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upon occasion (without the expence of trouble and time in raising of them) who, by their continual employment, would be trained up, and well used to the sea, and naval conflicts.

The second is, that by this means they would not fail to draw a great number of seamen from the neighbouring coasts, continual pay being no small encouragement to mariners, to betake themselves to the service of those that offer it, but more especially the States subjects, in foreign service, would not fail to return to their own country, to enjoy the benefit of being maintained all the year round.

To effect which, the States need only to publish a placart, strictly enjoining all seamen, their subjects, in foreign service, to return home. True, indeed, it is, that the navy of France will but be little the better for it; for I dare affirm, they can fit out very few men of war, without putting some Dutch mariners, especially pilots, a-board them, as trusting more to their knowledge and experience than their own, who are often at a loss in long voyages. Which good and wholesome resolution, whenever the States shall be pleased to take, you will presently see the spirit of France strangely exasperated and disturbed, and his ambassador running from one city to another, to represent his master's just reasons against it. I3ut it is hoped,that,as CountD'Avaux has much laid open himself to an obviousdiscovery, by the small effects his promises have had hitherto, as not being seasoned with the salt of truth and honesty (the main thing that keeps up the credit and reputation of a minister in foreign countries) so he will do nothing but catch cold. However, I cannot deny, but the French king is beholden to that great minister, for his having inspired a fondness for France into the minds of several of the States subjects, which their lordships have no reason to thank him for. Besides this, France receives no small service from the Jesuits, and other foreign priests, residing in the United Provinces, who have pensions allowed them, to pry into, and engage the inclinations of many there. These spies are in the prince's court, where they have friends, by whose means they make a shift to pry into the very secrets of the cabinet. How many of this sort of cattle are there in the States troops and garisons, who have their correspondents at the Hague, where the general office of intelligence is kept, as being the center of that government. This is a thing that ought to be more narrowly looked to, these spies being no other but the emissaries of France, who is always restless, and spares nothing that may further his designs. I remember, that not long since four ducatoons a week were proffered a servant of a deputy of the States, only to report what he heard from his master, at table, or in conversation with others; but the servant, with sharp words, rejected the proffer, as became an honest man. This instance shews, that France sets upon people every way, and that, therefore, one had need always to stand upon his guard to avoid the blow. I have also observed, that there are another sort of petty spies, that run up and down the chief towns, especially the Hague, daily shifting their ordinaries, except they find occasion to stay longer, and are in prospect of some advantage to be reaped there, of whom those, who are obliged to frequent such houses, ought to beware. Othersintrude themselves into companies, or resort to the court, and go to see the prince and princess at dinner and supper, to hear and see what is said or done there; and, as soon as they have beard or seen any thing of concern, you see them run like foot. boys to the French ambassador, who,for a reward, invites them to stay and eat with him, he now entertaining scarce any but such at his table. I could name a dozen of them who, to my knowledge, are employed in this way, besides those that do it more secretly, and go to the offering only at night, and through the stable-door.

Count de Caravas, one of these spies of great note, though, in my judgment, of as little use, was not so cautious, who, coming from court, would go into the ambassador's at the fore-door, in the middle of the day, to communicate to him his collections. Two persons, whom I know to be Jesuits, though in the garb of officers, resort every day to the prince's rising, dinner, and supper, and com tinually attend the court, where they have so many friends, or at least so much cunning, as tobe able to procure their Catholick friends some employment, who are all emissaries of France, and wholly devoted to the service of that king. Others have put themselves to serve even in the kitchen, where such sort of cattle are very dangerous. Therefore, I conclude, that both the States and Prince of Orange ought even in all respects, and at all times, to be very cautious of the wicked and unchristian maxims and designs of France, the king himself being a false and perjured person, who, under pretence of establishing the Roman Catholick religion every where (though by his wicked life and breach of faith he denies all religion) has no other aim, but to extend his dominion to the uttermost bounds of Europe, and to that end to destroy first all the protestant princes, and then the Roman Catholick too, that so he may cause himself to be pro. claimed not the Emperor of the Romans only,but of all Europe; and certain it is, that nothing can serve him as a bridge to the uni. versal monarchy, but Holland, which, from his Versailles, he looks upon with a most envious eye. So that the States and people of those provinces have great reason to mind the advice of our Saviour to the Jews: 'Watch, for you know not what hour the thief will come.' To which I add: ' Be ready, therefore, to oppose him when he shall come to break into the house, and usurp his neighbour's territories; and be sure to look upon France as a sworn enemy to republicks, and the plague and scourge of all that will not yield their liberties up to him.'

