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cannon in the bows, that may be sufficient to resist smaller vessels, &c. And thus we have seen at one view, how the whole strength of United America was roused to the con. test, by the conflict at Lexington, and the spirit that fired the breasts of the patriotic sons of liberty, from Georgia to Maine.

Massachusetts, agreeable to notice to the several towns, as has been mentioned, met in General Assembly at Watertown, July 19th, and adjourned to the 21st, to keep the fast ; when they again met and chose counsellors, and commenced an independent government. On the 8th of August the house voted to raise thirty thousand pound, for the service of the colony, to prosecute the war. On the 11th, 'they voted to recommend to the inhabitants of the colony, not to fire away one charge of powder, either at game or mark ; but to reserve it all for the public service.

About this time, General Gage sent orders to NewYork to invite all foreign seamen to repair to his standard, as volunteers, and at the same time he received by a feet of transports from the sound, about 2000 sheep, 110 oxen, together with eggs, butter, cheese, &c. from Gardners- Island, and elsewhere, to replenish his larder.

During the operations of the army before Boston, the Americans put forth all their efforts to collect military stores, and turned their attention to their cruizers on the water. They sent, and purchased powder in all foreign ports, where it was practicable, and even obtained it from Bermuda, and some of the British ports on the coast of Africa, and at the same time commenced the manufacture of powder in many of the colonies.

In October a small naval force under the command of Captain Mowat, was detached for the destruction of Fala mouth, in consequence of orders which had been issued in the name of his majesty, to the commanders of his majesty's ships of war, to treat the Americans as rebels,

and lay waste and destroy all such sea ports as had taken part in the rebellion. On the 17th Captain Mowat arrived before the town, about three o'clock in the afternoon, and made known to the inhabitants the orders he had received; at the same time assured them that if they would bring to him eight small arms, he was authorized to suspend the execution of his orders until the next morning. The demand was complied with, and in the morning a committee from the town waited on the captain to prevail on him to spare the place; to which he consented, so far as to wait for further orders, provided they would deliver up all their arms, and ammunition, together with four of their citizens as hostages.

This demand was resented with becoming spirit and indignation, and the captain commenced a terrible cannonade, and bombardment upon the town, by which it „was soon in a blaze, and reduced to a heap of ruins. The flames of Falmouth like the flames of Charlestown, flashed through the country, and fired the breasts of these patriotic sons of liberty, like a shock of electricity, and roused them afresh to union, and revenge.

They now began more seriously to turn their attention to their armed vessels. Massachusetts in her convention granted letters of marque and reprisal. Congress also fitted out some frigates, and caused two battalions of marines to be raised for the marine service, and framed articles of war for the government of their little navy. The ostensible object of this fleet was, to guard the sea coast, and restrain their own citizens from carrying supplies to the enemy, General Washington also employed in the service several cruizers to intercept the store-ships of the enemy, for the immediate service of the army. Congress at the same time established regular courts of admiralty, for the regular adjudication of all prizes; all which produced a spirit of adventure upon the seas, and the Amer

ican coast swarmed with privateers, which were very successful, and greatly annoyed the enemy. The effects of this naval war were soon felt by the supplies of ordnance, arms, and military stores which were taken from the enemy, and conveyede to the army before Boston, particularly, in the capture of a store-ship laden with those *supplies for the service of the enemy in Boston. This store-ship was taken by Captain Manly, of the privateer Lee, who was uncommonly active and fortunate in this naval war. * These captures, not only gave support, and energy to the American army, in carrying on the siege of Boston ; but at the same time greatly distressed the enemy, by cutting off his supplies of the comforts, and even the necessaries of life, as they arrived upon the American coast, from Britain. 1. Sanguine as we have seen the ministry of England, that America would never dare to resist an armed British force, and confident as had been some of her generals, that five regiments would march through the country. We are now called to witness, before the closc of the first campaign, that a well appointed British army have met with desperate valour, at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker's-Hill ; are closely besieged in Boston, where they are indebted to their fleet for protection, and safety, and are constrained to transport even their provisions from England, (3000 miles,) and even this is wrested from them by the American cruizers, and converted to the use of the American army.. 9. Had even the great Pitt himself dared to predict such disgrace to his country's arms, in the midst of the first campaign, he would have been denounced as an enemy to his country; yet all this awaited the British army in Boston, and the same distresses awaited her West-India colonies, and brought several of them to court the friend

ship of America, by acknowledging the justice of her cause, and courting her trade, for wbich they (particularly Bermuda) offered in exchange, arms, ammunition, saltpetre, sulphur, and salt, all wich were greatly wanted in Ame. rica.

This overture was promptly met by the colonies, and the commerce was accordingly carried on, under the in-2 spection of the committees of safety, in the several colonies.

The colony of New-York had thus far been carried along in the current of the common cause; but at this: time her defection again became alarming. Governor Try=' on was recalled from the government of North-Carolina, and restored to the government of New-York, for the express purpose of weakening the exertions, and if possible, detaching this colony from the united confederacy. To effect this he was supported by the Asia man of war, i and Rivingston's printing press; the first intimidated the citizens, and the last corrupted their political sentiments. When this political poison had begun so far to operate, as to shew itself openly in their conversation, by an open avowal to join the standard of the king; that Captain Sears who had once before put down the tories by the force club-law, again rallied his patriots, and at the head of a party of horse from Connecticut, well armed, entered the city, broke up the press of Rivingston, and carried off or destroyed his types. This overawed the tories at this time, and gave a check tò a plan regularly concerted, of inviting the enemy from Boston to New-York, that he might become master of the navigation of the Hudson, and carry on the war by dividing the co-operations of the colonies. Although this defection in New York, was at this time checked, it was not suppressed, until the General Congress, alarmed for the safety of the colony, passed a resolve “to arrest and secure' every person in the re . spective colonies, whose going at large, may in their opinion, endanger the safety of the colony, or the liberties of America."

Governor Tryon, alarmed for his safety, retired on board the Halifax packet, and continued his intrigues.

Congress took the alarm at these measures, and ordered two regiments to be raised in New-Jersey, upon the continental establishment, and marched into New-Yurk; the one division of which to be stationed at the Highlands, to carry on the works, agreeable to the plan sketched to Congress by the convention of the colony, and the other divi. sion to be stationed at New York. This post in the Highlands, upon the Hudson, was then considered, and ultimately proved, one of the most important military posts in the colony,

The next subject of importance that claimed the attention of Congress, was the recruting, or re-enlisting the American army at Cambridge, and its vicinity. To meet the pressing solicitations of General Washington, upon this important subject, Congress appointed a committee on the 29th of September, to repair to head quarters, and there consult with the commander in chief, together with the governors of New-England, “ upon the most effectual method of continuing, supporting, and regulating a continental army."

On the 30th of September, the Rose man of war, and two tenders, commenced an attack upon Stonington, Connecticut, which continued through the day ; very little damage was done, only two men were killed ; but a schooner laden with molasses and two small sloops were taken, and carried off by the enemy. This gave an alarm at Rhode Island, and the inhabitants, on the 2d of October, cleared the Island of all the stock that could become use. ful to the enemy Captain Wallace resented this removal, and made a descent upon the Island of Canonnicut, burat

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