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right of altering the form and direc- This is open and undisguised protion of the government? No such pagandism and democracy. There thing.
is no revolution, however unjust-no " The hereditary rights of Mehe- revolt, however savage or blindmet Ali,” cries the French Govern- that may not be vindicated and apment organ, is an acquired right. It proved on such principles as these. could not be disputed. We must de. At this rate the Belgian insurrection sire ourselves to see civilisation by may be defended, because it is succesdegrees gain possession, little by lite ful, as one of the “regular and peacetle, of all the coasts of the Mediter able means” of creating new states. ranean ! Thanks to our arms / civili- But what says the organ of the sation has regained a footing in French Cabinet as to the rights of Africa ; in Egypt, thanks to Mehe. the Ottoman Porte? Are they actumet Ali; in Greece, thanks to the ally neglected or passed over by the Treaty of London ; and at Constan- writers in question ? Certainly not ; tinople, thanks to the reforms at- but the manner in which they are tempted by the Sultan!!”
treated is at once anarchical and deThus France has settled for herself plorable. the “ hereditary" question of the “ The Porte will preserve its suzethrone of Egypt; and until the fu- raineté, and it will, assuredly, be ture events in the East shall enable stronger, aided by the power of its her to take possession of that country hereditary vassal, than it is to-day; for berself, she proclaims to Europe for to-day the force of Egypt is injuthe necessity for changing the form rious to Turkey, and hereafter it will, of Government in the Egyptian do- on the contrary, serve it." minions of the Sultan.
Thus are This short paragraph contains as whispered away the "rights" of the many errors as it does words ;-and Ottoman Porte, and “ civilisation" each of those errors is dangerous and and “ the progress of reform" are the insidious. Ist, When the Porte shall cant phrases of the French politicians. no longer have a voice in the appointBut that the whole of the views and ment of a pacha, its suzeraineté in Teasonings of France on this impor- Egypt will be at an end, except so far tant question of the hereditary throne as the khazneh or tribute-money may of Mehemet may be fully under- be concerned. 2nd, When Egypt stood, we transcribe the following shall be governed by an hereditary observations from the Government pacha independent of the Porte, exorgan of that country,
cept perhaps the simple payment of * It would be painful to think that the khaznel, not only will that pacha Egypt, after the death of Mehemet not be the vassal of the Sultan, but Ali, was to be restored to barbarism. he will be his equal. 3rd, The force Thus the hereditary throne of Egypt, of Egypt to day, is only injurious to in the family of Mehemet Ali, is an Turkey, because it has usurped a force acquired fact. His children will en- which does not belong to it, and has deavour to maintain it. Who is the annexed to it dominions belonging to pacha that would dispute their rights? the Ottoman empire. 4th, The PaWe add, that this regular and peace- cha of Egypt has already announced able manner of creating new states, three conditions of peace with the appears to be one of the maxims of lifeless remains of the once-powerful our times. It is thus that Greece Ottoman Porte, which are-Ist, The became, by little and little, an inde- annexation of the whole of Syria to pendent kingdom. It is thus that Egypt; 2nd, The hereditary throne Walachia and Moldavia have acquir. of Egypt secured to his family for ed, by a series of treaties, an indepen- ever; and 3rd, The eventual total dence certainly greater with regard independence of Egypt. How, then, to the Sultan, their former master, would the mere recognition of the than with regard to the Czar, their hereditary throne of Egypt, in the new protector. The recognition of family of Mehemet Ali, secure the the hereditary throne of Egypt, in force of Turkey ? And, finally, the the family of Mehemet Ali, will be erection of Egypt into a powerful, inthus one of those regular and peace- dependent, and hereditary monarchy, able acts which prepare the way for must necessarily terminate, not in the the new life of states."
