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quarters, where he was closely invested by General Washington, and his movements became very guarded in future.
The privations of the American army at this time were truly distressing; without clothes, shoes, stockings, or even breeches, or blankets, more than two thousand were marched through the snow, imprinting the roads with their bloodstained steps; yet all this was endured with a firmness worthy of these valiant sons of liberty.
The privations the American army endured through the winter of 1777-8, before Philadelphia, for the want of clothing, shoes, and blankets, as well as provisions, exceed all description, as well as belief; yet they were true to themselves, and their country, and the enemy were closely invested through the winter. ? Sir Guy Carleton was removed from the command of the northern army, and the expedition now comtemplated against the state of New York, was intrusted to the command of Gen. Burgoyne.
Congress appointed Maj. Gen. Schuyler, to the command of the American army, and he repaired to Fort Ti. conderoga early in June, to put that post in a proper state of defence, to receive the enemy.' Gen. Schuyler's force at Fort Ti, was estimated at about 10,000 men.
Gen. Burgoyne assembled an army in Canada of about the same number, consisting of British, and German troops, and supported by Gens. Frazer, Powel, and Hamilton, with the German Gens. Baron Reidesel and Spicht. This army might be truly stiled a well appointed British army, well supplied with every requisite for a successful campaign, particularly, a powerful train of brass.field artillery, and the troops were all healthy, and in high spirits. To this army were attached several tribes of Indians, who were to take the field upon conditions of humanity, not to scalp the wounded, or the dying, nor their prisoners ; but with a
bounty offered for every captive brought in by them, and delivered alive.
Gen. Burgoyne embarked his army upon Lake Champlain, and proceeded to Crown-Point, where he was joined by his Indians, on the 21st of June. On the 29th, Gen. Burgoyne issued a pompous proclamation, and commenced his operations against Fort Ti, whose garrison at this time was reduced to about three thousand men, in a bad condition, under the command of Gen. St. Clair.
On the 2d of July, Gen. Burgoyne approached Fort Ti, with the right wing of the British army, and Gen. St. Clair abandoned the fort, to save the garrison, and retired to Hubbardton, and from thence to Castleton, about 30 miles distance from Ti, where he made a stand, to collect the ar: my from Mount Independence, &c.
Gen. Frazer, supported by Gen. Reidesel commenced a pursuit in the morning with the light troops of the British and Germans, and overtook the rear guard of the American army under Col. Warner, and commenced an attack on the 7th, which became sharp and bloody; the British were routed at first with loss ; but finding that 'Col. Warner was not supported by Gen. St. Clair, they rallied to the combat, and with the bayonet charged, and dispersed the rear guard of the Americans, under Col. Warner, with the loss of about 300 men, and the American army retired from Castleton to Fort Ann.
Gen. Burgoyne pursued with his feet, and destroyed or dispersed the American fleet, and landed at Skeensborough. Gen. Burgoyne detached Lieut. Col. Hill to dislodge the Americans from Fort Ann; the garrison marched out on the morning of the 8th and commenced an attack upon the detachment, which was sharply supported by both parties for about two hours, with apparent success on the part of the Americans ; but a party of Indians appeared, and join
ed Col. Hill, and the Americans withdrew from the field, abandoned the fort, and retired to Fort Edward to join Gen. Schuyler, July 12th. The whole force at this time under Gen. Schuyler at Fort Edward, did not exceed 5000 men.
Both armies now commenced serious operations. Gen. Burgoyne, in clearing out roads from Skeensborough, that he might advance to Fort Edward ; and Gen. Schuyler in obstructing the roads, and destroying the bridges to prevent his approach. During these operations Gen. Burgoyne • remained at Skeensborough, waiting for the arrival of his camp equipage ; whilst the garrison at Ti were employed in transporting batteaux, gun-boats, &c. over to Lake George.
Pending these operations, Gen. Burgoyne commenced his march for Fort Edward, where he arrived on the 30th of July : but Gen. Schuyler had abandoned the fort on the 27th, with the remnant of his army, then amounting only to about 2700 men of the continentals, and about the same pumber of militia, and retired to Saratoga, and on the first of August be retired to Stillwater, only 25 miles north of Albany.
