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exemplification, showing any person to be naturalized or admitted to be a citizen, whether heretofore or hereafter issued or made, which has been issued to or in the name of any other person or in a fictitious name, or in the name of a deceased person.

(16) To use or attempt to use any certificate of arrival, declaration of intention, certificate of naturalization, certificate of citizenship, or other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship heretofore or which may hereafter be issued or granted, knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited, or antedated, or to have been procured by fraud or by false evidence, or without appearance or hearing of the applicant in court where such appearance and hearing are required, or otherwise unlawfully obtained.

(17) To aid, assist, or participate in the use of any certificate of arrival, declaration of intention, certificate of naturalization, certificate of citizenship, or other documentary eyidence of naturalization or of citizenship heretofore or which may hereafter be issued or granted, knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited, or antedated, or to have been procured by fraud or by false evidence, or without appearance or hearing of the applicant in court where such appearance and hearing are required, or otherwise unlawfully obtained.

(18) Knowingly to falsely represent himself to be a citizen of the United States without having been naturalized or admitted to citizenship, or without otherwise being a citizen of the United States.

(19) Knowingly, with the intent to avoid any duty or liability imposed or required by law, to deny that he has been naturalized or admitted to be a citizen, after having been so naturalized or admitted.

(20) To engrave, without lawful authority, any plate in the likeness of any plate designed for the printing of a declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship.

(21) To cause or procure to be engraved, without lawful authority, any plate in the likeness of any plate designed for the printing of a declaration of intencion, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship.

(22) To assist in engraving, without lawful authority, any plate in the likeness of any plate designed for the printing of a declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship.

(23) To sell any plate in the likeness of any plate designed for the printing of a declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship, except by direction of the Commissioner or other proper officer of the United States.

(24) To bring into the United States from any foreign place any plate in the likeness of any plate designed for the printing of a declaration of intention, certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship, except by direction of the Commissioner or other proper officer of the United States.

(25) To have in the control, custody, or possession of any such alien or other person, any metallic plate engraved after the similitude of any plate from which any declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship, has been or is to be printed, with intent to use or to suffer such plate to be used in forging or counterfeiting any such declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or other documentary evidence or any part thereof.

(26) To bring into the United States from any foreign place, except by direction of the Commissioner or other proper officer of the United States, any declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship, printed from any metallic plate engraved after the similitude of any plate from which any declaration of intention, certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or any other documentary evidence of naturalization or of citizenship has been or is to be printed.

(27) To have in his possession. without lawful authority, any blank certificate of arrival. blank declaration of intention, or blank certificate of naturalization or of citizenship, provided by the Service, with the intent unlawfully to use the same.

(28) To have in his possession a distinctive paper which has been adopted by the proper officer or agency of the United States for the printing or engraving of any declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization or of citizenship, with intent unlawfully to use the same.

(29) To print, photograph, make, or execute, or in any manner cause to be printed, photographed, made, or executed, without lawful authority, any print or impression in the likeness of any certificate of arrival, declaration of intention, or certificate of naturalization or of citizenship, or any part thereof.

(30) Knowingly to procure or attempt to procure an alien or other person to violate any of the provisions of this chapter.

(31) Failing, after at least sixty days' notice, by the appropriate court or the Commissioner or a Deputy Commissioner, to surrender a certificate of naturalization or citizenship which has been canceled, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, such person having such certificate in his possession or under his control.

(32) Knowingly to certify that an applicant, declarant, petitioner, affiant, witness, deponent, or other person named in an application, declaration, petition, affidavit, deposition, or certificate of naturalization, or certificate of citizenship, or other paper or writing required or authorized to be executed or used under the provisions of this chapter, personally appeared before the person making such certification and was sworn thereto or acknowledged the execution thereof, or signed the same, when in fact such applicant, declarant, petitioner, affiant, witness, deponent, or other person, did not personally appear before the person making such certification, or was not sworn thereto, or did not execute the same, or did not acknowledge the execution thereof.

(33) Knowingly to demand, charge, solicit, collect, or receive, or agree to charge, solicit, collect, or receive any other or additional fees or moneys in naturalization or citizenship or other proceedings under this chapter than the fees and moneys specified in such chapter.

