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most brutal ignorance, and slavery to towns. Those who did not go into the most contemptible and odious form exile were subjected to a cruel perseof Paganism! The old Greeks and cution, till, in consequence of the asRomans, though under a blind super cendency derived from Marlborough's stition, could still enjoy a degree of victories, Britain demanded protection liberty ; but the subjects of Popery, for them; and, in virtue of an article through their superstition, are fastened in the treaty of peace, the French down under a degrading servitude to nation had the mortification to see an unfeeling combination of priests. thousands of their countrymen libe

On the other hand, it is the interest rated from French prisons in conse. and the duty of Protestants, and of the quence of the glorious use of victory Protestant members of the Legisla. by a Protestant nation. ture, to endeavour, in every form, to As it is the interest, and therefore excite to fair exertion, and thereby to the object pursued by Popery, to bru. improve the talents and moral cha. talize mankind, and that of Protesracter of the people; and, for that tantism to enlighten and improve purpose, to afford them the means of mankind, it is clear that a Legislature obtaining an enlightened and virtuous containing both Protestants and Pa. education. It is only in that way that pists must of necessity find itself inthe nation can be enabled to put forth volved in perplexity and embarrassall its powers ; that is to say, it is ment, at least if either the Papists be only by bestowing on the mass of the in any degree considerable in point of population such a degree of litera. number, or if the Protestant factions ture, and of moral and religious ha. in the state be at all divided. The bits, as are necessary to enable those Papists will necessarily pursue Popish among them, whom nature has gifted objects, and, acting under instructions with talents, to labour under the con- from a concentrated body of priests, trol of the exalted and beneficent the Popish members will act consisviews that religion inspires-in ex- tently, zealously, and with uniformity, tending the limits of every science, in the pursuit of the policy and special and the powers of every valuable objects dictated to them. The Proart. It is the nature of Protestant- testant members being, on the other ism, and is consistent with an en- hand, left to follow their own views as lightened self-interest on the part of individuals, and being often influenced every Protestant, to endeavour to ac- by personal and family interests, the complish that object. It is only thus Protestant party will not act with that that his country, and his kindred and unity and consistency which, in polidescendants,can become great, wealthy, tical contests, and in a popular asand enlightened. Accordingly, Pro- sembly, is so necessary to success. testantism has produced that object- Hence the Popish party may do more look to Holland and to Britain from than balance or overcome, in the eyes of the time that Popery was banished the executive government-that is, in from its government and counsels. point of efficiency as a faction-double Nay, even in France, after the Pro. their number of Protestant members, testants had been removed from every and may easily carry with them all branch of the public service; yet, by those of an infidel and unprincipled directing their attention to the im. character. Thus the Popish party provement of arts and manufactures, will and must ultimately destroy the they became the most industrious Protestant church and clergy. Nor branch of the population, and the is it possible to prevent this result, if artists and enrichers of the nation. political privilege be given to Papists. But the historical fact is well known; To make it a condition of their so utterly regardless is the Popish admission to the Legislature, that system of every interest but that of its they shall take an oath not to injure own selfish ascendency, that the super. the Protestant Church already estastition of Louis XIV, was influenced blished, is of no avail. If a man by it to drive into exile many hundred swear to do what is wrong, the crime thousands of those Protestants, by far consists in swearing and not in his most valuable subjects, who carried violating the oath. When the Papist their arts, the source of riches, to swears he will not injure a heretical England and the Protestant part of church, he does an act which in his Germany, where they peopled whole estimation is of the same nature as if he were to swear that he will commit pery. In Scotland, as already stated, murder; or that, being a soldier, he will an attempt was made to lead the Scots desert to the enemy, or run away in. back to Popery by the aid of the forms stead of standing to his post or his of Episcopacy; and during the reigns colours. If he have any scruple about of Charles II. and his brother James breaking such an oath, his priest will II. (VII. of Scotland), the one a con. give him absolution upon small pe cealed and the other an avowed Pa. nance.

