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that it illudes all energy of chalybeates, or any sort of physick. *It does not follow therefore, that this martial remedy is ineffectual, in itself, in order to cure other maladies of a different nature, by reason of the impregnable habit and rooting of some incurable distempers: Non defamanda pr&sidia, quw aliis profuere. Celsus. Remedies, which have done others good, are not to be undervalued; +they exert their operation according to the disposition of the subject, on which they work: The sun, for example, with the same heat, melts the wax, and hardens the clay:
Limus ut hie durescit, Sf hwc ut cera liquescit
And, by this reason, that which is one man's meat, may prove another's poison. So likewise, these waters, if used with a physican's advice, and due consideration, prove effectual and salubrious; but, taken without it, and by an indisposed or unprepared body, may be noxious, and sometimes mortiferous: Wherefore, since all things do not agree with all persons; nay, nor the same thing always, or a long time, with the same person; therefore the careful observation, and daily advice, of a prudent physician is here necessary, that, by indi. cations taken from things that, do good, or hurt, the method of cure may be rightly ordered, and now and then changed. Willis, Capite de Colico.
These waters kill and expel all manner of worms, ingendered either in the stomach, intestines, matrix, or any other part of the body.— Ryetius, in his observations of the Spaw-waters, makes mention of a woman, who laboured a long time with a chronick distemper under the doctor's hands, without receiving any benefit by all their pre. scriptions and physick that she had taken, but was, at last, advised to chalybeate waters, and, by drinking of them with method and con. tinuance, avoided several worms of divers shapes, figure, and longi. tude, and was perfectly cured.
They are a polychrest remedy, serving for many uses and inten. tions; they both loosen and bind; cool and make hot; dry and moisten: cure distempers of divers states and origins, nay, of contrary natures and dispositions, as I said before. Certainly, a perfect knowledge of their idiosyncrasia and properties would reduce physick to a narrower compass, and to prescribe well the stadium chaly. beat am, or chalybeate course, would make the studying of so many volumes of the parts of physick unnecessary; for, by the help of these waters, we prolong man's life by a more facile and easier means, than has hitherto been known, Veritas ex puteo exathlanda: truth must be drawn out of a well.
Provocat hece leniter Tunbrigia menstrua pridemt
Nostraque suppressos ut provocat ipsa vicissim,
• Non est in medico semper, releirtur ut tsger1
Nam docta lnterdum plus valet arte malum. Onidiits* f Actioncs acii.urum sunt i» subjecto dispusit*.
* Stringunt quippe sua vi lympha: sine relaxant,
■' Frigore turn corpus sive adore juvant.
Ecqttis idem medicamen eodemin corpore credat,
* These waters vertue hare to ope and close,
*' What may be called the female's monthly rose.
* These waters loosen, and as firmly bind, » ■• ;' As in all fluxes any one may find.
'By their own vertue, strengthen and relax,
* Both heat and cool, dry clay, and harden wax.
* 'Tis strange, that, in one body, the same thing
* Shou'd cross-grain'd maladies to cure bring.
; Ecce quam sint natural omnipotent is Dei, prudentia Sf potestate ducta', admiranda opera quw aquw islius limpidm ac purx beneficio tot tunique inter se conlrarios morbos curat, id quod ars medica sine corporis noxaprwstare nequit.—Ryetius, in his Observations de Aquis Spadanis.
'Behold the wonderful works of nature, guided by the prudence 'and power of the Almighty God, that, by the help of a limpid and 'clear water, she cures manifold, nay, contrary and opposite ma'ladies, which the art of physick, without great detriment to the 'body, cannot do.'
To accelerate and promote the passing of these waters by urine, Ryetius advises some drops of spirit of vitriol to be instilled into their glasses of water, for acids, being endowed with a diuretick and penetrative faculty, depose the serum, and conveigh it to the reins, to be sent forth by the ureters.
■ To promote evacuation by stool, he adviseth to mix some common •alt in powder with the waters, and a dram to every pint, more or less, proportioning the quantity to the bearing of the patient. This gently expels the loose matter contained in the ventricle and intestines, and purgeth viscous phlegm adhering to their tunicles and bilous humours from the pancreatick passages: but it is not to be taken indifferently by all persons.
Dum juga montis aper, dum Jlumen piscis habebit, Anchora fons aigris, hie sacra semper erit; '■'" lit blba occur ret (rumpantur ut ilia Codris) Germanus, Scotus, Belga, Britanmis, Iber. Hinc populits floret, crescet Tunbrigia, quicquid '. . Vellum destruxit, mox reparabit aqua.
Whilst boars on mountains shall abide, .
Or fishes in the river glide;
Sq long, both sure and uncontroul'd, 'i
Will last this health-firm anchor-hold.
Thisdrink (let Codrus burst with rage) 1 I
Will English, Scotch, and Irish sage, >
With German, French, and Dutch engage, y
Hence people's glory, Tunbridge praise,
What war-throws down, water will raises?
s Thus much for chalybeates, to comply with your honour's soli„ citations, hoping this rude essay, upon a barren subject, may be cultivated by other philosophers and physicians, better qualified, to the benefit and advantage of mankind, especially to your honour's satisfaction and welfare; whom Almighty God, the everlasting fountain and source of living waters, preserve with long life and health in this world, and grant immarcescible laurels in that which is to come; which is the earnest and unfeigned desire of, i
My Lord, your honour's most humble
and obedient Servant, *
P. M. M. D.
THE FOUNDATION OF A ROYAL HOSPITAL,
AND RAISING A REVENUE
By, and for the Maintenance of a Corporation of skilful Midwives and such Foundlings, or exposed Children, as shall be admitted therein. As it was proposed and addressed to his Majesty King James II. By Mrs. Elisabeth Cellier, in the Month of June, 1687. Now first published from her own MS. found among the said King's papers. Folio, containing nine pages.
