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necessary delay ? But no other answer can possibly be given than this. It was the special providence of God.
The captive army were marched directly to Boston, where they were detained as prisoners of war.
Gen. Gates marched with all possible expedition to support Gen. Putnam at Kingston, and guard the country against the ravages of the enemy. The enemy, apprised of his movements, hastened back to New-York, and all was quiet.
The disastrous retreat of the American army out of Canada, and the victorious pursuit of Gen. Burgoyne, had greatly distressed the public mind. They already saw one British army in New-York, another in Philadelphia, and the third about to enter the city of Albany in triumph, and the liberties of America falling prostrate before a victorious foe. But the battles of Bennington, and Saratoga, and the fall of Burgoyne, roused the public feeling, and gave new hopes, new energies, and new efforts to the nation, and inspired confidence at home, and respectability abroad. France and Spain soon became parties in the war. i
PROCEEDINGS OF CONGRESS.
Mr. Hancock of Massachusetts, who had been elected President of Congress, upon the resignation of Mr. Randolph of Virginia, in 1775, having served in that capacity two years to universal acceptance; now requested, and obtained leave of absence, to visit his friends, and enjoy that repose, which the state of his health required. Mr. Hancock took his leave of Congress with an affectionate, as well as dignified address, and Congress replied to this address by the following resolve.
"Resolved, That the thanks of Congress be presented to John Hancock, Esq. for the unremitted attention, and steady impartiality, which he has manifested in discharge of his various duties as president, since his election to the chair on the 24th day of May, 1775."
Congress next proceeded to the election of a president to succeed Mr. Hancock, and the Hon. Henry Laurens, of South-Carolina, was elected.—Congress next appoint1 ed General Gates President of the board of war. They then procceeded to take into consideration, the great, and important business of a national confederation.—On the 11th of June, 1777, Congress appointed a committee to prepare articles ot confederation in due form, and on the 12th of July, the committee made the following report, which was ordered to be printed for the confidential information of Congress.
"Articles of confederation, and perpetual union, between the States of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia.
"Artrcie 1. The stile of this confederacy shall be, the United States of America.
Article 2. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence ; and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.
Article 3. The said states hereby enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence j the security of their liberties, and their mutual, and general welfare; binding themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks upon them, or either of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatsoever.
Article 4. The better to secure, and perpetuate mutual friendship, and intercourse among the people of the different states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states, (paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted,)'shall be entitled to all privileges, and immunities of free citizens, in the several states, and the people of each state shall have free ingress, and regress from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade, and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof, respectively ; provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far. as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state, to any other state, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties, or restriction, shall be laid by any state upon the property of the United States, or either of them.
If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor, in any state, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand ef the governor, or executive power of the state from whence he fled, be delivered up, and removed to the state having jurisdiction of the offence.
Full faith, and credit shall be given in each of these states, to the records, acts, ai:d judicial proceedings of the courts, and magistrates of every other state.
Article 5. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed, in such manner as the legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November in every year, with a power reserved to each state to recal its members, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.
No state shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being delegated for more than three years, in any term of six years ; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding an office under the United States, for which he or any other for his benefit receives any salary, fees, or emolument of any kind.
Each state shall maintain its own delegates in any meeting of t!•e states, or while they act as members of the committee of the states.
In determining questions in the United States, in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.
Freedom of speech, and debate, in Congress, shall not be impeached, or questioned in any court, or place out of Congress; and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons, from arrests, and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
Article 6. No State, without the consent of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty with any king, prince, or state; nor shall any person holding any office of profit, or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatsoever, from any king, prince, or foreigu state; nor shall the United States, in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.
No two, or more states, shall enter into liny treaty, confederation, or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States, in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.
No state shall lay any impost or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations, or treaties entered into by the United States, in Congress assembled, with any king, prince, or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress to the courts of France and Spain.
No vessels of war shall be kept by any state, in time of peace, except such number only as shall be deemed necessary by the United States, in Congress assembled, for the defence of such state, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any state, in time of peace, except such number only as, in the judgment of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state; but every state shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall provide, and have constantly for use in public stores, a due number of field-pieces, and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and camp equipage.
No state shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States, in Congress assembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such state, and the danger is so imrrii