force and progress, strength and vigour of Turkey, but, on the contrary, are the best means to be pursued for in its final if not early destruction. preserving the integrity of Ottoman
But France has a project of her empire?" We are friends of peace, own, as idle and chimerical as it is we are supporters of the French confalse and flimsy. She takes much servatives, and we have made many pains to enforce one dogma, which is sacrifices of our sympathies and tastes this, “ that the questions of the East to assist the government of Louisshould be decided by the East," for the Philippe ; but we did expect some betpurpose of hiding from the public eye ter “ programmie" than this. her real intentions. She proclaims This is indeed expecting order to that Europe ought not to interfere in spring out of disorder, and conflicting Oriental questions. Why? Because it interests_to'co-operate for the same does not yet suit her to interfere her object. The Sultan—the robbed, spoself. • Hereafter," she says,
“ that liated, insulted Sultan-unable to open interference may become necessary,” the Dardanelles without the permission -and then, when her Algiers shall be of the Czar-unable to obtain the payextensive and mighty-when Tunis ment of the tribute of centuries from and Tripoli shall be levelled to the Egypt-cajoled out of Walachia and dust-when nothing shall stand in Moldavia, and tricked out of Syria, the way of a French attack on Egypt, Greece, and Egypt-reduced by the -when Asia Minor or Cyprus shall treaty of Kutahai to a mere fourthbe valuable and gainable acquisitions, rate European power-and by the --then France will discover that the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi to play the Eastern question is European as well part of a municipal governor at Conas Asiatic, and the ports of Toulon, stantinople ;-this Sultan is to be the Marseilles, Bona, Algiers, Tunis, &c., suzerain and president of an Oriental will pour forth her vassals to the Me- confederation. diterranean war. As, however, the From the pretensions and policy of projects of France for the future France, if we turn to those of RUSSIA “settlement” of the affairs of the with regard to the Porte and to the East it was necessary to keep from question of the East, we shall find public observation, and as every one nothing to encourage or to cheer. feels that the Eastern question is now,
• Russia," said M. de Boutenief in 1839, one that admits not of delay, (the Russian ambassador at ConstanFrance has invented the following tinople)—“ Russia had no middle scheme or project, which we have course to take between these two called flimsy, idle, chimerical, and parts either to be the first friend or false. It is that of an EASTERN Con. the first enemy of the Porte." And
feeling this to be her position, Russia “ An Oriental confederation, which is equally ready to play either part, shall unite under the hardy and de- as her interests and as circumstances cided protection of Western Europe may point out: for in the Crimea and all the scattered members of the an. at Odessa she has always a fleet and cient Ottoman empire ;— Egypt, by an army, ready to hasten to protect, the title of hereditary pachalick; or equally to hasten to crush, the Greece, as an independent kingdom; dying remains of the Ottoman Porte. Walachia and Moldavia by the title But what means M. de Boutenief of Hospodorates ; with Constantinople by Russia being the “first friend of for the centre and the capital, and the the Porte?" What has been the avowed Sultan Mahmoud for suzerain and policy of Russia towards the Ottoman president ;-aconfederation of this sort empire from the time of Peter the would certainly be infinitely better Great downwards? The policy of enthan the impossible resurrection of the croachment. “ Yes,” says M. Pozzo integrity of Ottoman empire.”
di Borgo, “ but not that of the enThis is the scheme of the French croachment of others-only of her Government, court, and perhaps dy- own." This is not strictly true_for dasty. One more senseless could not if so, how happened it that Russia be devised—and an élève of the college consented to the treaty of Kutahia. of Henri IV. would have merited dry The alphabet is not so commonly bread and close confinement had such known in Russia as the fact, that the been his plan in reply to the question Government of that country has for of his historical professor,-i What centuries kept one object steadily in
view—the making Constantinople the fluence to prevent a collision between southern capital of the Russian empire. Great Britain and Russia. Thus the The policy of Russia has been to labour of six years has been on the part weaken Turkey, since by so acting it of France, England, Austria, and rendered, on the one hand, resistance to Turkey, to gain time; and on that of her plans impracticable, and, on the Russia and Egypt to push on the adother hand, it got rid of the chance of vantages secured by their respective one day being opposed by a rival em- treaties. Turkey has endeavoured in pire.
