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amidst the injustice of this world, secures the sing itself closely pressed by a reaction at blessing of Heaven.

home, feels a greater desire to form alliances The Dutch may have Antwerp wrested from with other nations; and consequently it is less them; they may be compelled, from inability solicitous about treaties and rights than France, to resist, to surrender it to the Allies. All that who would unite herself more readily with will not alter the case; it will not ultimately monarchical states, if she were not restrained avert an European war; it will not the less by the alliance with England. It is evident prove fatal to the progress of freedom. The that England now occupies the place which Allies, and above all, England, allow the key to was occupied by France after the revolution. the Scheldt, and the advanced post of France Already the Grey ministry finds itself comagainst Britain, to remain in the hands of the pelled to repair one extreme resolution by anFrench, or, what is the same thing, their sub- other; and in a very short time, repose, order, sidiary ally, the Belgians. In every age the and peace, will become impossible. We reestablishment of the French power in Flan- peat, therefore, that it is the Grey ministry ders has led to an European war; that in which threatens the peace of Europe.” Such which a revolutionary force is intrenched is the light in which our government is viewed there, is not destined to form an exception. by the continental powers, and such the alarm A war of opinion must ensue sooner or later, which they feel at the threatened attack on when the tricolour standard is brought down Holland by the two revolutionary states; and to the Scheldt, and the eagle of Prussia floats yet we are told by the partisans of administraon the Meuse. When that event comes, as tion, that they are going to attack Antwerp“ to come it will, then will England, whether re- preserve the peace of Europe." publican or monarchical, be compelled to exert The ministerial journals have at length let her force to drive back the French to their old out the real motive of our conduct; the Times frontier. A second war must be undertaken to tells us that it is useless to blink the question, regain what a moment of weakness and infatu- for if the French and English do not attack ation has lost in the first.

Antwerp together, France will attack it alone, But what will be the result of such a war, and that this would infallibly bring on a geneprovoked by the revolutionary ambition of ral war. That is to say, we have got into the France, and the tame subservience of England, company of a robber who is bent upon assailon the interests of freedom? If revolutionary ing a passenger upon the highway, and to pre'ambition prevails, what chance has liberty of vent murder we join the robber in the attack. Did surviving amidst the tyranny of democratic it never occur to our rulers, that there was a power? If legitimate authority conquers, how more effectual way to prevent the iniquity ? can it exist amidst the Russian and Austrian and that is to get out of such bad company, bayonets? When will real freedom again be and defend the traveller. Would France ever restored as it existed in France under the mild venture to attack Antwerp if she were not sway of the Bourbons; or as prosperous a supported by England? Would she ever do period be regained for that distracted country, so if England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, as that which elapsed from 1815 to 1830? It were leagued together to prevent the march of is evident, that freedom must perish in the revolutionary ambition ? On whom then do fierce contest between democratic and regal the consequences of the aggression clearly tyranny: it is hard to say, whether it has most rest? On the English government, : who, to fear from the triumph of the French or the against the interests and honour of England, Russian bayonets. To their other claims to join in the attack, when they hold the balance the abhorrence of mankind, the liberals of in their hands, and by a word could prevent it. England, like the Jacobins of France, will add It is evident that it is this portentous alliance that of being the assassins of real liberty of France and England which really threatens throughout the world.

the peace of Europe, and must ultimately lead It is sometimes advantageous to see the light to a universal war. The Manheim Gazette in which the conduct of Great Britain is view- is perfectly right; it is the Grey administration ed in foreign states. The following article is who head the revolutionary crusade. Holding from the Manheim Gazette of the 8th inst. :-- the balance in our hands, we voluntarily throw

The French ministry and the English Whigs our decisive weight into the scales of aggreshave in vain asserted that they do not mean to sion, and the other powers must unite to restore rule by the principle of propagandism; these the beam. assurances are no guarantee, since propagand- The years of prosperity will not endure for ism subsists in the system they have establish- ever to England, any more than to any earthly ed, and cannot cease till that system is at an thing. The evil days will come when the end. The delegates of the people, for in this grandeur of an old and venerated name will light must be viewed all governments founded sink amidst the storms of adversity; when her upon the principle of popular sovereignty, vast and unwieldy empire will be dismembermust of necessity seek their allies among ed, and province after province fall away from other delegates of the same character; and to her mighty dominions. When these days endeavour to find friends among their neigh- come, as come they will, then will she feel vours, is to act as if they sought to revolution- what it was to have betrayed and insulted her ize such states as profess the monarchical allies in the plenitude of her power. When principle. In this respect the influence of the Ireland rises in open rebellion against her doGrey ministry is more pernicious than that of minion; when the West Indies are lost, and the French ministry. The former having com- with them the right arm of her naval strength; menced by revolutionizing England, and feel- when the armies of the continent crowd the


