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the contrast between the monotony and dulness wbich seemed to beset every thing Roman, and the Neapolitan noise, gayety,
bustle, and confusion. The streets are crowded by Lazzaroni and carriages, and an air of liveliness and motion seems universal. The surrounding scenery of Naples is probably unrivalled : the decorations of its enchanting bay, the awful glories of Vesuvius, and the fine character of the country in the vicinage of this attractive capital, with the various remains of antiquity in private collections, and the more impressive relics of Pompeii and Herculaneum, are distinctly and agreeably described, We must, however, use the freedom of hinting, that if our Author has not painted rather highly in his account of the visit to the crater of Vesuvius, his courage must have gained strength since the running-away scene at St. Jean de Luz. At Florence, once the favoured seat of art and commerce, and still retaining much of the beauty and magnificence which, in happier times, adorned the city of the Medici, Mr. Milford seems to have employed six weeks very actively and much to his satisfaction. His various descriptions of works of art, though not very scientific, and though strangely undiscriminating, are yet pleasing and sufficiently distinct. The gloom and dullness of Venice were very uncongenial with Mr. M.'s feelings, but he made some stay in that city, and observed every thing worthy of note. Milan, next to Rome the largest of the Italian cities, is passed over somewhat slightly. After a delightful tour through the country, in the neighbourhood of the lakes Maggiore and Como, he crossed the Simplon into Switzerland. The remainder of his journey, as it lay through a much frequented and often described route, we sball pass over. His estimate of the Italian character, is slightly and superficially made : the bigher orders, impoverished by the political changes and present despotisın of their governments, are indifferent to all public occurrences which do not immediately affect themselves; the middle classes are for the most part, active and industrious, but at Rome and Naples, depraved and dissipated. With respect to the lower classes, he found the inhabitants of the South ignorant and corrupt in the extreme, but the populace of Naples and Venice seemed to be the most completely debased.
And we fear that this fine country and noble race of men must continue thus degraded, until some unlookedfor event break the fetters of political and ecclesiastical oppression, and obtain for them the enjoyment of their civil and religious rights.
The second of the books of which we have quoted the titles at the head of this article, contains the details of a journey through scenes which have been made much more familiar to English curiosity. The Author travelled from Calais through Paris, Moulins, Lyons, Nismęs, to Marseilles, and thence to Geneva and the romantic objects in its vicinity, through Berne to Schaffhausen, and down the Rhine to Cologne. His object, in the present publication, has been not to communicate anecdotes, nor to record general observations, but, chiefly at least, to indicate the most interesting and conspicuous features of the scenery on his route, and this intention he bas very satisfactorily accomplished. His descriptions present distinct images to the eye, and we collect from them a very clear general idea of the successive objects to which they refer. The following picture of a French kitchen will afford an amusing specimen of the Traveller's talent in ite Flemish style of painting.
* From the street you descended by two steps to a plastered floor in a state of rugged discontinuation, and full of rough pebbles. At the entrance on the right there is a sink with plates and earthenware on their edges in a reclined position. There is a desk on the left where the accounts are kept, and all the requisite writing performed. A fire of wood blazes upon
the foor in the centre of the side wall, with an occasional jack and a sort of fue on the other. In this Aue round nobs are inserted in which to place the ashes from the fire, that may serve as stoves to dress their culinary varieties. There is a large dresser in the middle, with a shelf over the fire-place and candlesticks on the sides and half burnt candles ; a few pewter and copper pans, with an addition that a voluptuous epicure might not much fancy in such a place, of two or three large black mastiff dogs and as many famished and mewing cats. Behind the above scene is a large room encumbered with tables of deal, where the palate of the guests is gratified by the different manufactures of the kitchen. On one side is a door opening into a stable, and over these are the bed rooms : and such is a correct delineation of an inn of no secondary note. pp. 269-271.
His description of the celebrated scenery of Vaucluse is interestingly executed; we can only extract a portion of it.
• After breakfasting at Moriere we traversed a moor of such dreary and unpromising appearance, as to make us suspect that we should be but ill remunerated for our toils : but on entering the rocky mountains we descried one with a circular base, as if intended to pourtray an am. phitheatre; another exhibited the appearance of a massy tower, over which ages might roll without effecting its decay. The mountains in the back ground had a purple hue with ribs of bare rock projecting from their sides. The Sorgues Alowed rapidly at our feet, vying with the emerald in its most unspotted green. There were pastures on all sides, where the willow, the poplar, the mulberry, the almond, and the fig, were growing in all the profusion of vegetable luxuriance.
“ After travelling for some time amidst this romantic scenery, we came to a complete circle of rocks, from which there was no egress but by the track we had entered. Here we quitted the cabriole and walked to the source of the Sorgues, where, instead of a limpid and murmuring fountain, we beheld a turbulent and foaming stream, issuing from under an over-arching rock of at least three hundred feet high, and forcing its
way down a deep descent amongst dark moss covered with blocks of tone.
• The famous spring of Holywell in Wales is nothing compared with the majesty of Vaucluse. A pillar is placed at its source, but human skill could erect no structure that would properly assimilate with the gigantic scenery around. pp. 195—197.
To different sections of this journey are prefixed small maps of the route, well engraved, and of convenient reference.
Mr. Milford's volumes are ornamented with vignettes, from wooden bloeks, some of which are not very interesting, but the greater number are respectably executed, and represeflt attractive and illustrative scenery.