pist, the Scottish Protestants, adhering It would be more rational for the generally to the Presbyterian eccle. British Protestant people to receive siastical forms as remotest from Pointo their House of Commons reprc- pery, were exposed to a grinding sentatives of our Mahometan people tyranny, and most sanguinary and in of Bengal, than to receive the dele quisitorial persecution. They were gates of Popery. Our Mahometan hunted over the mountains and moors Indians (not Gentoos) have no other of their native land; and wherever prince than our own monarch, and found exercising, or suspected of havare not the subjects of a sworn com- ing exercised, their ordinary form of bination of priests; whereas the men worship with their ancient clergy, who by their influence nominate the they were slaughtered without mercy Popish members of Parliament, are by the royal troops. But during the subjects of a foreign power, the prince intervals of weakness on the part of of Rome, and have combined under the government, the Protestant party him to subdue mankind at whatever in Scotland had taken those measures cost, under the domination of him which rendered their extinction imand the body of which he is the head. practicable without an absolute depo

All this was well understood by our pulation of this ancient kingdom. Scottish forefathers, and had been im. Being aware that the strength of pressed upon them by severe expe- the Popish system consists in fastenrience. They had a hard struggle ing down a people under a cloud of with Popery. By dint of preserving superstition and ignorance, the Scotignorance among the populace, the tish Protestants, with great discern. Popish priesthood had themselves be- ment, made war upon ignorance and come ignorant. When directed by superstition, as the fatal enemies of their superiors to prevent the Bible them and of mankind. For that purfrom being read or heard read, the pose they made effectual provision for historian Hume tells us that many of the education of the people ;-and here, the Popish clergy in Scotland serious- be it observed, that our forefathers ly believed that the New Testament was never proposed to establish a board of a heretical book, written by Martin education or a minister of instruction, Luther. However strange that idea with national schools supported by the may now seem, it was not utterly ab- general government. Their Scottish surd, because, if not heretical, why was sagacity protected them from relithe perusal of it prohibited ? These ance on such projects. In the first simple men, not being in the secrets place, that a people may enjoy freeof the combined Roman continental dom, it is necessary that they do much priesthood, could not suspect that the for themselves, and leave as little as inspired Record of the Christian faith possible to be done by government, so could, under any circumstances, be as to leave little pretext for the collectreated as a bad book, that would lead tion of a great revenue to support nu. men to perdition.

merous government officers. Some Having succeeded in putting down things must be performed by a general Popery, the Scottish Protestants government, such as the management adopted measures, devised with pro. of the Post-Office, the national de. found sagacity, to prevent its return. fence, and the appointment of judges, Their measures encountered great in with the fixing of rules or laws for terruption. Our native princes, having their direction. But all interference inherited the English crown, became by government that can be avoided, independent of Scotland. In the time ought to be avoided by a people jeaof Charles J., who had married a lous of their liberties. By intrusting Papist, the Church of England, under education to a minister of the Crown the superintendence of Archbishop or a central board, it is exposed to all Laud, was led to the verge of Po the effects of political intrigue and revolutions in the national administra- and thousands and tens of thousands tion. Above all, it is exposed to the of Scotsmen have found the education influence of that system of Popery received at the parish school their. which is established in the centre of best and no mean patrimony. The Europe, and by its ramifications, in- teacher of such schools is elected by trigues, and efforts, open, secret, or the owners of property of a certain disguised, is incessantly engaged in an amount. In every school the translaactive warfare against Protestantism. tion of the Bible made in the time of By the aid of the confessional, it pe. James I. is the ordinary schoolbook. netrates into all transactions, and Adjacent to the parish school, the operates equally by the ascendency of parish church and a house for the the priest over the weakness of devout minister were established. The prowomen, and the ferocity which he in- prietors of land in the parish were respires into ignorant men against the quired to furnish both, and a suitable heretic.

