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being a friend to any of his profession) an intimate friend of the archbishop's asking him, among other discourse, what his present apprehensions were concerning a very great persecution which should fall upon the church of God in those nations of England, Scotland, and Ireland (of which he had heard him speak with great confidence many years before, when we were in the highest and fullest state of outward peace and settlement) and whether he did believe those sad times to be past, or that they were yet to come? he answered, that they were yet to come, and that he did as confidently expect it as ever he had done: adding, that this sad persecution would fall upon all the protestant churches of Europe. His friend arguing, that he hoped the affliction might now be over, and be intended of our late calamitous civil wars; the reverend prelate turning towards him, and fixing his eyes upon him, with that serious and severe look, which he usually had when he spoke God's Word, and not his own, and when the power of God seemed to be upon him ,and to constrain him to speak, said thus: Fool not yourselves with such hopes, for I tell you, all, you have yet seen, hath been but the beginning of sorrows, to what is yet to come upon the protestant churches of Christ, who will, before long, fall under a sharper persecution than ever yet has been upon them; therefore said he to him, look you be not found in the outward court, but a worshiper in the temple before the altar, for Christ will measure all those that profess his name, and call themselves his people; and outward worshipers he will leave out, to be trodden down by the Gentiles. The outward court, says he, is the formal christian, whose religion lies in performing the outside duties of Christianity, without having an inward life and power of faith and love, uniting them to Christ, and those God will leave to be trodden down, and swept away by the Gentiles: but the worshipers within the temple, and before the altar, are those who do indeed worship God in spirit and in truth, whose souls are made his temples, and he is honoured and adored in the most inward thoughts of their hearts, and they sacrifice their lusts and vile affections, yea, and their own wills to him; and these God will hide in the hollow of his hand, and under the shadow of his wings? And this shall be one great difference between this last, and all the other preceding persecutions: for, in the former, the most eminent and spiritual ministers and christians did generally suffer most, and were most violently fallen upon; but in this last persecution, these shall be preserved by God, as a seed to partake of that glory which shall immediately follow, and come upon the church, as soon as ever this storm shall be over; for as it shall be the sharpest, so it shall be the shortest persecution of them all; and shall only take away the gross hypocrites, and formal professors, but the true spiritual believers shall be preserved till the calamity be over-past. His friend then asked him, by what means or instruments this great trial should be brought on? He answered, by the papists. His friend replied, that it seemed very improbable they should be able to do it, since they were now little countenanced, and but few In, these nations, and that the hearts of the people were more set against them, than ever since the reformation. He answered again, that it would be by the hands of the papists, and in the way of a sudden massacre, and that the then pope should be the chief instrument of it.

He also added, that the papists were, in his opinion, the Gentiles spoken of, Rev. xi. to whom the outward court should be left, that they might tread it under foot; they having received the Gentiles worship in their adoring images, and saints departed, and in taking to themselves many mediators: and this, said he, the papists are now designing among themselves, and therefore be sure you be ready.

This gracious man repeated the same things in substance to his only daughter, the lady Tyrril, and that with many tears, and much about the same time.

A Letter from Sir William Boszscll, to the most Reverend William Laud, late Archbishop of Canterbury, remaining with Sir Robert Cotton's choice Papers.

Most reverend, As I am here employed by our sovereign lord the king, your grace can testify that I have left no stone unturned for his majesty's ad. vancement; neither can I omit (whenever I meet with treacheries or conspiracies against the church and state of England) the sending your grace an account in general. I fear matters will not answer your expectations, if your grace do but seriously weigh them with deliberation. For, be you assured, the Romish clergy have gulled the misled party of our English nation, and that under a puritanical dress; for which the several fraternities of that church have lately received indulgence from the see of Rome, and council of cardinals, or to educate several of the young fry of the church of Rome, who are natives of his majesty's realms and dominions, and instruct them in all manner of principles and tenents, contrary to the episcopacy of the church of England.

There are in the town of Hague, to my certain knowledge, two dangerous impostors, of whom I have given notice to the Prince of Orange, who have large indulgences granted them, and known to be of the church of Rome, although they seem puritans, and do coru »erse with several of our English factors.

The one, James Murray, a Scotchman, and the other John Napper, a Yorkshire blade. The main drift of these intentions is, to pull down the English episcopacy, as being the chief support of the imperial crown of our nation: for which purpose, above sixty Romish clergymen are gone, within these two years, out of the monasteries of the French king's dominions, to preach up the Scotch covenant, and Mr. Knox's descriptions and rules within that kirk, and to spread the same about the northern coasts of England. Let, therefore, his majesty have an inkling of these crotchets, that h$ might be persuaded, whenever matters of the church come before you, to refer them to your grace, and the episcopal party of the realm: for there are great preparations making ready against the liturgy and ceremonies of the church of England: and all evil con. trivances here and in France, and in other protestant holdings, to make your grace and the episcopacy odious to all reformed protes. tants abroad. It has wrought so much on divers of the foreign ministers of the protestants, that they esteem our clergy little better than papists. The main things that they hit in our teeth are, our bishops to be called lords; the service of the church, the cross in baptism, confirmation, bowing at the name of Jesus, the communion tables placed alter-ways, our manner of consecrations, and several other matters which are of late buzzed into the heads of the foreign clergy, to make your grievances the less regarded in case of a change, which is aimed at, if not speedily prevented. Your grace's letter is carefully delivered, by my gentleman's own hands, unto the prince.

