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of his poem:
attempt was a much easier one than the for- breathless rapidity, and balancing success almer; it was more consonant to human frailty; ternately from one side to the other, without letand, therefore, it has met with more success. ting it ever incline decisively to either. Tasso The gods and goddesses in the Iliad are men has adopted the same plan in his Jerusalem and women, endowed with human passions, Delivered, and the contests of the Christian affections, and desires, and distinguished only knights and Saracen leaders with the lance from sublunary beings by superior power and and the sword, closely resemble those of the the gift of immortality. We are interested in Grecian and Trojan chiefs on the plain of them as we are in the genii or magicians of Troy. Ariosto has carried it still further. an eastern romance. There is a sort of aërial The exploits of his Paladins-their adventures epic poem going on between earth and heaven. on earth, in air, and water; their-loves, their They take sides in the terrestrial combat, and sufferings, their victories, their dangers-keep engage in the actual strife with the heroes en- the reader in a continual state of suspense. It is gaged in it. Mars and Venus were wounded this sustained and varied interest which makes by Diomede when combatting in the Trojan so many readers prefer the Orlando Furioso to ranks: their blood, or rather the
the Jerusalem Delivered. But Ariosto has pushed "Ichor which blest immortals shed,"
it too far. In the search of variety, he has flowed profusely; they fled howling to the pa- lost sight of unity. His heroes are not conlaces of heaven. Enlightened by a spiritual gregated round the banners of two rival pofaith, fraught with sublime ideas of the divine tentates: there is no one object or interest in nature and government, Milton was incompa- his poem. No narrow plain, like that watered rably more just in his descriptions of the Su-by the Scamander, is the theatre of their expreme Being, and more elevated in his picture ploits. Jupiter, from the summit of Gargaof the angels and archangels who carried on rus, could not have beheld the contending the strife in heaven; but he frequently falls armies. The most ardent imagination, indeed, into metaphysical abstractions or theological is satiated with his adventures, but the closest controversies, which detract from the interest attention can hardly follow their thread. Story
after story is told, the exploits of knight after Despite Milton's own opinion, the concurring knight are recounted, till the mind is fatigued, voice of all subsequent ages and countries the memory perplexed, and all general interest has assigned to the Paradise Regained a much in the poem lost. lower place than to the Paradise Lost. The Milton has admirably preserved the unity of reason is, that it is less dramatic-it has less his poem; the grand and all-important object incident and action. Great part of the poem of the fall of man could hardly admit of suboris but an abstract theological debate between dinate or rival interests. But the great defect our Saviour and Satan. The speeches he in the Paradise Lost, arising from that very makes them utter are admirable, the reasoning unity, is want of variety. It is strong throughis close, the arguments cogent, the sentiments out on too lofty a key; it does not come down elevated in the speakers, but dialectic 100. In sufficiently to the wants and cravings of mormany of the speeches of the angel Raphael, tality. The mind is awe-struck by the deand in the council of heaven, in the Paradise scription of Satan careering through the imLost, there is too much of that species of dis- mensity of space, of the battle of the angels, cussion for a poem which is to interest the of the fall generality of men. Dryden says, that Satan is unsubdued spirit of his fellow rebels, of the Milton's real hero; and every reader of the adamantine gates, and pitchy darkness, and Paradise Lost must have felt, that in the Prince burning lake of hell. But after the first feelof Darkness and Adam and Eve, the interest ing of surprise and admiration is over, it is of the poem consists. The reason is, that the felt by all, that these lofty contemplations are vices of the first, and the weakness of the two not interesting to mortals like ourselves. They last, bring them nearer than any other charac- are too much above real life too much out of ters in the poem to the standard of mortality; the sphere of ordinary event and interest. and we are so constituted, that we cannot take The fourth book is the real scene of interest any great interest but in persons who share in in the Paradise Lost ; it is its ravishing scenes our failings.