vain, single-handed, to regain possesAnd if we look at the histories of sion of Syria by means of the revolt of the wars of Russia with the Ottoman the Druses. Ibrahim Pacha has prePorte, one prominent fact will strike served his conquests; and his father us, and that is, that she always under- Mehemet Ali has been willing to make took and carried on these wars when every sacrifice to preserve Syria. Europe was engaged with other and Two thousand years ago, says Mehemore pressing subjects. The reason met, Alexander the Great marched was evident. Her wars with the against Egypt before proceeding to Porte have not been those of venge- submit Upper Asia to his dominions. ance, of sudden and quick quarre), of There is a mysterious connexion, he the wrath of an enemy who has been maintains, between Syria and Egypt. provoked to combat, and who seeks to The Lagides of Alexandria and Seleu. satisfy the demands of his dignity and cides of Antioch were ceaselessly at his honour. Nothing of the sort. war, he will tell you, for the same reaThe wars of Russia against the Porte, Egypt is only an empire when especially those of the last hundred she has Syria,” exclaimed Ibrahim. years, have been those of deliberate “ My father was the Pacha of the Sulencroachmentonits territory-of asys- tan till I was master of Aleppo," cried tematic resolution to weaken its power this same mighty warrior; “but now and diminish its influence; not all at he is the Emperor of the East !” once, so as to create anxiety or alarm, When Russia was informed of the but by degrees--now a little and then intention of Mehemet Ali to proclaim a little-sometimes laying by for a the independence of Egypt, her reply series of years, but always returning was just such as might have been antito the charge. The policy of Russia cipated. If, said the Russian Govern. towards Poland has been of a similar ment, this event shall occur, and the character. Thus Russia has, by de- fleets of France and of England shall grees, destroyed the nationality of blockade the coasts of Egypt and Syboth countries. In pursuance of this ria, and shall obtain the revocation of system of gradual destruction, or of their independence, Russia will make gradual incorporation, Russia obtain- no demonstration to succour the Porte; ed the treaty of Adrianople, and sub- but, on the contrary, if the fleets of sequently that of Unkiar Skelessi. England and of France shall remain From that moment she proclaimed neutral, Russia will find herself obligherself the guardian of the Porte- ed, in conformity with the treaty of and Turkey became not the ward but Unkiar Skelessi, to afford her aid. the vassal of the Russian empire. Thus faithful to her immemorial poSince the signature of the last-named licy of considering the affairs of the treaty, six years have passed away- East as independent of those of Euand we now approach the considera. rope, she separated her cause and her tion of the present position of affairs. policy from those of the other powers, Turkey, bound down, fettered, and resolved, as she was, to pursue her feeling her chains, has been, on the one course of gradual but effective enhand, solicitous of destroying the croachment, until the moment should treaty of Kutahia, whilst Egypt has arrive when Constantinople should bebeen endeavouring to extend its ef- come the southern residence of the fects and advantages. England has Czar. In the East, Russia will be been anxious to diminish the evil con- ambitious at her ease ; always ambisequences of the treaty of Unkiar Ske- tious, and always progressing, but by lessi, whilst Russia has sought to degrees - slowly-surely—and never fortify it.
France and Austria, su. for one moment deviating from her premely anxious to avert a general purpose. It was, therefore, that in war, as neither power was prepared to 1828, in her famous manifesto, she engage in it, have exerted all their in, proclaimed—“Que nul pacte de garantie, nulle solidairte politique, ne cept its provisions, or that, accepting rattachent les destinées de l'Empire them, they would ruin his revenue. Ottoman aux stipulations réparatrices The consequences have been different. de 1814 et de 1815." Russia will The Pacha would not quarrel with never allow that the concerns and in England by refusing to accept the terests of Turkey can be discussed treaty, nor with his subjects, by fulfil. and decided on by European powers. ling its conditions. As far as Egypt is Turkey is always “the East," in the concerned, the treaty of commerce is eyes of the Court of St Petersburgh ; a dead letter. and the Emperors Alexander and The Czar, during the last year or Nicolas have within the last twenty two, has acted with even more than years, on several occasions, declared ordinary prudence in the affairs of the that, geographically as well as politi- East. Perceiving that the attention cally, Russia was the protectress of the of Great Britain and France was not Porte. Russia insists that the treaty wholly occupied with the affairs of of Unkiar Skelessi was a natural Western Europe, the Emperor of and necessary Oriental arrangement. Russia has contented himself with pre“ Settle the affairs of Spain as you paring fleets, organizing armies, rewill,” the present Czar is reported to fusing to make any concessions to have said to an ambassador of France, either of the powers in question, or to 6 but leave the affairs of the East to the Porte as to the treaty of Unkiar the East itself." This policy, if ac- Skelessi ; and has not thrown any very quiesced in, would tend to destroy the important difficulties in the way of the commercial relations of Great Britain negotiations of those powers with the and France, and would reduce those Sultan for commercial treaties, because powers to the mere secondary parts of he has felt that his relations with the watching the movements of their ter- Porte were of a very different cha. ritorial neighbours.