salary to the clergyman. The whole Education is of two kinds intellec population of the parish have free actual and moral. To possess intellect, cess to the church ; and thus provision without moral virtue or benevolent af. was made in Scotland for teaching the fections, is satanic, or the character we Protestant doctrine at the expense of ascribe to the spirit of evil. When a the landed gentry exclusively. This Frenchman said of the late Bonaparte, institution continues to this day; al. whether justly or not, that he had though, from the increase of the popuun téte sans entrailles-a head with- lation, and the establishment of taxaout a heart (bowels of compassion tion to support the clergy in Edinor affections), he represented the burgb, and one or two of the larger character of that eminent soldier as towns, the institution is less effective utterly diabolical. It is certain that than at its original establishment. the mere acquisition of knowledge by That there might be no relapse, men, animated only by selfish passions and to protect the community more in whatever form-ambition, avarice, effectually against falling back insensuality-leaves the individual ac- to that corruption of the administratually worthless, while it renders bis tions of religion which had led to the existence a misfortune to human so- pernicious institutions of Popery, care ciety. Such men, when aided by op- was taken to treat according to its portunity and possessed of ability, merits the impure device on which the have in different ages come forth to chief practical unity and strength of the afflict mankind, and have been well Popish combination rests—the celibacy designated as more eminently the of the clergy. The Scottish clergy scourges of God than famine or pes. were not only permitted but encourtilence. Our forefathers endeavoured aged to marry. Further, in the Scotto educate not a part merely, but the tish ecclesiastical establishment, a body whole of the population of the king- of lay elders was in all the parishes apdom; and held education to consist of pointed to assist the ministers-voting the two branches already mentioned, equally with them in all affairs of reintelligence and morality, understand. ligion in the Presbyteries and Synods, ing by moral education, instruction in and with a large mixture of them in the Christian Protestant religion. the General Assemblies of the Churchi.

For the first of these purposes, they In the parish or kirk sessions, which established a school in every parish form the radical court, the minister to teach the whole of the youth of both presides; but has only his casting vote sexes to read and write the English added to such influence as may result language, and also the ordinary rules from his personal character and suof arithmetic. In villages, the teach. perior learning. All this was meant ers were required to be capable of to guard against the Popish device of teaching the Latin language. The erecting the clergy into a fraternity proprietors of lands in the parish were or corporation distinct from the rest required to furnish a school and schools of the community, and with different house, and a salary to the teacher, re- interests. serving to him to obtain a very mode. The effect of these institutions was, rate remuneration from the scholars in the first place, to enable every

Thus, cheap education for his child. Scotsman, according to the measure ren was brought to every man's door, of his ability and opportunities, to at. tain to all and every known branch of dence, they prospered; and thus the science. Next, there was taught to safeguards of Protestantism against every individual of Scottish birth, in Popery proved a source of prosperity our remotest glens, much important to Scotland, and a profitable patri. truth and knowledge by the perusal mony to Scotsmen. But our forefaof the Bible. That book teaches thers did not rely upon the precauthat this world was formed by a Being tions already mentioned exolusively. of boundless intelligence and power— They added political sanctions to Pro. that he adorned and enriched it with testantism, apparently of the weightiest vegetation of almost boundless variety, description. and placed on it a multiplicity of When the happy event occurred animals of different kinds that he of the arrival of William, Prince of bestowed the world, thus furnished, Orange, and afterwards in making a upon a single human family, a man treaty of political union with Engand his wife, and their descendants in land, care was taken utterly to exclude all generations that thus we are all Popery and Papists from the posses. kindred of the same blood or race- sion of political power. that, unhappily, by eating a poisonous In the claim of right (Scots Acts of fruit contrary to a divine warning and Parliament, 1689, c. 13), by which prohibition, our first ancestors inflicted the Estates of the kingdom of Scotland disease and death upon their descens declared the crown forfeited by King dants, and, what is worse, a selfish, James, and made an offer of it to Wil. sensual, and polluted corporeal consti. liam and Mary, the nephew and eldtution, unfit for the habitation of a est daughter of the deposed monarch, pure mind-that, with boundless gene- one of the chief, or rather the chief, rosity, a high or the highest celestial ground on which the Estates proceed. intelligence interfered, assumed our ed, was the attempt to which James nature, and, by suffering as a man all had been incited by the Popish priests that man can suffer, acquired the pric to assume absolute power, in order to vilege of defeating the effect of death establish their ascendency. The claim by means of a resurrection that in of right contains the memorable dethe mean-while he requires us to act claration, " That by the law of this towards each other with the same kingdom, no Papist can be king or spirit of beneficence with which he queen of this realm, or bear any office acted, to cultivate the virtues that pu- whatever therein." rify and elevate the human charac. By this declaration, the Estates proter, and he threatens due punishment ceed to claim, as matter of right, that to those that do otherwise—that he certain acts complained of, including prohibits all idolatry or worship of expressly the attempt to support Posaints or superstitious observances, and pery, committed by King James, shall all reliance on any interest or influence be held illegal, and on these conditions but his own, and the instructions he the Estates offer the crown to William has given, for the safety and exaltation and Mary. of men in a future state of existence. Thereafter, in 1707, when a treaty The result has been, that when a was made incorporating the kingdoms Scotsman has met his countryman of England and Scotland, the second in a foreign land, he believed he had article of the treaty declared, “ That met an intelligent, religious, and trust. all Papists, and persons marrying Paworthy man, to whom he was bound, pists, shall be excluded from, and for and in safety, to give countenance ever incapable to inherit, possess, or and aid. This, at least, was the prin- enjoy the imperial crown of Great ciple on which Scotsmen long acted. Britain, and the dominions thereunto An infidel Scotsman was accounted belonging, or any part thereof; and a monster in the moral world, no in every such case, the crown and go. more to be looked for than a mon- vernment shall from time to time destrous birth in animal nature. Other scend to, and be enjoyed by such permen said of Scottish Protestants as son, being a Protestant, as should have of the first Christians, “ See, how inherited and enjoyed the same, in they love one another!" — and, ob. case such Papists, or persons marry. taining trust from their countrymen, ing Papists, were naturally dead." By they were trusted by others, and there. the same treaty, a Scottish statute in. by, with the aid of industry and pru. tituled, “ Act for securing of the Pro