of primeval innocence and bliss which have Perhaps the greatest cause of the sustained given it immortality. We are never tired of interest of the Iliad is the continued and vehe- recurring to the bower of Eve, to her devotion ment action which is maintained. The atten- to Adam, to the exquisite scenes of Paradise, tion is seldom allowed to flag. Either in the its woods, its waters, its flowers, its enchantcouncil of the gods, the assembly of the Gre- ments. We are so, because we feel that it cian or Trojan chiefs, or the contest of the paints the Elysium to which all aspire, which leaders on the field of battle, an incessant in- all have for a brief period felt, but which none terest is maintained. Great events are always in this world can durably enjoy. on the wing; the issue of the contest is per- No one can doubt that Homer was endowed. petually hanging, often almost even, in the with the true poetic spirit, and yet there is: balance. It is the art with which this is done, very little of what we now call poetry in his and a state of anxious suspense, like the crisis writings. There is neither sentiment nor deof a great battle, kept up, that the great art of clamation-painting nor reflection. He is the poet consists. It is done by making the neither descriptive nor didactic. With great whole dramatic—bringing the characters for- powers for portraying nature, as the exquisite ward constantly to speak for themselves, mak- choice of his epithets, and the occasional force mg the erents succeed, each other with almost of his similes prove, he never makes any la
boured attempt to delineate her features. He it only with Sthenelus and his friends. So had the eye of a great painter; but his pictorial completely marked, so well defined are his talents are employed, almost unconsciously, characters, though they were all rapacious in the fervour of narrating events, or the ani-chiefs at first sight, little differing from each mation of giving utterance to thoughts. He other, that it has been observed with truth, that painted by an epithet or a line. Even the one well acquainted with the Iliad could tell, celebrated description of the fires in the plain upon hearing one of the speeches read out of Troy, likened to the moon in a serene night, without a name, who was the chief who is contained in seven lines. His rosy-fingered uttered it. morn-cloud-compelling Jupiter-Neptune, The two authors, since his time, who have stiller of the waves--Aurora rising from her most nearly approached him in this respect, crocus-bed-Night drawing her veil over the are Shakspeare and Scott. Both seem to have heavens—the black keel careering through the received the pencil which paints the human lashing waves—the shout of the far-sounding heart from nature herself. Both had a keen seam and the like, from which subsequent poets and searching eye for character in all grades and dramatists have borrowed so largely, are and walks of life; and what is a general acall brief allusions, or epithets, which evidently companiment of such a disposition, a strong did not form the main object of his strains. sense of the ridiculous. Both seized the salient He was a close observer of nature-its lights, points in mental disposition, and perceived at its shades, its storms and calms, its animals, a glance, as it were, the ruling propensity their migrations, their cries and habits; but he Both impressed this character so strongly on never suspends his narrative to describe them. their minds, that they threw themselves, as it We shall look in vain in the Iliad, and even were, into the very souls of the persons whom the Odyssey, for the lengthened pictures of they delineated, and made them speak and act scenery which are so frequent in Virgil and like nature herself. It is this extraordinary Tasso, and appear in such rich profusion in faculty of identifying themselves with their Milton. He describes storms only as objects characters, and bringing out of their mouth the of terror, not to paint them to the eye. Such very words which, in real life, would have things are to be found in the book of Job and come, which constitutes the chief and permain the Psalms, but with the same brevity and nent attraction of these wonderful masters of magical force of emphatic expression. There the human heart. Cervantes had it in an never was a greater painter of nature than Ho- equal degree; and thence it is that Homer, mer; there never was a man who aimed less Shakspeare, Cervantes, and Scott, have made at being so.