(34) Willfully to neglect to render true accounts of moneys received by any clerk of a naturalization court or such clerk's assistant or any other person under this chapter or willfully to neglect to pay over any balance of such moneys due to the United States within thirty days after said payment shall become due and demand therefor has been made and refused, which neglect shall constitute embezzlement of the public moneys.

(b) The provisions of this section shall apply to copies and duplicates of certificates of arrival, of declarations of intention, of certificates of naturalization, of certificates of citizenship, and of other documents required or authorized by the naturalization laws and citizenship laws as well as to the originals of such certificates of arrival, declarations of intention, certificates of naturalization, certificates of citizenship, and other documents, whether issued by any court or by the Commissioner or a Deputy Commissioner.

(c) The provisions of this section shall apply to all proceedings had or taken or attempted to be had or taken, before any court specified in subsection (a) of section 301, or any court, in which proceedings for naturalization may have been or may be commenced or attempted to be commenced, and whether or not such court at the time such proceedings were had or taken was vested by law with jurisdiction in naturalization proceedings.

(d) Any person violating any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(e) Any person who has been subpenaed under the provisions of subsection (d) of section 309 to appear on the final hearing of a petition for naturalization, and who shall neglect or refuse to so appear and to testify, if in the power of such person to do so, shall be subject to the penalties prescribed by subsection (d) of this section.

(f) If any person shall use the endorsement “Official Business” authorized by section 343 to avoid payment of postage or registry fee on a private letter, package, or other matter in the mail, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine of $300, to be prosecuted in any court of competent jurisdiction.

(g) No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any crime arising under the provisions of this chapter unless the indictment is found or the information is filed within five years next after the commission of such crime.

(h) For the purpose of the prosecution of all crimes and offenses against the naturalization or citizenship laws of the United States which may have been committed prior to the date when this chapter shall go into effect. the existing naturalization and citizenship laws shall remain in full force and effect.

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(i) It shall be lawful and admissible as evidence in any proceedings founded under this chapter, or any of the penal or criminal provisions of the immigration, naturalization or citizenship laws, for any officer or employee of the United States to render testimony as to any statement voluntarily made to such officer or employee in the course of the performance of the official duties of such officer or employee by any defendant at the time of or subsequent to the alleged commission of any crime or offense referred to in this section which may tend to show that such defendant did not or could not have had knowledge of any matter concerning which such defendant is shown to have made affidavit, or oath, or to have been a witness pursuant to such law or laws.

(j) In case any clerk of court shall refuse or neglect to comply with any of the provisions of section 337 (a), (b), (c), or (d), such clerk of court shall forfeit and pay to the United States the sum of $25 in each and every case in which such violation or omission occurs, and the amount of such forfeiture may be recovered by the United States in an action of debt against such clerk.

(k) If any clerk of court shall fail to return to the Service or properly account for any certificate of naturalization furnished by the Service as provided in subsection (e) of section 337, such clerk of court shall be liable to the United States in the sum of $50, to be recovered in an action of debt, for each and every such certificate not properly accounted for or returned.

(1) The provisions of subsections (a), (b), (d), (g), (h), and (i) of this section shall apply in respect of the application for and the record of registry authorized by section 328, in the same manner and to the same extent, including penalties, as they apply in any naturalization or citizenship proceeding or any other proceeding under section 346.

SAVING CLAUSES

SEÇ. 347. (a) Nothing contained in either chapter III or in chapter V of this Act, unless otherwise provided therein, shall be construed to affect the validity of any declaration of intention, petition for naturalization, certificate of naturalization or of citizenship, or other document or proceeding which shall be valid at the time this Act shall take effect; or to affect any prosecution, suit, action, or proceedings, civil or criminal, brought, or any act, thing, or matter, civil or criminal, done or existing, at the time this Act shall take effect; but as to all such prosecutions, suits, actions, proceedings, acts, things, or matters, the statutes or parts of statutes repealed by this Act, are hereby continued in force and effect.

(b) Any petition for naturalization heretofore filed which may be pending at the time this chapter shall take effect shall be heard and determined within two years thereafter in accordance with the requirements of law in effect when such petition was filed.