coasts of Flanders, and the navies of Europe | have had many eulogists, but they have had are assembled in the Scheldt, to humble the none who have established their reputation mistress of the waves, then will she feel how so effectually as their successors : Mr. Pitt's deeply, how irreparably, her character has glory might have been doubtful in the eyes of suffered from the infatation of the last two posterity, had he not been succeeded by Lord years. In vain will she call on her once faith. Grey. The contrast between the firmness, inful friends in Holland or Portugal to uphold tegrity, and good faith of the one, and the the cause of freedom; in vain will she appeal vacillation, defection, and weakness of the to the world against the violence with which other, will leave an impression on the minds she is menaced; her desertion of her allies in of men which will never be effaced. The mag the hour of their adversity, her atrocious alli- nitude of the perils from which we were saved ance with revolutionary violence, will rise up by the first, have been proved by the dangers in judgment against her. When called on for we have incurred under the second; the lustre aid, they will answer, did you aid us in the day of the intrepidity of the former, by the disgrace of trial? when reminded of the alliance of an and humiliation of the latter. To the bright hundred and fifty years, they will point to the evening of England's glory, has succeeded the partition of 1832. England may expiate by darkness of revolutionary night: may it be as suffering the disgrace of her present defec- brief as it has been gloomy, and be followed tion; efface it from the minds of men she by the rise of the same luminary in a brighter never will.



NEVER was there a more just observation, smoother shell than ordinary, while the great than that there is no end to authentic history. ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before We shall take the most learned and enthusi- him.” We complain of sameness of thought, astic student of history in the country; one of want of originality in topics, and yet we live who has ent half his life in reading the an- in the midst of a boundless profusion of new nals of human events, and still we are confi- facts and virgin images, for the first time dent that much of what is about to be stated in brought forward by our extended intercourse this article will be new to him. Yet it relates with all parts of the world, and the heart-stirto no inconsiderable state, and is to be found ring events of our political history. There in no obscure writer. It relates to the history never was a period in the annals of mankind, of Russia, the greatest and most powerful em- if we except that of the discovery of America, pire, if we except Great Britain, which exists in which new facts and novel images, and the upon the earth, and with which,--sometimes materials for original thought, were brought in alliance, sometimes in jealousy, we have with such profusion to the hand of genius; and been almost continually brought in contact there never was one in which, in this country during the last half century. It is to be found at least, so little use was made of them, or in in the history of Karamsin, the greatest his- which the public mind seems to revolve so torian of Russia, who has justly acquired an exclusively round one centre, and in one beaten European reputation; but whose great work, and wellnigh worn-out orbit. though relating to so interesting a subject, has Whence

has arisen this strange discrepancy hitherto, in an unaccountable manner, been between the profusion with which new mateneglected in this country.

rials and fresh objects are brought to hand, We complain that there is nothing new in and the scanty proportion in which original Literature,—that old ideas are perpetually re- thought is poured out to the world!--The curring, and worn-out topics again dressed up. cause is to be found in the impossibility of in a new garb,—that sameness and imitation getting the great majority of men to make the seem to be irrevocably stamped upon our “past or the future predominant over the preliterature, and the age of original thought, of sent.". If we add "the absent" to the famous fresh ideas, and creative genius, has passed apothegm of Johnson, we shall have a sumaway! Rely upon it, the fault is not in the mary of the principal causes which in ordinary nature of things, but in ourselves. The stock times chain mankind to the concentric circles of original ideas, of new thoughts, of fresh of established ideas. Amidst common events, images, is not worn out; on the contrary, it and under the influence of no peculiar excite. has hardly been seriously worked upon by ment, men are incapable of extricating them all the previous efforts of mankind. We may selves from the ocean of habitual thought with say of it, as Newton did of his discoveries which they are surrounded. A few great men in physical science, that “all that he had done may do so, but their ideas produce no impresseemed like a boy playing on the sea-shore, sion on the age, and lie wellnigh dormant till finding sometimes a brighter pebble or a they are brought to fructify and spread amidst

the turbulence or sufferings of another. Thence 1828. Foreign and Colonial Review, No. VII. July, citement to the growth of intellect, and the • Karamsin, Histoire

de Russie, il vols, Paris, 1819.. the use of periods of suffering or intense ex.