so great, and to all appearance, durable imThe portraying of character and event was pression on mankind. The human heart is, the great and evident object of the Grecian at bottom, everywhere the same. There is bard; and there his powers may almost be infinite diversity in the dress he wears, but the pronounced unrivalled. He never tells you, naked human figure of one country scarcely unless it is sometimes to be inferred from an differs from another. The writers who have epithet, what the man's character that he in- succeeded in reaching this deep substratum, trodụces is. He trusts to the character to this far-hidden but common source of human delineate itself. He lets us get acquainted action, are understood and admired over all the with his heroes, as we do with persons around world. It is the same on the banks of the us, by hearing them speak, and seeing them Simoïs as on those of the Avon-on the Sierra act. In preserving character, in this dramatic Morena as the Scottish hills. They are underway of representing it, he is unrivalled. He stood alike in Europe as Asia--in antiquity as does not tell you that Nestor had the garrulity modern times; one unanimous burst of admi. of age, and loved to recur to the events of his ration salutes them from the North Cape to youth; but he never makes him open his Cape Horn-from the age of Pisistratus to tha mouth without descanting on the adventures of of Napoleon. his early years, and the degenerate race of Strange as it may appear to superficial ob mčrtals who have succeeded the paladins of servers, Cervantes bears a close analogy, in former days. He does not tell us that Achilles many particulars, to Homer. Circumstances, was wrathful and impetuous; but every time and an inherent turn for humour, made hin he speaks, the anger of the son of Peleus throw his genius into an exquisite ridicule of comes boiling over.. his lips. He does not the manners of chivalry; but the author of describe Agamemnon as overbearing and Don Quixote had in him the spirit of a great haughty; but the pride of the king of men is epic poet. His lesser pieces prove it; une.. continually appearing in his words and actions, quivocal traces of it are to be found in the and it is the evident moral of the Iliad to rep- adventures of the Knight of La Mancha him resent its pernicious effects on the affairs of self. The elevation of mind which, amidst all the Helenic confederacy. Ulysses never utters his aberrations, appears in that erratic chaa word in which the cautious and prudent racter; the incomparable traits of nature with counsellor, sagacious in design but prompt in which the work abounds; the faculty of de. execution, wary in the council but decided in scribing events in the most striking way; of the field, far-seeing but yet persevering, is not painting scenes in a few words; of delineating apparent. Diomede never falters; alike in the characters with graphic fidelity, and keeping field and the council he is indomitable. When them up with perfect consistency, which are Hector was careering in his chariot round so conspicuous in Don Quixote, are so many their fortifications, and the king of men coun- of the most essential qualities of an epic poet solled retreat, he declared he would remain, were Nor was the ardour of imagination, the romantic disposition, the brilliancy of fancy, It is to be seen in the most remarkable manner the lofty aspirations, the tender heart, which in Bacon and Machiavel, and not a little of it form the more elevated and not less essential may be traced both in the prose and poetical part of such a character, wanting in the Span- works of Scott. The reason is, that the strength ish novelist.
of the mind is thrown into the thought as the Sir Walter Scott more nearly resembles main object; the language, as a subordinate Homer than any poet who has sung since the matter, is little considered. Expressions ca. siege of Troy. Not that he has produced any pable of energetically expressing the prevailpoem which will for a moment bear a com- ing ideas of imagination are early formed; parison with the Iliad fine as the Lady of the but, when this is done, the powerful, careless Lake and Marmion are, it would be the height mind, readily adopts them on all future occaof national partiality to make any such com- sions where they are at all applicable. There parison. But, nevertheless, Sir Walter's mind is scarcely a great and original thinker in is of the same dimensions as that of Homer. whose writings the same expressions do not We see in him the same combination of very frequently recur, often in exactly the same natural sagacity with acquired information; words. How much this is the case with Homer of pictorial eye with dramatic effect; of observa- --with how much discrimination and genius tion of character with reflection and feeling; his epithets and expressions were first chosen, of graphic power with poetic fervour; of and how frequently he repeats them, almost ip ardour of imagination with rectitude of prin- every page, need be told to none who are acciple; of warlike enthusiasm with pacific ten- quainted with his writings. That is the most derness, which have rendered the Grecian bard decisive mark at once of genius and identity. immortal. It is in his novels, however, more Original thinkers fall into repetition of expresthan his poetry, that this resemblance appears; sion, because they are always speaking from the author of Waverley more nearly approaches one model—their own thoughts. Subordinate the blind bard than the author of the Lay. His writers avoid this fault, because they are Romances in verse contain some passages speaking from the thoughts of others, and which are sublime, many which are beautiful, share their variety. It requires as great an some pathetic. They are all interesting, and effort for the first to introduce difference of exwritten in the same easy, careless style, inter- pression as for the last to reach diversity of spersed with the most homely and grotesque thought. expressions, which is so well known to all the The reader of Dante must not look for the readers of the Iliad. The battle in Marmion is heart-stirring and animated narrative-the conbeyond all question, as Jeffrey long ago stant interest-the breathless suspense, which remarked, the most Homeric strife which has hurries us along the rapid current of the Iliad. been sung since the days of Homer. But these There are no councils of the gods; nomessenpassages are few and far between; his poems gers winging their way through the clouds; no are filled with numerous and long interludes, combats of chiefs, no cities to storm; no fields written with little art, and apparently no other to win. It is the infernal regions which the object but to fill up the pages or eke out the poet, under the guidance of his great leader, story. It is in prose that the robust strength, Virgil, visits; it is the scene of righteous re the powerful arm, the profound knowledge of tribution through which he is led : it is the apthe heart, appear, and it is there, accordingly, portionment of punishment and reward to that he approaches at times so closely to crime or virtue, in this upper world, that he is Homer. If we could conceive a poem in doomed to witness. We enter the city of la which the storming of Front-de-Bæuf's castle mentation-we look down the depths of the in Ivanhoe the death of Fergus in Waverley--bottomless pit-wè stand at the edge of the the storm on the coast, and death-scene in the burning lake. His survey is not the mere tranfisher's hut, in the Antiquary—the devoted love sient visit like that of Ulysses in Homer, or of in the Bride of Lammermoor--the fervour of the Æneas in Virgil. He is taken slowly and deCovenanters in Old Mortality, and the combats liberately through every successive circle of of Richard and Saladin in the Talisman, were Malebolge ; descending down which, like the united together and intermingled with the in- visitor of the tiers of vaults, one beneath comparable characters, descriptions, and inci- another, in a feudal castle, he finds every spedents with which these novels abound, they cies of malefactors, from the chiefs and kings would form an epic poem.