The country saw with astonishment this shadow of an army, flying before a victorious enemy, and laying open the whole northern frontier, by abandoning all those fortresses that had cost the colonies so much blood and treasure to erect and secure. The spirits of the states were again as greatly depressed as when Gen. Washington crossed the Delaware the last year, and the spirits of the ene. my were as high. · At this eventful moment Sir William Howe sailed with his armament to commence his operations in Pennsylvania, as has been noticed. · Col. Barton on the 10th of July, with 40 volunteers, passed over onto Rhode-Jsland ; surprised Gen. Prescott.
in his quarters, and brought bim off safe, with one of his aids, which gave some spring to the public feeling.
On the 4th of August, Congress appointed Gen. Gates to succeed Gen. Schuyler, in the command of the army of the north.
On the 22d of August Gen. Sullivan, with Col. Ogden, crossed over from the Jersies, onto Staten Island, in order to dislodge the British stationed there ; but by some mismanagement the attempt failed, with the loss of two or three hundred of the American troops, killed, wounded, or taken prisoners. .
Pending these movements Col. St. Leger, who had been detached by Gen. Burgoyne from Canada into the country of the Mohawks, to inake a diversion in that quarter, commenced his operations against Fort Stanwix, (now Fort Schuyler,) on the 3d of August. Gen Herkimer marched down at the head of about 800 militia, to relieve the fort; but he fell into an Indian ambush on the 6th, and was killed in one of the sharpest and most desperate Indian battles we have noticed. The garrison of the fort sallied out at the same time ; decided the bloody contest ; drove off the Indians, and relieved the fort. St. Leger proceeded to summon the fort on the 8th, but Col. Gansevort returned a spirited reply, which led St. Leger to withdraw his troops with great precipitation, and retire to the lake.
Pending these operations, Gen. Washington detached Gen. Lincoln to the northward, to take the command of such eastern militia as should join the northern army. Gen. Lincoln arrived at Manchester on the 2d of August, where he took the command of 600 militia, and on the 6th he was joined by Brig. Gen. Stark with 800 more. Gen, Stark was a soldier of merit, and had deserved well of his country by his distinguished services in the famous battle, of Bunker's Hill.
Gen. Stark had felt himself wounded by the neglect of Congress, after the battle of Bunker's Hill; and engaged
at this time in the service of his country upon the express condition that he should not be constrained to serve under a continental officer ; but that he might pursue his own measures ; he accordingly resisted the pressing invitations of Gen. Schuyler to bring on his troops, and join him in resisting the advance of Gen. Burgoyne. - Pending this controversy in which Congress finally interfered, Gen. Burgoyne detached Col. Baum, with 500 Germans and 100 Indians, to seize on the American stores at Bennington, to enable him to pursue his march. Gen. Stark was apprised of this movement, and sent expresses, and collected the neighbouring militia, and marched to meet the enemy on the 14th, supported by Colonels Warner, Williams, and Brush. The advance parties of the two armies met, and began a skirmishing that continued through the day. On the 15th all operations were suspended, by the excessive rains that fell; but on the 16th Gen. Stark was joined by the Berkshire militia, under Col. Syinonds, and he detached Col. Nichols to take post in the rear of the left of the enemy; Col. Hendrick to take post in the rear of his right, to be supported by Cols. Hubbard and Stickley, still further on the right ; and about three o'clock in the afternoon he commenced an attack upon the main body of the enemy, strongly intrenched, and supported by two field pieces. The attack commenced upon all sides at the same time; the enemy were firm and valiant, and the action soon became sharp and bloody.
The Indians deserted at the commencement of the action, and made their escape, and the Germans were over: powered, forced from their intrenchments, and put to flight. Flushed with the successes of the day, the militia gave themselves up to plunder, and whilst they were rioting in the spoils of the enemy, a reinforcement joined Col. Baum, under Lieut. Col. Breymen, and the enemy rallied to the charge, and renewed the combat; the surprise of