development of truth. The past and the future at first sight, the history of Russia is yet are then made the present ; ages of experience, singularly susceptible of simplification. It volumes of speculation, are then concentrated embraces four great periods, each of which into the passing results of a few years, and have stamped their own peculiar impress upon thus spread generally throughout mankind. the character of the theople, and which have What original thought was evolved in England combined to produce that mighty empire which during the fervour of the Reformation! in now numbers 60,000,000 of men among its France, during the agonies of the Revolution ! subjects, and a seventh of the surface of the Subsequent centuries of ease and peace to globe beneath its dominion. each were but periods of transfer and amplifi- The first of these periods is that which comcation--of studied imitation and laboured mences with the foundation of the Russian commentary. There has been, there still is, empire by Rurick, in 862, and terminates with original thought in our age; but it is confined the commencement of the unhappy division to those whom the agitation of reform roused of the empire into apanages, or provisions for from the intellectual lethargy with which they younger children,--the source of innumerable were surrounded, and their opinions have not evils both to the monarchy and its subjects, in yet come to influence general thought. They 1054. The extent to which the empire had will do so in the next generation, and direct spread, and the power it had acquired before the course of legislation in the third. Public this ruinous system of division commenced, opinion, of which so much is said, is nothing is extraordinary. In the 10th century, Russia but the re-echo of the opinions of the great was as prominent, comparatively speaking, among our fathers,—legislation among our among the powers of Europe, in point of grandfathers; so slowly, under the wise sys- territory, population, resources, and achievetem of providence, is truth and improvement ments, as she is at this moment. The conlet down to a benighted world!

quests of Oleg, of Sviatoslof, and of Vladimir, We have been forcibly led to these observa- to whom the sceptre of Rurick had descended, tions by the study of Karamsin's History of extended the frontiers of the Russian territory Russia, and the immense stores of new facts from Novogorod and Kieff-its original cradle and novel ideas which are to be found in a on the banks of the Dnieper—to the Baltic, the work long accessible in its French translation Dwina, and the Bug, on the west; on the to all, hardly as yet approached by any. We south, to the cataracts of the Dnieper and the are accustomed to consider Russia as a country Cimmerian Bosphorus; in the north, to Archwhich has only been extricated by the genius angel, the White Sea, and Finland; on the of Peter the Great, little more than a century' east, to the Ural Mountains and shores of the and a half ago, from a state of barbarism, and Caspian. All the territory, which now conthe annals of which have been lost amidst stitutes the strength of Russia, and has enabled general ignorance, or are worthy of no regard it to extend its dominion and influence so far till they were brought into light by the in- over Asia and Europe, was already ranged creasing intercourse with the powers of west- under the sceptre of its monarchs before the ern Europe. Such, we are persuaded, is the time of Edward the Confessor. belief of ninety-nine out of an hundred, even The second period comprehends the inamong learned readers, in every European numerable intestine wars, and progressive state ; yet we perceive from Karamsin, that decline of the strength and consideration of Russia is a power which has existed, though the empire, which resulted from the adoption with great vicissitudes of fortune, for a thou- of the fatal system of apanages. This method sand years; that Rurick, its founder, was con- of providing for the younger children of suctemporary with Alfred; and that it assailed cessive monarchs, so natural to parental affecthe Bosphorus and Constantinople in the ninth tion, so just with reference to the distribution century, with a force greater than that with of possessions among successive royal famiwhich William the Conqueror subverted the lies, so ruinous to the ultimate interests of the Saxrın monarchy at Hastings, and more pow- state, was commenced by the Grand Prince erful than were led against it in after times by Dmitri, in 1054, and afforded too ready a means the ambition of Catherine or the generals of of providing for the succeeding generation of Nicholas! What is still more remarkable, the princes to be soon abandoned. The effects of mode of attack adopted by these rude invaders such a system may without difficulty be conof the Byzantine empire was precisely that ceived. It reduced a solid compact monarchy which long and dear-bought experience, aided at once to the distracted state of the Saxon by military science, subsequently taught to the heptarchy, and soon introduced into its vitals Russian generals. Avoiding the waterless and those fierce internal wars which exhaust the unhealthy plains of Bessarabia and Walachia, strength of a nation without either augmenting they committed themselves in fearful multi- its resources, or adding to its reputation. It is tudes to boats, which were wafted down the justly remarked accordingly, by Karamsin, that stream of the Dnieper to the Black Sea; and for the next three hundred years after this fatal when the future conqueror of the east ap- change in the system of government, Russia proaches to place the cross on the minarets incessantly declined; and after having attained, of St. Sophia, he has only to follow the track at a very early period, the highest pitch of of the canoes, which a thousand years ago power and grandeur, she sunk to such a depth brought the hordes of Rurick to the entrance of weakness as to be incapable of opposing of the Bosphorus.