To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, the humble Proposal of Elisabeth Cellier, Sheweth,
HAT, within the space of twenty years last past, above six thousand women have died in child-bed, more than thirteeen thousand children have been born abortive, and above five thousand chrysoma infants have been buried, within the weekly bills of mortality: abova' two thirds of which, amounting to sixteen thousand souls, have in all probability perished, for want of due skill and care, in thosa women who practise the art of midwifry.;
Besides the great number which are overlaid, and wilfully murdered, by their wicked and cruel mothers, for want of fit ways to conceal their shame, and provide for their children, as also the many executions on the offenders.
To remedy which, it is humbly proposed, that your majesty wilt be graciously pleased, by your royal authority, to unite the whole number of skilful midwives, now practising within the limits of the weekly bills of mortality, into a corporation, under the government of a certain number of the most able and matron-like women among them, subject to the visitation of such person or persons, as your majesty shall appoint; and such rules for their good government, instruction, direction, and administration, as are hereunto annexed, or may, upon more mature consideration, be thought fit to be annexed.
That such number, so to be admitted, shall not exceed a thousand at one time; that every woman so to be admitted as a skilful midwife, may be obliged to pay, for her admittance, the sum of five pounds, and the like sum annually, by quarterly payments, for, and towards, the pious and charitable uses hereafter mentioned.
That all women, so admitted into the thousand, shall be capable of being chosen matrons, or assistants, to the government.
That such midwives as are found capable of the employment, and cannot be admitted into the first thousand, shall be of the second thousand, paying, for their admittance, the sum of fifty shillings, and fifty shilling a year by quarterly payments, towards the pious and charitable uses hereafter mentioned, and out of these the first thousand are to be supplied, as they die out.
That, out of the first sum arising from the admittance-money, one good, large, and convenient house, or hospital, may be erected, for the receiving and taking in of exposed children, to be subject to the care, conduct, and management of one governess, one female secretary, and twelve matron-assistants, subject to the visitation of such persons, as to your majesty's wisdom shall be thought necessary.
That such hospital be for ever deemed, of your majesty's royal foundation, and from time to time, subject to the rules and directions of your majesty, your heirs and successors.
That the annual five or six thousand pounds, which may arise from the thousand licensed midwives, and second thousand, may be employed towards the maintenance of such exposed children, as may from time to time be brought into the hospital, and for the governess, her secretary, and the twelve assistant-matrons, and for the necessary nurses, and their assistants, and others, fit to be employed for the nourishment and education of such exposed children in proper learning, arts, and mysteries according to their several capacities.
That for the better maintenance and encouragement of so necessary and royal a foundation of charity, it is humbly proposed that by your majesty's royal authority, one fifth part of the voluntary charity, collected or bestowed in any of the parishes within the limits of the weekly bills of mortality, may be annexed for ever to the same, other than such money taxed for the maintenance of the parish poor, collected on briefs by the royal authority, for any particular charitable use.
That likewise, by your majesty's royal authority, the said hospital may have leave to set up in every church, chapel, or publick plate
«f divine service, of any religion whatsoever, within the limits afore* •aid, one chest or box, to receive the charity of all well-minded people, who may put money into the same, to be employed for the uses ■foresaid.
That snch hospital may be allowed, to receive the donation, of toiy lands, legacies, or other gifts, that pious and well minded people nay bestow upon them.
That such hospital may be allowed to establish twelve lesser convenient houses, in twelve of the greatest parishes, each to be governed by one of the twelve matrons, assistants to the corporation of mid. wives, which houses may be for the taking in, delivery, and month's maintenance, at a price certain of any woman, that any of the pa. fishes, within the limits aforesaid, shall by the overseers of the poor place in them, snch women being to be subject, with the children born of them, to the future care of that parish, whose overseers place them there to be delivered, notwithstanding such house shall not happen to stand in the proper parish.
All and every of the twelve houses to be members of, and depen. dents on the royal hospital, and subject to the government of the tame, and all such children as shall be exposed into them, whose parents and places of abode cannot be found, are to be conveighed tbence to the great hospital, there to be bred up and educated, as though they had been exposed into it.
That for the better maintenance, and encouraging, the government of the said hospital, in the educating such exposed children, in proper learning, arts, and sciences, according to their several capacities, H H hnmbly proposed, that by your majesty's royal authority, all the children, so exposed, shall be deemed members of, and appren. tices to the said society, till they attain the full age of twenty-one years, to be reckoned from their first admittance into the same, anlevs, by consent of the government thereof, they should happen to be married, or otherwise licensed to depart, under the publick seal of the same.
That likewise, by your majesty's royal authority, the children exposed andeducated,asaforesaid, may be privileged to take to themselves sirnames, from the several arts, or mysteries, they shall be excellent in. or from the remarkable days they were exposed on, or from their complexions, shapes, &c. and be made capable, by such names, of anr honour or employment, without being liable to reproach, for their innocent misfortune.
That by your majesty's royal charter, the children so cduca. ted may be free members, of every city and corporation, within your majesty's kingdom of England, and dominion of Wales.
That for the better providing sure ways, and means, for the in. strncting all present and future midwives, who shall be admitted into the mid corporation, fit care ought to be taken to induce that person, who shall be found most able in the art, and most fit for that employment, ho instruct them in the most perfect rulss of skill by read, fog lectures, and discoursing to them. . * *©t. ix. O