racter. The treaty of Unkiar Skelessi de- The conduct of Austria, during the stroyed the independence of Turkey, last six years, has been embarassed under the pretext of saving the integ- and contradictory. This is easily unrity of its territory; and the posses- derstood. Austria has no sympathy sion of the Bosphorus, with all its at- with France either as to French policy tendant advantages, has been one of or French political institutions, or as to the consequences of that treaty. The the affairs of Belgium, Holland, Spain, Governments which acquiesced in the or Italy ; but Austria owes some obtreaty of Unkiar Skelessi, or which, if ligations to Louis-Philippe for his conthey did not acquiesce in, did not duct with reference to Switzerland, oppose, its conditions by an armed and for the expulsion of demagogues resistance, have been, for six years, and propagandists from those cantons seeking to modify or to mitigate its -and Austria has an interest in mainprovisions. This has been the labour taining the status qun in Turkey. of the diplomatists of France, Great Austria thinks with Russia on all Britain, and Austria—but especially northern and on all western questions ; of Great Britain. Has it been suc- but on the question of the East she cessful ? No. The treaty subsists. thinks with France; not that their The treaties of commerce concluded interests are similar-not that their between the Porte and the Govern- ultimate views have the least resemments of St James's and the Tuileries, blance; but for the moment Austria have in no respect changed the poli- would prefer a total inaction on the tical relations of Constantinople and part of the more immediate combaSt Petersburgh; and the Czar is as tants, Mahmoud and Mehemet Ali; much as ever the " ' protector of the and is one of the loudest in demanding Sultan" and the master of the Bos. the status quo. The recent commer. phorus. These are hard truths to be cial treaty between Great Britain and told and sad verities to be recorded ; Austria, is said to have modified the but truth cannot gain from conceal views of the court of Vienna as to ment. The commercial treaty of Lord Eastern affairs, and that she is more Ponsonby was not without its merits; disposed than ever to think and to act but it has not produced the results with England. We are not disposed which the Sultan anticipated. He to place much confidence in this report. believed that the Pacha would not ac- Austria possesses a wise and prudent
government, which acts on fixed and preoccupied by other more pressing conservative principles, and the events interests. Turkey feels that her exof recent years have not been of a cha- istence depends on the annulling of racter, either in England or Ireland, the treaty of Kutahia. Egypt is preto afford her satisfaction or encourage- pared to risk all her future hopes and ment. But as a prudent and wise go present greatness in the defence of vernment, Austria has felt that the that treaty, and in the retention of moment had not arrived for making Syria. The English Government any hostile demonstration on the sub- . wishes to secure to itself the favour ject of the Russian influence at Con- of Mehemet Ali, and his friendship stantinople ; and although she would in our overland arrangements for Inhave no objection to find Bosnia and dia, by promising him that the throne Albania in her possession, yet she of Egypt shall be hereditary in his would not purchase that possession at family. As the price of this negotiathe price of the capture by Russia of tion, it has obtained a treaty of comthe capital of the Ottoman empire. merce, which will be a dead letter, and To her, indeed, the neutrality of the has the adjournment, for the moment Bosphorus is of the last importance, at least, of the Pacha's intention of as the Bosphorus is the issue of the declaring Egypt and Syria independDanube ; and on the liberty of that ent of the Porte. But this adjourn. mighty stream depends the future ment is only momentary; and Mehemet commercial and political prosperity of Ali, since his return to Alexandria Austria. But the Court of Vienna from the gold mines of Fachiangora, deliberates before it acts, and reflects has declared, “ that from the day that long and deeply before it negotiates. the Porte shall attack his power in It is fully convinced what are its inte. Syria, he will proclaim the independrests, and it will steadily maintain ence of Egypt." France has acquithem. Still its maritime interests in esced in the hereditary demand of the Eastern question are, for the time, Mehemet Ali, but has protested against of less importance than the gradual the notion of the independence of the and general tranquillizing of its Po- Pacha from the suzeraineté of the lish, and its Italian and Tyrolean Sultan ; and even at the price of her states; and, unless in the event of a support to the hereditary question of general war, Austria will not take any Egypt, she has insisted on a treaty of very important part in the Eastern commerce, and on the payment by question. The future government of the Pacha of the khazneh or tribute France, the settlement of the Hanove. to the Porte. The payment of the rian question, the gradual calming khazneh has, however, been refused down of the Germanic states, the ques. by the Pacha within the last few tion of Spain and Portugal, and the weeks—and Mehemet Ali replied to progress of democracy in some of the the Consul-General of Russia, when Swiss cantons, are of much more im- charged to press this payment upon portance to Austria than the destinies him, “ That under present circumof Syria, or the hereditary govern. stances, the Sultan might wait for the ment of the Pacha of Egypt. The payment of the tribute, since, as the day will come, and that perhaps Porte had manifested its hostile intensooner than Austria desires, when the tions towards Egypt, it would be imincreasing power of Russia in the east politic on his part to supply him with and south of Europe, as well as in the means of realizing more promptly Asia, must attract the attention, and his inimical designs.' engage the mind, of the Court of But what were these hostile inten. Vienna ; but, we repeat, for the pre. tions of the Porte towards the Pacha, sent she is more alive to the events in which have led the latter to make Western and Central Europe, than to this declaration ? Let us see. If we those of the East or of the South. strip of all its verbiage and repetitions
The present state of the Eastern the intelligence we have received for question now opens broadly to our some weeks past from Alexandria, view, Russia requires that the treaty Aleppo, Beyruth, and Constantiof Unkiar Skelessi shall remain in- nople, it amounts to this, that a large tact. England and France desire its body of the Turkish army, without modification. Austria looks on, not any apparent or satisfactory motive, with indifference, but with a mind has crossed the Euphrates at Byr, on