CHAPTER IV-LOSS OF NATIONALITY

SEC. 401. A person who is a national of the United States, whether by birth or naturalization, shall lose his nationality by :

(a) Obtaining naturalization in a foreign state, either upon his own application or through the naturalization of a parent having legal custody of such person; or

(b) Taking an oath or making an affirmation or other formal declaration of allegiance to a foreign state; or

(c) Entering, or serving in, the armed forces of a foreign state unless expressly authorized by the laws of the United States; or

(d) Accepting, or performing the duties of, any office, post, or employment under the government of a foreign state or political subdivision thereof for which only nationals of such state are eligible; or

(e) Voting in a political election in a foreign state or participating in an election or plebiscite to determine the sovereignty over foreign territory; or

(f) Making a formal renunciation of nationality before a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States in a foreign state, in such form as may be prescribed by the Secretary of State; or

(g) Deserting the military or naval service of the United States in time of war, provided he is convicted thereof by a court martial.

SEC. 402. A national of the United States who was born in any incorporated territory of the United States or who was born in any place outside of the jurisdiction of the United States of a parent who was born in any incorporated

territory of the United States, shall be presumed to have expatriated himsell under subsection (c) or (d) of section 401, when he shall remain for six months or longer within any foreign state of which he or either of his parents shall have been a national according to the laws of such foreign state, or within any place under control of such foreign state, and such presumption shall exist until overcome whether or not the individual has returned to the United States. Sucht presumption may be overcome on the presentation of satisfactory evidence to a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States, or to an immigration officer of the United States, under such rules and regulations as the Department of State and the Department of Labor jointly prescribe. However, no such presumption shall arise with respect to any officer or employee of the United States while serving abroad as such officer or employee, nor to any accompanying member of his family.

SEC. 403. (a) Except as provided in subsection (g) of section 401, no national can expatriate himself, or be expatriated, under this section while within the United States or any of its outlying possessions, but expatriation shall result from the performance within the United States or any of its outlying possessions of any of the acts or the fulfillment of any of the conditions specified in this section if and when the national thereafter takes up a residence abroad.

(b) No national under eighteen years of age can expatriate himself under subsections (b) to (g) inclusive, of section 401.

SEC. 404. A person who has become a national by naturalization shall lose his nationality by :

(a) Residing for at least two years in the territory of a foreign state of which he was formerly a national or in which the place of his birth is situated, if he acquires through such residence the nationality of such foreign state by operation of the law thereof; or

(b) Residing continuously for three years in the territory of a foreign state of which he was formerly a national or in which the place of his birth is situated, except as provided in section 406 hereof.

(c) Residing continuously for five years in any other foreign state, except as provided in section 406 hereof.

SEC. 405. Section 404 shall have no application to a person :

(a) Who resides abroad in the employment and under the orders of the Government of the United States ;

(b) Who is receiving compensation from the Government of the United States and residing abroad on account of disability incurred in its service. ,

SEC. 406. Subsections (b) and (c) of section 404 shall have no application to a person :

(a) Who shall have resided in the United States not less than twenty-five year's subsequent to his naturalization and shall have attained the age of sixty-five years when the foreign residence is established ;

(b) Who is residing abroad upon the date of the approval of this Act, or who is thereafter sent abroad, and resides abroad temporarily solely or principally to represent a bona fide American educational, scientific, philanthropic, religious, commercial, or financial organization, having its principal office or place of business in the United States, or an international agency of an official character in which the United States participates, for which he receives a substantial compensation;

(c) Who is residing abroad on account of ill health;

(d) Who is residing abroad for the purpose of pursuing studies of a specialized character or attending an institution of learning of a grade above that of a preparatory school, provided that such residence does not exceed five years;

(e) Who is the wife, husband, or child under twenty-one years of age, and is residing abroad for the purpose of being with a naturalized spouse or parent who comes within the scope of section 405 or subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) hereof;

(f) Who was born in the United States or one of its outlying possessions, who originally had American nationality, and who, after having lost such nationality through marriage to an alien, reacquired it.

SEC. 407. A person having American nationality, who is a minor and is residing in a foreign state with or under the legal custody of a parent who loses American nationality under section 404 of this chapter, shall at the same time lose his American nationality if such minor has or acquires the nationality of such foreign state: Provided, That, in such case, American nationality shall not be lost as the result of loss of American nationality by the parent unless and

until the child attains the age of twenty-three years without having acquired permanent residence in the United States.