True it is, he fears the States, more than he loves them; care, therefore, must be taken, to be always in such a condition as may still keep him so, and to make him know himself, whenever he shall so far forget himself, as to meddle with what he has nothing to do. All the remonstrances made by Count d'Avaux, as soon as he sees the States putting themselves in a posture of defence, must not be minded, as being merely upon design; for we may be sure that minister would not make them, were it not for the promoting of his master's interests.

A

PHILOSOPHICAL AND MEDICINAL ESSAY

OF

THE WATERS OF TUNBRIDGE.

WRITTEN TO A PERSON OF HONOUR»
By Pat. Mjdan, M. D.

Temporibus medirina juvat; data tempore prodest,
Et data non apto tempore Lymplia nocet.

TFrom a quarto, containing 26 pages, printed at London, for the
Author, in 1687.]

My Lord,

JLT was your honour's pleasure to ask my judgment, concerning Tunbridge waters, because I often recommend my patients to them; which, in my opinion, are not inferior in medicinal vertues to any spaw of that kind; for by their effects, which is an * after-demon. stration, they are impregnated with a chalcanthous or vitriolatejuice; which, with its sulphureous particles, irritates and moves the belly to a blackish excretion, and, by frequent drinking thereof, black, eneth the tongue, because this member, being of a spongy substance, imbibes some sooty sulphureous minims into its porosity, occasioning this tincture.

Thro' its more subtle piercing chalcanthous spirits, it proTokei urine in a plentiful manner.

To these is admixed some ferrugineous juice, that contains a great deal of the volatile salt, which is it that is dissolved in the chalybeate wine, now so much in vogue amongst physicians.

His aquis ferrum inesse videtur inprincipiis solutis unde earum vis chalybeuta intimitis sanguine permiscetur, Sf potentius morbos expugnat, quam ferrum quocunque demum artificio nobilitatum.

'These waters seem to contain iron in its unconcrete and seminal 'principles, whereupon their chalybeate vertue is more intirely mixed 'with the blood, and more powerfully attacks diseases, than iron 'prepared to the best advantage can.' Dr. Sydenham.

'Mars in itself consists chiefly of salt, sulphur, and earth. It 'has very little of spirit and water, and particles of the formerele. 'ments, especially the sulphureous and saline in the mixt are com.

* bined together with earth, remain wholly fixed; but being loosed

* and divided from each other (as in these waters) have a very eftica.

* cious energy.' Dr. Willis de Chatybtatis,

* Demomtratira a posteriori.

In them galls shaven, or oak-leaves added; or, by pouring to them some infusion of tea made in water, they will become of an atro-purpureous colour; to which, instilling some drops of spirit of vitriol, or pouring thereunto some sherry, they become clear again and redintegrate their pristine colour. On the surface of these waters there is a grey film in the morning; they have a roughness in the mouth; with them no arsenical vapours are intermixed, but, void of all noxious quality, are limpid and salutiferous; many do daily receive benefit by the use of them, wherefore, by * the concurrence of these appearances, they have the characteristick of a good and whole. some spaw.

As for their vertues and properties in physick, I believe, if there be any such remedy in being as a panpharmacon, or universal remedy, it is here; for even as soap, put to foul linnen with water, purgeth and cleanseth all filth, and maketh them to become white again; so these waters with their saponary and detersive quality clean all the whole microcosm or body of man from all feculency and impurities. Vid. the first region, by stool; the second, by urine; the third, by transpiration, sending forth from the center to the circumference many sooty and fetid effluviums, which, in some, colour their shirts blackish; + an observable quantity of this liquid substance, gliding through the inner passages of the bowels, brushes off the peccant humours that stagnate in their proper channels, and roots out the cause and origin of diseases. The acidulm also dissolve tartarous and viscous matter, and correct the hot indisposition of the liver and kidnies. See the author Fridericus Los. sins in Conciliis Medicis.