testant religion and Presbyterian selfishness and folly, compared with Church Government," was in the that wisdom from above, which looks treaty of union “expressly declared over this earth as a nursery-ground to be a fundamental and essential con employed in rearing immortals to their dition of the said treaty of union in all distant home in eternity, and regards time coming."

all the business, the interests, the The Scottish Act here referred to arts, and the toils or inventions and (1706, sec. 6), confirms a former Act, improvements in this life, as a mere “ Ratifying the Confession of Faith, training of themselves and their de. and settling Presbyterian Church go scendants to a high destiny hereafter. vernment, with the haill other Acts of So our Protestant forefathers thought, Parliament relating thereto, in prose and on such principles they acted. cution of the declaration of the Estates The result was, that Superintending of the kingdom, containing the Claim Beneficence granted a visible reward of Rights." The same statute ordains, in the face of the nations. The Bri. concerning teachers or office-bearers tish nation, and certainly Scotland, in any university, college, or school, in proportion to its extent, was en“ That, before or at their admission, abled to rear what is most valuable in they do and shall acknowledge and the universe-a multitude of virtuous profess, and shall subscribe to the and enlightened minds, men active, foresaid Confession of Faith as the bold, and persevering, and humane. confession of their faith."

Above a hundred years of still augIn consequence of these stipulations, menting prosperity, riches, aggran. and of the concurrence of the English disement, and terrestrial glory sucnation in the deeply-rooted convic- ceeded, and terminated in so exalting tion, that it is impossible to conduct Protestant Britain, that although in with success the affairs of a Protes. territory and population not the fourth tant people if political power is to be of the nations of Europe, yet it rose granted to adherents of Popery, not to such a height of ascendency, that only were the doors of Parliament in the tremendous contest which end. shut against Papists, but the royal ed in 1815, the other European moline of succession to the crown was narchs generally submitted to receive altered. It was settled, on failure of the pay of Britain, and scarcely rethe issue of Queen Anne, on the fa. tained their thrones except by its sup. mily of Hanover, as being Protes- port and patronage. The navy of tants descended in the female line Britain ruled every island and every from James VI. (I. of England), to shore of the ocean-one hundred mil. the exclusion of Popish descendants lions of people were her subjects of the same prince, and the descend. her agriculture and every science and ants of his son, Charles I., because subordinate art were improved_her the latter, although nearer heirs, were warriors were skilful and brave ; and all Papists.

while other lands had been wasted Man could do no more; and well by contending and hostile armies, no may we talk with pride of the enlight. enemy bad encamped within her ened sagacity of our ancestors. Look European territory. back through the records of past ages, But while the tree flourished thus and every memorial of departed time- fair, and spread abroad its branches, the ponderous magnificence of ancient a canker-worm had found access to its Egypt--the beautiful statuary and root-to that root, its Protestant chasplendid eloquence of Greece - the racter, to which it owed its health and military toil of the Roman legions, by beauty, of the transcendant value of which they were enabled to grind which so many in our days have ap. down the nations and their own peo. peared unconscious. ple into servitude,-all are mere mo.

Author of " Political numents of superb and strenuous

Fragments, 1830.”

NO. CCLXXXVI, VOL, XLVI.

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