any effectual resistance to a foreign invader. Complicated, and to appearance inextricable The third period of Russian history, and not us the transactions of the Slavonic race seen the least in the formation of its national c

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racter, commenced with the Tartar invasion, one period serious thoughts of deserting his and terminated with the final emancipation of country, and seeking refuge in England from the Moscovite dominions. In 1224, the first his numerous enemies. Yet, Russia, thanks intelligence of a strange, uncouth, and savage to the patriotism of her children and the inenemy having appeared on the eastern frontier, domitable firmness of her character, survived was received at Kieff, then the capital of the all these disasters; in the succeeding reign Muscovite confederacy, for it no longer de her arms were extended across the Ural mounserved the name of an empire; and two hun- tains over Siberia, though her dominion over dred and fifty years had elapsed before the its immense wilds was for long little more nation was finally emancipated from their than nominal, and a fortress was erected at dreadful yoke. This was accomplished by the Archangel, which secured to her the command abilities and perseverance of John III., the of the White Sea. true restorer, and, in some degree, the second The last period commences with the taking founder of the empire, in 1480, in which year of Azoph, by Peter the Great, in 1696, which the last invasion of the Tartar was repulsed, first opened to the youthful czar the dominion and the disgraceful tribute so long paid to the of the Black Sea, and terminates with the progreat khan was discontinued. During this digious extension of the empire, consequent on melancholy interval, Russia underwent the last the defeat of Napoleon's invasion. Europe atrocities of savage cruelty and barbaric des. has had too much reason to be acquainted potism. Moscow, then become the capital, was with the details of Russian victories during sacked and burnt by the Tartars, in 1387, with this period. Her wars were no longer with more devastation than afterwards during the the Tartars or Lithuanians: she no longer invasion of Napoleon; every province of the fought for life or death with the khan of Samempire was repeatedly overrun by these ruth- arcand, the hordes of Bati, or the czar of Kaless invaders, who, equally incapable of giving | zan. Emerging with the strength of a giant or receiving quarter, seemed, wherever they from the obscure cloud in which she had went, to have declared a war of extermination hitherto been involved, she took an active, and against the human race, which their prodi- at length a fearful part, in the transactions of gious numbers and infernal energy in war gen- Western Europe. The conquest of Azoph, erally enabled them to carry on with success. which opened to them the command of the Nor was their pacific rule, where they had Black Sea—the fierce contest with Sweden, thoroughly subjugated a country, less degrad- and ultimate overthrow of its heroic monarch ing than their inroad was frightful and de- at Pultowa—the bloody wars with Turkey, vastating. Oppression, long continued and commencing with the disasters of the Pruth, systematic, constituted their only system of and leading on to the triumphs of Ockzakow, government; and the Russians owe to these of Ismael, and Adrianople-the conquest of terrible tyrants the use of the knout, and of the Georgia, and passage of the Russian arms other cruel punishments, which, from their over the coast of the Caucasus and to the long retention in the empire of the czars, when waters of the Araser—the acquisition of Walgenerally disused elsewhere, have so long ex- achia and Moldavia, and extension of their cited the horror of Western Europe.

southern frontier to the Danube-the partition The fourth period commences with the aboli- of Poland, and entire subjugation of their old tion of the ruinous system of apanages by the enemies, the Lithuanians—the seizure of Finmingled firmness and cunning, wisdom and land by Alexander-in fine, the overthrow of fortune, of John III., about the year 1480 ; and Napoleon, capture of Paris, and virtual subcontinued till the genius of Peter the Great jugation of Turkey by the treaty of Adrianople, gave the country its great impetus two hun- have marked this period in indelible characdred years after. This period was a chequered ters on the tablets of the world's history. one to the fortunes of Moscovy, but, on the Above Alexander's tomb are now hung the whole, of general progressive advancement keys of Paris and Adrianople: those of WarUnder Vassili

, the successor of John III., saw will be suspended over that of his suc. the Russians made themselves masters of cessor! The ancient and long dreaded rivals Smolensko, and extended their frontiers on the of the empire, the Tartars, the Poles, the east to the Dwina. Under John the Terrible, French, and the Turks, have been successivewho succeeded him, they carried by assault