Wherefore the use of these waters have deservedly gained a great esteem and reputation in curing many chronick and rebellious diseases, which are accounted the shame of physicians; for they cure, even to a miracle, such as are quite given over by doctors; they may well be called aquw vita?, or waters of life, because they restore men to life, and make them live twice; % to enjoy their former health is to live again, for sickness, and neutrality of health, as the Greeks say, is but Bios ajStalsc, 'to live without life;' wherefore § life is not only to live and breathe, but also to have perfect health; and that is got here by drinking.

H Physicians, when they have tired their miserable afflicted patients with tedious and chargeable courses of physick (finding all ways else unsuccessful) at last send them to these waters, which they lay hold of, as a sacred anchor, for they are the most efficacious and powerful remedy against the greatest and most inveterate diseases, by

• Syndrome phainomenon.

t Harum enim substantia liquids notanda quantitaa, per iniimot tlacerum recessm prater* lluens peceantea et in prupriia cunlCulis ttagnanles auccos egregie everrlt morborumque cauaMin averruncat, materiam taruream el vlicoaam dUsolvit: hepatia quoque et rcnum calidarii intemperiem corrigit. . t Quia vita priori posse frui e<t bil vi?ere.

, Non est vivere, sed bene valere, Vita. Martini.

| Ad haa aquaa medici, pottquam atgros magno et sumptuoso medicamentorum apparatu; tongo tempore defaiigarunt, cum vident rea aibi ex voto non auccedere, misetos relegant, tan* quam a*d sacram anennram; sunt enim efticaclssimum et potentissimum remedium ad profli. gxnuos erurissimos uiorbos a Deo concetium, si dcxtra manu porrigantur, quod yoetu tua> primit his versibus.

Vol. ix. N

the appointment of Almighty God, provided they are made use of in a due and right manner; which the poet expresses in these words: •Publico morborum requies, commune medentum Auxilium, prasens numen, inemptaque sains,

Amissum reparant li/mphis impune vigorem,
Pacaturque cegro luxuriante dolor.

'Diseases publick ease; a common heal,
* A free.cost health; a God does never fail,
'Vigour to men restore with ease, avail,'All pain in wanton patients does assail.'

'But if you take them in the left hand, or by the wrong handle, *' they cause thousands of diseases,and hasten even death itself.'

Fredericus Lossius in Conciliis de Morbis Hypochondriacis.

* Chalybeates cure not so much by opening obstructions of the viscera, as by depressing the exaltations of sulphur and fixed salts, and by volatilising the blood much depauperated and made effete as in cachectick bodies; for they communicate a volatile sort of ferment, as a spur to the effete and languid mass of blood, by which the spirits, that before lay gasping, as it were, and pressed down with their own weight, are excited and made more lively, by in-. vigorating the blood, and renewing the ferment; for, as soon as chalybeate medicines are made use of in the green-sickness, the pulse becomes suddenly greater and quicker; the external parts of the body grow hot; the face is no longer pale and dead coloured, but fresh and purpled with blood itself.

. Betwixt the ferment of the stomach and chalybeates, there is a mutual conflict, as appears by the nidorolent belches and eructations after taking them, as if one had eaten hard fried eggs; in this re-action chalybeates undergo a dissolution within the viscera of concoction, and the active particles, both sulphureous and saline, display themselves, and, mixing with the nutritive juice, are carried into the blood which they inactuate.

Chalybeate waters, by their many and divers seminary principles with which they are cmbryonated, are very powerful and efficacious in curing of many and divers diseases, though they be of a contrary nature and disposition; for they serve not only as a bridle, but also as a spur; yet, I would not advise them to be drank indifferently by all constitutions and sexes, without the advice of a physician, who, by his prudent conduct and management, weighingill + indications, contra-indications, and co-indications according to discretion, may obviate all symptoms that may arise, and thereby render them more useful and effectual; the potation of waters, thus circumstantiated, may deserve to be called the most powerful hand of God; and keep their reputation untainted; but, without this cau

• Etenlm massae sanguines: efTcetap et languescenti volatile quoddam fermentutn, sea calc»-* ria, subdit, a quo excitantur et quasi ertpuntur spirilui antea jacentes et auo poudere prei<i: sanguinem vigorat ejusque vim (ufutpint rrdintcgrat: nam, quoties chalybeata ia chlorosi seu febre alba vet amatoria propinantur, pulsus derepente major fit et celerior: exterior* corporis incaleseunt, fades Dou ampliua pallida et morti concolor, «d tirida cerai' Imr er sanguine purpurata. Fnderlm tosjias.

f Kjst' iy^immr.

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