SEC. 408. The loss of nationality under this chapter shall result solely from the performance by a national of the acts or fulfillment of the conditions specified in this chapter.

SET 409. Nationality shall not be lost under the provisions of section 404 or 407 of this chapter until the expiration of one year following the date of the approval of this Act: Provided, however, That a naturalized person who shall have become subject to the presumption that he has ceased to be an American citizen as provided for in the second paragraph of section 2 of the Act of March 2, 1907 (34 Stat. 1228), and who shall not have overcome it under the rules in effect immediately preceding the date of the approval of this Act, shall continue to be subject to such presumption for the period of one year following the date of the approval of this Act unless it is overcome during such period.

SEC. 410. Nothing in this chapter shall be applied in contravention of the provisions of any treaty or convention to which the United States is a party upon the date of the approval of this Act.

CHAPTER V-MISCELLANEOUS

SEO. 501. Whenever a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States has reason to believe that a person while in a foreign state has lost his American nationality under any provision of chapter IV of this Act, he shall certify the facts upon which such belief is based to the Department of State, in writing, under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of State. If the report of the diplomatic or consular officer is approved by the Secretary of State, a copy of the certificate shall be forwarded to the Department of Labor, for its information, and the diplomatic or consular office in which the report was made shall be directed to forward a copy of the certificate to the person to whom it relates.

SEC. 502. The Secretary of State is hereby authorized to issue, in his discretion and in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by him, a certificate of nationality for any person not a naturalized citizen of the United States who presents satisfactory evidence that he is an American national and that such certificate is needed for use in judicial or administrative proceedings of a foreign state. Such certificate shall be solely for use in the case for which it was issued and shall be transmitted by the Secretary of State through appropriate official channels to the judicial or administrative officers of the foreign state in which it is to be used.

SEC. 503. The following Acts or parts of Acts are hereby repealed :
Section 1992, Revised Statutes (U. S. C., title 8, sec. 1):

Section 1993, Revised Statutes, as amended by section 1, Act of May 24, 1934 (48 Stat. 797 ; U. S. C., title 8, sec. 6);

Section 2166, Revised Statutes, as limited by section 2, Act of May 9, 1918 (40 Stat. 546-547; U. S. C., title 8, sec. 395);

Section 2172, Revised Statutes (U. S. C., title 8, sec, 7);

Section 100, Act of April 30, 1900 (31 Stat. 161 ; U. S. C., title 8, sec. 385 (first paragraph));

Act of June 29, 1906, chapter 3592 (34 Stat. 596) (except subdivisions 6 and 8 of section 4 and sections 10, 16, 17, 19, and 26 thereof), as added to, supplemented, or amended by section 1, Act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. 829) ; section 1, and second paragraph of section 3, Act of May 9, 1918 (40 Stat. 512-546, 547, 548) ; Act of June 8, 1926 (44 Stat. 709) ; section 4, Act of February 25, 1927 (44 Stat. 1235) ; Act of March 2, 1929 (45 Stat. 1512) (except sections 6 (e) and section 7 (b) thereof); section 1, Act of March 4, 1929 (45 Stat. 1545); Act of June 21, 1930 (46 Stat. 791); sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 (a), Act of March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1511); Act of May 25, 1932 (47 Stat. 165) (except sections 1, 5, and 7 thereof); and Act of April 19. 1934 (48 Stat. 597) ; United States Code, title 8, sections 18, 106, 106a, 106b, 106c, 351, 352, 353, 354, 356, 357, 358, 358a, 360, 364, 365, 372, 373, 377, 377c, 378, 37), 380, 380b, 381, 392, 381, 386, 387, 388, 389, 391, 392, 393, 394, 396, 397, 398, 339, 399a, 399b (a), 399b: (b), 399b (c), 39b (d), 39\c (a), 3996 (b), 399C (c), 3990, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, and 415;

Sections 2, 5, 6, and 7, Act of March 2, 1907 (34 Stat. 1228, 1229), as amended by section 2, Act of May 24, 1934 (48 Stat. 797; U. S. C., title 8, secs. 8, 16, and 17):

Sections 74 to 81, inclusive, Act of March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. 1102–1103; U. S. C., title 18, secs. 135 and 137 to 143, inclusive);

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