whose heroic lives were stained only by a few Doubts have sometimes been expressed, as deeds of cruelty, to the depraved malefactors to whether the Iliad and Odyssey are all the whose base course was unrelieved by one ray production of one man. Never, perhaps, was of virtue. In the very conception of such a doubt not merely so ill-founded, but so decisive-poem, is to be found decisive evidence of ly disproved by internal evidence. If ever in the mighty change which the human mind had human composition the traces of one mind are undergone since the expiring lays of poetry conspicuous, they are in Homer. His beauties were last heard in the ancient world; of the equally with his defects, his variety and uni- vast revolution of thought and inward convicformity attest this. Never was an author who tion which, during a thousand years, in the had so fertile an imagination for varying of in- solitude of the monastery, and under the sway cidents; never was one who expressed them of a spiritual faith, had taken place in the in language in which the same words so con- human heart. A gay and poetic mythology stantly recur. This is the invariable charac- no longer amazed the world by its fictions, teristic of a great and powerful, but at the or charmed it by its imagery. Religion no same time self-confident but careless mind. longer basked in the sunshine of imagination.
The awful words of judgment to come had Here is Dante portrayed to the life in the been spoken; and, like Felix, mankind had very outset. What a collection of awful images trembled. Ridiculous legends had ceased to in a few lines! Loud lamentations, hideous be associated with the shades below-their cries, mingled with the sound of clasped hands, place had been taken by images of horror. beneath a starless sky; and the terrible anConscience had resumed its place in the direc- swer, as the cause of this suffering, « These tion of thought. Superstition had lent its awful have not the hope of death." power to the sanctions of religion. Terror of The very first lines of the Inferno, when the future puni nent had subdued the fiercest gates of Hell were approached, and the inpassions-internal agony tamed the proudest scription over them appeared, paint the disspirits. It was the picture of a future world-mal character of the poem, and yet mingled of a world of retribution--conceived under such with the sense of divine love and justice with impressions, that Dante proposed to give; it is which the author was penetrated. that which he has given with such terrible fidelity.
“Per me si va nella città dolente ; Melancholy was the prevailing characteris
Per me si va nell' eterno dolore; tic of the great Italian's mind. It was so pro
Per me si va tra la perduta gente :
Giustizia mosse 'I mio alto Fattore; found that it penetrated all his thoughts ; so
Fecemi la divina Potestate, intense that it pervaded all his conceptions. La somma Sapienza e 'l primo Amore.
Dinanzi a me non fur cose create, Occasionally bright and beautiful ideas flitted
Se non eterne; ed io eterno duro: across his imagination ; visions of bliss, ex- Lasciate ogni speranza voi che 'ntrate." perienced for a moment, and then lost for ever,
Inferno, c. iil as if to render more profound the darkness by “Through me you pass into the city of wo; which they are surrounded. They are given
Through me you pass into eternal pain :
Through me among the people lost for aye. with exquisite beauty; but they shine amidst
Justice the founder of my fabric moved : the gloom like sunbeams struggling through To rear me was the task of power divine, the clouds. He inherited from the dark ages
Supremest wisdom, and primeval love.