Art. VIII. A Manual of Prophecy ; or, a short comparative View of
Prophecies contained in the Holy Scriptures, and the Events by which : they were fulfilled. In which are introduced some new Observations
on sereral of them, and particularly on different Passages in Isaiah and Daniel. By the Rev. Peter Roberts, A.M. 8vo. pp. 208. Price
6s. 1818. MAN
ANY learned and copious volumes have at different times
been presented to the public, on the Prophecies of the Old and New Testaments, some of which have been too costly, and others too profound, to suit the circumstances and the taste of many theologico-political readers. A work on the predictions of the Bible, simple in form, and moderate in price, appearing to Mr. Roberts to'be a desideratum, he has supplied the present treatise, the plan of which we can much better approve than we can commend the manner in wbich it bas been executed. His original purpose was, to give merely what should appear to be most eligible in expositions already published, and wholly to exclude discussion, and we wish he had adhered to this design. He has, however, ventured on the difficult task of adapting to the prophecies of the Scriptures some of the events of his own times, in which we inagine his labours will be pronounced as unsatisfactory as those of several of his predecessors in the same line of employment. He acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Faber, an author from whom he has borrowed a considerable part of the exceptionable interpretation which occurs in this Manual : he might, we think, have put himself under the direction of a better guide.
Mr. Roberts, faithful to the Odmyos whom he has chosen, perceives in many of the prophecies, representations of French Infidelity and Atheism as connected with the Revolution. In our opinion, it would be quite as well if writers of this stamp, would look for infidelity and atheism in other soils than France, and in other periods than the era of the Revolution. How much less infidelity was there in that kingdom in 1787, than in
1790? or, how much greater was the prevalence of atheism in Republican, than in Monarchical France ? Infidelity and atheism are objects of our aversion not less than they are of Mr. Faber's and Mr. Roberts's, and all the other writers who animated the crusaders against irreligion in the late war; but this does not prevent us from wishing that those who undertake the explanation of scripture prophecies, would enter upon it with minds somewhat more divested of prejudice and partialities : we should then, we apprehend, be told of the infidelity of other people than our late political opponents, and might perhaps find atheism itself lurking beneath the purple.
In page 113, Mr. Roberts has given us a short genealogy to which we cannot but take exception, Infidelity, be says,
brings on ignorance, and ignorance superstition.' We would rather say, that superstition brings on ignorance, and ignorance infidelity; this arrangement, we think, includes the true relation of cause and effect as applying to the subject, and as illustrated by the facts of bistory. What has produced the ignorance of such a country as Spain, but the gross superstition which is spread over its whole surface; and what but infidelity would be discovered on the removal of that pressure which now bears down the mental elasticity ? Superstition provides for nothing but the performance of ceremonies which have no connexion whatever with the understanding or the heart; the most unenlightened and the most upholy persons can go through them with perfect success, and they who conduct its rites, so long as the establishments to which they are attached can be kept up, would be as well satisfied with the genuflexions of an automaton as with the kneeling of human creatures. Let the pence keep pace with the pater-noster, and the latter be said or sung at such times as superstition may command, and all in its account is right. But if the secret by which it rules be discovered, and its wretched devotees find leisure, apart from the feeling of its authority, to examine and to take their own measures, what can be expected to follow upon the detection of such a mockery but the profession of infidelity ? True religion was never seriously or permanently injured by direct opposition, it is indeed from this source that it has drawn many of its accessions. So long as its light is finding access to the thoughts of men, and its influence in its native character is spreading before them, it has nothing to fear. But let it be concealed, let its place be supplied by trains of priests and choristers, by altars, and images, and rosaries, and processions ; let the eye and the ear be furnished with sights and sounds, while the understanding sleeps; and infidelity will reap its harvest. Let the talents of Protestant writers be consecrated to their proper object, the exposure of ecclesiastical dominion over mankind and the tendencies of corrupt systems of religion like the superstition of the Romist Church ; but let them abstain from a practice so inconsistent with their profession, and so full of evil, as is the part which too many of them have been performing in whetting the appetite for war by their declamations against a nation of Infidels,' while they maintained a silence not less remarkable respecting abuses and enormities, more injurious to truth than infidelity itself.
We cannot devote much of our time to this publication, and therefore place before our readers some of Mr. Roberts's ex, positions of the sacred prophecies.
• Daniel, ch. xi. verse 36. " And (the) a king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above (or against) every god, and shall speak marvellous things (or things that shall astonish) against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indig. nation be accomplished · for that that is determined shall be done."
• The character here described is that of a despotic power, wbether of a nation or an individual, which shall be impious in its language against God, and shall prosper until the wrath of God against the Jews shall have accomplished its predetermined purpose, and the extent of their affliction. The esistence of this infidel power, is a token to the Jews, that the wrath denounced against them is drawing towards its end, and their restoration to the favour of God approaching. Such impiety as this, which is here foretold, has appeared in France, as a nation, and in its chief, by their rejection of all religion.' pp. 82, 83.
· Verse 38, 39. “But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces : and a God whom his father knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. Thus shall he do (in the most strong holds) for the protectors of forces with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge, (or cause to be acknowledged,) and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.”
• This appears already to a wonderful degree to have been accomplished, both by that nation and its chief. The church of St. Genevieve was dedicated to the tutelary gods of infidelity: a woman drest up, was made the goddess of reason. The chapel in the Hotel des Invalides, in Paris, was converted by Buonaparte into a temple of Mars; an image of that pagan deity placed in it; and it was honoured with the spoils of conquered countries. He also put his trust in his star, or his fortune, to which he looked for his success, The French nation has also caused these deities to be acknowledged; it has set its generals over kingdoms, and divided the conquered countries for gain, or as a reward, by the wealth they could force from them, &c.' p. 83.
We recollected, as we perused these lucubrations, the speech of a certain great personage on receiving from the Archbishop of Moscow the consecrated image of the Holy Sergius.
• The • sanctified image of the holy Protector of the Russian armies,