation, i. 217.

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