Before me things create were none, save things the austerity of the cloister; but he inherited
Eternal, and eternal I endure. with it the deep feelings and sublime concep- All hope abandon, ye who enter here." tions which its seclusion had generated. His
CARY'S Dante, Inferno, c. iii. mind was a world within itself. He drew all Dante had much more profound feelings his conceptions from that inexhaustible source; than Homer, and therefore he has painted deep but he drew them forth so clear and lucid, that mysteries of the human heart with greater they emerged, imbodied as it were, in living force and fidelity. The more advanced age of images. His characters are emblematic of the world, the influence of a spiritual faith, the the various passions and views for which dif-awful anticipation of judgment to come, the ferent degrees of punishment were reserved inmost feelings which, during long centuries in the world to come; but his conception of of seclusion, had been drawn forth in the them was so distinct, his description so vivid, cloister, the protracted sufferings of the dark that they stand forth to our gaze in all the agony ages, had laid bare the human heart. Its sufof their sufferings, like real flesh and blood. ferings, its terrors, its hopes, its joys, had beWe see them--we feel them--we hear their come as household words. 'I he Italian poet cries our very
creeps at the perception shared, as all do, in the ideas and images of his of their sufferings. We stand on the edge of age, and to these he added many which were the lake of boiling pitch--we feel the weight entirely his own. He painted the inward man, of the leaden manties--we see the snow-like and painted him from his own feelings, not the flakes of burning sand—we hear the cries of observation of others. That is the grand disthose who had lost the last earthly consolations, tinction between him and Homer; and that it the hope of death :
is which has given him, in the delineation of “Quivi sospiri, pianti ed alti guai
mind, his great superiority. The Grecian bard Risonavan per l' aer senza stelle,
was an incomparable observer; he had an inPerch' io al cominciar ne lacrimai.
exhaustible imagination for fiction, as well as Diverse lingue, orribili favelle, Parole di dolore, accenti d' ira,
a graphic eye for the delineation of real life; Voci alte e fioche, e suon di man con elle,
but he had not a deep or feeling heart. He did Facevano un tumulto, il qual s'aggira
not know it, like Dante and Shakspeare, from Sempre in quell' aria senza tempo tinta Come la rena quando 'l turbo spira.
his own suffering. He painted the external
symptoms of passion and emotion with the Ed io : maestro, che è tanto greve
hand of a master; but he did not reach the A lor che lamentar li fa sì forte ? Rispose : dicerolti molto breve.
inward spring of feeling. He lets us into his Questi non hanno speranza di morte."
characters by their speeches, their gestures, Inferno, c. iii.
their actions, and keeps up their consistency “Here sighs, with lamentations and loud moans, with admirable fidelity; but he does not, by a Resounded through the air pierced by no star, That e'en I wept at entering. Various tongues,
word, an expression, or an epithet, admit us Horrible languages, outcries of wo,
into the inmost folds of the heart. None can Accents of anger, voices deep and 'hoarse, With hands together smote that swell’d the sounds,
do so but such as themselves feel warmly and Made up a tumult, that for ever whirls
profoundly, and paint passion, emotion, or Round through that air with solid darkness stained, suffering, from their own experience, not the Like to the sand that in the whirlwind flies.
observation of others. Dante has acquired I then : Master! What doth aggrieve them thus,
his colossal fame from the matchless force with That they lament so loud ? He straight replied: That will I tell thee briefly. These of death
which he has portrayed the wildest passions, No hope may entertain."
the deepest feelings, the most intense sufferCary's Dante, Inferno, c. iii. ings of the heart. He is the refuge of all
those who labour and are heavy laden-of all to engender new ones for himself; he did not who feel profoundly or have suffered deeply. study to imitate, but to create. It was the His verses are in the mouth of all who are same with Dante; it is the same with every torn by passion, gnawed by remorse, or tor- really great man. His was the first powerful mented by apprehension; and how many are and original mind which, fraught with the they in this scene of wo!