Thus craving your grace's hearty prayers for my undertakings abroad, as also for my safe arrival, that I may have the freedom to kiss your grace's hands, and to tell you more at large of these things, I rest

Your grace's most humble servant,

W. B. Hague, June 12, 1640,

A Letter from the Right Reverend John Bramhall, Bishop of Derry, afterwards Primate of Ireland, to the most Reverend James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh.

Most reverend, I Thank God I do take my pilgrimage patiently, yet I cannot but condole the change of the church and state of England; and more in my pilgrimage than ever, because I dare not witness and declare to that straying flock of our brethren in England, who have misled them, and who they are that feed them. But that your lordship may be more sensible of the church's calamities, and of the dangers she is in of being ruined, if God be not merciful unto her, I have sent you a part of my discoveries, and it from credible hands, at this present having so sure a messenger, and so fit an opportunity.

It plainly appears, that in the year 1646, by order from Rome, above one-hundred of the Romish clergy were sent into England, consisting of English, Scotch, and Irish, who had been educated in France, Italy, Germany, and Spain; part of these within the several schools there appointed for their instructions. In each of these Romish nurseries, these scholars were taught several handicraft. trades and callings, as their ingenuities were most bending, besides their orders, or functions of that church.

They have many yet at Paris a fitting up to be sent over, who twice in the week oppose one another; one pretending presbytery, the other independency; some anabaptism, and other contrary tenents, dangerous and prejudicial to the church of England, and to all the reformed churches here abroad. But they are wisely preparing to prevent these designs, which I heartily wish were considered in England among the wise there. When the Romish orders do thus argue pro and con, there is appointed one of the learned of those convents, to take notes, and to judge: and, as he finds their fancies, whether for presbytery, independency,anabaptism, atheism, or for any new tenents, soaccordingly they are to act, and to exercise their wits. Upon their permission when they be sent abroad, they enter their names in the convent registery, also their licenses: if a Franciscan, if a Dominican, or Jesuit, or any other order, having several names there entered in their license; in case of a discovery in one place, then to fly to another, and there to change their names or habit. For an assurance of their constancy to their several orders, they are to give monthly intelligence to their fraternities, of all affairs, wherever they be dispersed: so that the English abroad know news better than you at home. When they return into England, they are taught their lesson, to say, if any enquire from whence they come, that they were poor christians formerly that fled beyond sea for their religion sake, and are now returned, with glad news, to enjoy their liberty of conscience. The hundred men, that went over in 1646, were most of them soldiers in the parliament's army, and were daily to correspond with those Romanists in our late king's army, that were lately at Oxford, and pretended to fight for his sacred majesty; for, at that time, there were some Roman Catholicks, who did not know the design contriving against our church and state of England. But the year following, 1647, many of those Romish orders, who came over the year before, were in consultation together, knowing each other. And those of the king's party, asking some, why they took with the parliament side, and asking others, whether they were bewitched to turn puritans? not knowing their design: but, at last, secret bulls, and licenses being produced, by those of the parliament's side, it was declared between them, there was no better design to confound the church of England, than by pretending liberty of conscience. It was argued then, that England would be a second Holland, a commonwealth; and, if so, what would become of the king? It was answered, would to God it were come to that point. It was again replied, yourselves have preached so much against Rome, and his holiness, that Rome, and her Romanists, will be little the better for that change: but it was answered, you shall have mass sufficient for an hundred-thousand in a short space, and the governors never the wiser. Then some of the mercifullest of the Romanists said, this cannot be done, unless the king die: upon which argument, the Romish orders thus licensed, and in the parliament army, wrote unto their several convents, but especially to the Sorbonists, whether it may be scrupled to make away our late godlyking, and his majesty his son, our king and master, who,blessed be God, hath escaped their Romish snares laid for him? It was returned from the Sorbonists, that it was lawful for Roman Catholicks to work changes in governments for the mother-church's advancement, and chiefly in an heretical kingdom; and so lawfully make away the king.


Thus much, to my knowledge, have I seen and heard, since my leaving your lordship, which I thought very requisite to inform your grace; for myself would hardly have credited these things, had not mine eyes seen sure evidence of the same. Let these things sleep within your gracious lordship's breast, and not awake but upon sure grounds, for this age can trust no man, there being so great fallacy amongst men. So the Lord preserve your lordship in health, for the nation's good, and the benefit of your friends; which shall be the prayers of

Your humble servant,

J. Derensis.

July 20, 1654.

These two letters were taken out of that treasury of choice letters, published by Dr. Parr, his lordship's chaplain, and printed for Nathaniel Ranew, at the King's-Arms, in St. Paul's Church-yard, J686.






And of the Grounds upon which it may be lawful or necessary for Subjects to defend their Religion, Lives, and Liberties.

[From sixteen pages, Quarto, printed in the Year 1688.]


HIS enquiry cannot be regularly made, but by taking, in the first place, a true and full view of the nature of civil society, and more particularly of the nature of supreme power, whether it is lodged in one or more persons.

1. It is certain, that the law of nature has put no difference nor subordination among men, except it be that of children to parents, or of wives to their husbands; so that, with relation to the law of nature, 'all men are born free': and this liberty must still be supposed intire, unless so far as it is limited by contracts, provisions,

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