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short of a repeal of all the revenue acts, and putting things on the same footing they were before the late innovations, can or will satisfy the minds of the people."

In this declaration of the commercial committee of the cky of Philadelphia, the whole truth is told, and upon this truth is bottomed all the subsequent evils which followed.

CHAPTER III.

OAUSES THAT LED TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION CONTINUED.

We have noticed the landing of a military force in Boston, to support the civil magistrate in the execution of the laws, with the point of the bayonet; together with the state of the public feeling at this outrage upon their liberties; we will now carry forward the history of events that resulted from this rash measure, and shew, that there never was, and probably never will be, but one step between the bayonet, and blood.

Governor Bernard found no good resulting from the aid of the military, in support either of the laws, or his popularity ; but that he became daily more obnoxious to the people, and that as the resentments of the latter increased, the influence of the former declined, until his majesty recalled him from his government in June, and in August h^ embarked for England, leaving Lieut.Gov. Hutchinson in the chair, 1769.

The non-importation agreement had now been in force in New-England, and New-York, more than one year, and its effects had been severely felt both in England and America. At this time, January 1770, many of the merchants in Boston began to grow slack in the observance of the agreement, and to make partial importations, and sales; this gave an alarm, and the confederates proceeded to raise mobs against their offending brethren, and do violence to their persons, and property, in order to whip them up to a due observance of their duty. In pne of the chastising mobs, one Richardson, a delinquent merchant, found himself so hard pressed by the mob, that he fired out of his window upon the populace, in February, and killed one Chistopher Snider, a lad of eleven years pf age. This greatly inflamed the public mind, and strengthened the non-importation in Boston, and the merchants entered resolutely into the measure of reshipping their goods to England. Hartford, in Connecticut, came into the agreement with Boston; but New-York, at once, changed her ground, and began to import "all articles which were free, and should continue to be free from duties, to raise a revenue in America." The populace attempted to suppress the importations, as in Boston; but • failed; the public mind was greatly agitated throughout the country, and the non-importation agreement generally prevailed. Collisions, from time to time, between the troops, and citizens in Boston, had been frequent, and the public peace had often been in danger; these collisions had gendered strife, and bitterness, between the parties, and violence often ensued.

On the 2d of March, 1770, a squabble took place between a parcel of soldiers, and rope-makers, which became serious, and led to the collection of a mob at evening, and at nine o'clock, the whole populace were assembled by ringing the bells, and commenced an attack upon the main guard; when this became serious and alarming, so far as an attempt of the mob to disarm the military, by seizing 'their muskets, and at the same time, accompanied with a threatening cry of kill the soldiers, kill the soldiers ! the oflicer of the guard ordered them to fire on the populaee, which being obeyed, in part, three were instantly killed, five dangerously wounded, and several slightly ; March 5th. The shock was inexpressibly great; the town was in instant alarm, and beat to arms, with the general cry of "turn out with your guns." The citizens immediately assembled, to the number of several thousands, both with, and without arms; and the lieutenant-governor called on the officer of the guard, (Captain Preston,) and demanded the reason why he fired upon the people, without the orVor,. III.?

ders of the magistrate; to which he replied, " we were insulted," and was going on to explain, when the lieutenant-governor hastily left him, and repaired to the councilchamber, to meet the council. On his way he passed through the populace, and persuaded them to retire until morning. On the morning of the 6th, the people assembled in a vast concourse, and in great rage; at the same time the lieutenant-governor assembled his council; and by permission, Lieut. Cols. Dalrymple and Carr appeared at the council. A town meeting was convened at the same time, who chose a committee to wait on the governor with the following declaration, by the way of message.—" It is the unanimous opinion of this meeting, that nothing can rationally be expected to restore the peace of the townr and prevent blood, and carnage, but the immediate removal of the troops." This message was received by the lieutenant-governor, in the midst of the debates df the council, and the lieutenant-colonel readily consented that the offending (29th) regiment should be removed down to the castle. This was reported to the town-meeting; by two o'clock in the afternoon, they were augmented to the number of about three thousand, who dispatched another message to the lieutenant-governor, expressing their belief, that nothing short of a total removal of the troops, would satisfy the people; to which the venerable Samuel Adams, one of the committee who bore the message to the lieutenant-governor, added—" If you can remove the 29th, you can remove the 14th, and it is at your peril if you do not." The lieutenant-governor appealed to the council for advice, and decision. In this state of suspense the question balanced, until Mr. Secretary Oliver frankly told the lieutenant-governor, "you must either comply with the demands of the people, or prepare to leave the province." Captain Preston and his guard were taken into custody the next day, and committed to prison to await their trial.

On the 8th of March, one of the wounded men died, and the funeral of the slain was attended by an unusual concourse of the citizens of Boston, and the neighbouring towns, under the solemnity of the largest, and most interesting procession that was ever witnessed in Boston; the mournful peals of all the bells in Boston, Charlestown, and Roxbury, tolled their solemn knell; all which gave an inexpressible gloom to the mournful occasion. This awful and distressing scene being closed, the troops were removed down to the castle, and general tranquillity was so far restored, as to admit of the trial of Capt. Preston to commence on the 24th, in due form. The counsel for the prisoner were John Adams and Josiah Quincey, Esqrs.— These distinguished sons of liberty, warm as had been their emotions and expressions in the cause of their country, became cool and disinterested in the court of justice, and displayed the magnanimity of their characters, in the defence of their client. On the 30th, a virtuous, independent jury, regardless of the emotions of their own breasts, or the rage of popular opinion, returned a verdict, Jfdt Guilty.

When this trial was closed, the trial of the eight soldiers of the guard, who fired on the mob, commenced, which continued five days. The same counsel undertook their defence, and as the question in controversy may well be .considered the most interesting, that had ever agitated the public mind, or the breasts of a court and jury, in NewEngland, so all the strength of character and talents, that could then be produced, were employed upon the occasion. As with the captain, so with the men, they were all indicted for murder; but the same magnanimity was again manifested by the jury, in a verdict of Mot Guilty. It was remarked of Mr. Adams, that his arguments, to shew

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