profound and gloomy ideas nourished in secluA distinguished modern critic* has said, sion during the middle ages, came into contact that he who would now become a great poet with the brilliant imagery, touching pathos, must first become a little child. There is no and harmonious language of the ancients. doubt he is right. The seen and unseen fetters Hence his astonishing greatness. He almost of civilization; the multitude of old ideas afloat worshipped Virgil, he speaks of him as a spein the world; the innumerable worn out chan-cies of god; he mentions Homer as the first nels into which new ones are ever apt to flow; of poets. But he did not copy either the one the general clamour with which critics, nursed or the other; he scarcely imitated them. He amidst such fetters, receive any attempts at strove to rival their brevity and beauty of exbreaking them; the prevalence, in a wealthy pression; but he did so in giving vent to new and highly civilized age, of worldly or selfish ideas, in painting new images, in awakening ideas; the common approximation of charac- new emotions. The Inferno is as original as ters by perpetual intercourse, as of coins, by the Iliad; incomparably more so than the continual rubbing in passing from man to man, Æneid. The offspring of originality with ori. have taken away all freshness and originality ginality is a new and noble creation; of origifrom ideas. The learned, the polished, the nality with mediocrity, a spurious and degraded highly educated, can hardly escape the fetters imitation. which former greatness throws over the soul. Dante paints the spirit of all the generations Milton could not avoid them; half the images of men, each in their circle undergoing their in his poems are taken from Homer, Virgil, allotted punishment; expiating by suffering and Dante; and who dare hope for emancipa- the sins of an upper world. Virgil gave a tion when Milton was enthralled? The me- glimpse, as it were, into that scene of retribuchanical arts increase in perfection as society tion; Minos and Rhadamanthus passing judg advances. Science ever takes its renewed ment on the successive spirits brought before flights from the platform which former efforts them; the flames of Tartarus, the rock of Sihave erected. Industry, guided by experience, syphus, the wheel of Ixion, the vulture gnawin successive ages, brings to the highest point ing Prometheus. But with Homer and Virgil, all the contrivances and inventions
which mi- the descent into the infernal regions was a nister to the comfort or elegancies of life. But brief episode; with Dante it was the whole it is otherwise with genius. It sinks in the poem. Immense was the effort of imaginaprogress of society, as much as science and tion requisite to give variety to such a subject, the arts rise. The country of Homer and to prevent the mind from experiencing weari. Æschylus sank for a thousand years into the ness amidst the eternal recurrence of crime torpor of the Byzantine empire. Originality and punishment. But the genius of Dante perishes amidst acquisition. Freshness of was equal to the task. His fancy was prodi- . conception is its life: like the flame, it burns gious; his invention boundless; his imaginafierce and clear in the first gales of a pure tion inexhaustible. Fenced in, as he was, atmosphere; but languishes and dies in that within narrow and gloomy limits by the nature polluted by many breaths.
of his subject, his creative spirit equals that It was the resurrection of the human mind, of Homer himself. He has given birth to as after the seclusion and solitary reflection of many new ideas in the Inferno and the Paradiso, the middle ages, which gave this vein of ori- as the Grecian bard in the Iliad and Odyssey. ginal ideas to Dante, as their first wakening Though he had reflected so much and so had given to Homer. Thought was not ex- deeply on the human heart, and was so perfect tinct; the human mind was not dormant dur- a master of all the anatomy of mental suffering the dark ages; far from it-it never, in ing, Dante's mind was essentially descriptive. some respects, was more active. It was the He was a great painter as well as a profound first collision of their deep and lonely medita-thinker; he clothed deep feeling in the garb tions with the works of the great ancient of the senses; he conceived a vast brood of poets, which occasioned the prodigy. Uni- new ideas, he arrayed them in a surprising versally it will be found to be the same. After manner in flesh and blood. He is ever clear the first flights of genius have been taken, it is and definite, at least in the Inferno. He exby the collision of subsequent thought with it hibits in every canto of that wonderful poem a that the divine spark is again elicited. The fresh image, but it is a clear one, of horror cr meeting of two great minds is necessary to anguish, which leaves nothing to the imagiuabeget fresh ideas, as that of two clouds is to tion to add or conceive. His ideal characters bring forth lightning, or the collision of flint are real persons; they are present to our and steel to produce fire. Johnson said he senses; we feel their flesh, see the quivering could not get new ideas till he had read. He of their limbs, hear their lamentations, and was right; though it is not one in a thousand feel a thrill of joy at their felicity. In the who strikes out original thoughts from study- Paradiso he is more vague and general, and ing the works of others. The great sage did thence its acknowledged inferiority to the not read to imbibe the opinion of others, but Inferno. But the images of horror are much
more powerful than those of happiness, and it * Macaulay.
is they which have entranced the world. "It