, ly vanquished. Every war for two centuries after a terrible struggle, Kazan, in the south past has led to an accession to the Moscovite of Moscovy, where the Tartars had established territory; and no human foresight can predict themselves in a solid manner and formed the the period when the god Terminus is to recede capital of a powerful state, which had more There is enough here to arrest the attention than once inflicted, in conjunction with the of the most inconsiderate; to occupy the Lithuanians, the most dreadful wounds on the thoughts of the most contemplative. vitals of the empire. Disasters great and re- History, exhibits numerous instances of peated still marked this period, as wave after empires which have been suddenly elevated wave break on the shore after the fury of the to greatness by the genius or fortune of a tempest has been stilled., Moscow was again single man; but in all such cases the dominion reduced to ashes during the minority of John has been as short-lived in its endurance as it the Terrible; it was again burnt by the Tar- was rapid in its growth. The successive emtars; and a third time, by accident; the vic- pires of Alexander, Genghis Khan, Tamer: torious Poles advanced their standards to its lane, Nadir Shah, Charlemagne, and Napegates, and so low were his fortunes reduced, leon, attest this truth. But there is no example that that heroic but bloody monarch had at of a nation having risen to durable greatness

or attained a lasting dominion over the bodies when the people for two centuries drank the and minds of men, but by long previous efforts, cup of humiliation from Tartar conquests, or and the struggles and sufferings of many suc- purchased a precarious respite by the ignocessive centuries. It would appear to be a miny of Tartar tribute, was contemporary with general law of nature, alike in the material and the disastrous English wars in France. The the moral world, that nothing permanent is battle of Cressy was fought in 1314; that of erected but by slow degrees, and that hardship Azincour in 1415; and it was not till 1448 and suffering constitute the severe but neces- that these hated invaders were at length sary school of ultimate greatness. In this finally expelled from the Gallic shores, by the point of view, there is a remarkable analogy effects of the heroism of the Maid of Orleans, between the history, from the earliest periods, and the jealousies of the English nobility in of England, France, and Russia,--the three the time of Henry VI. If these wars were dispowers which stood forth so prominent in the astrous to France, if they induced the hora great fight of the 19th century. Their periods rors of famine, pestilence, and Jacquerie, of greatness, of suffering, and of probation, which ere long reduced its inhabitants a-half, from their infancy have been the same; and not less ruinous were their consequences to during the long training of a thousand years, England, exhausting, as they did, the strength each has at the same time, and in a similar of the monarchy in unprofitable foreign wars, manner, been undergoing the móral discipline and leaving the nation a prey, at their termirequisite for ultimate greatness, and the effects nation, to the furious civil contests of York of which now appear in the lasting impression and Lancaster, which for above twenty years they have made upon the world. We do not drenched their fields with blood, almost derecollect to have ever seen this remarkable stroyed the old nobility, and left the weak and analogy in the annals of three first-born of disjointed people an easy prey to the tyrannic European states; but it is so striking, that we rule of Henry VIII., who put 72,000 persons to must request our reader's attention for a few death by the hand of the executioner in his minutes to its consideration.

single reign. It is hard to say whether RusThe Russian empire, as already mentioned, sia, when emerging from the severities of was founded by Rurick, a hero and a wise Tartar bondagemor France, when freed from monarch, about the year 860; and ere long its the scourge of English invasións-or England, forces were so powerful, that eighty thousand when decimated by the frightful carnage of Russians attacked the Bosphorus, and threaten- York and Lancaster, were in the more deplored Constantinople in a more serious manner able condition. than it has since been, even by the victorious From this pitiable state of weakness and arms of Catherine or Nicholas. This first and suffering all the three monarchies were raised great cra in Russian story-this sudden burst about the same period by three monarchs, who into existence, was contemporary with that of succeeded in each, partly by wisdom, partly Alfred in England, who began to reign in 871, by good fortune, partly by fraud, in re-conand nearly so with Charlemagne in France, structing the disjointed members of the state, who died at Aix-la-Chapelle, in 814, leaving and giving to the central government the an empire co-extensive with that which was vigour and unity which had been lost amidst exactly a thousand years afterwards lost by the distractions and sufferings of former times, Napoleon.

but was essential to the tranquillity and wellThe two centuries and a half of weakness, being of society. John III., who achieved this civil dissension, and external decline, which in great work in Russia, was the counterpart of Russia commenced with the system of divid- Louis XI., who at the same time accomplished ing the empire. into apanages in 1060, were it in France. John III. ascended the throne in contemporary with a similar period of distrac- 1462, and reigned till 1505. Louis XI. in 1461, tion and debility, both to the English and and reigned till 1483. Both were cautious in French monarchies. To the former by the design, and persevering in execution; both Norman conquests, which took place in that were bold in council rather than daring in the very year, and was followed by continual op- field; both prevailed in a barbarous age, rather pression of the people, and domestic warfare by their superior cunning and dissimulation among the barons, till they were repressed by than the wisdom or justice of their measures. the firm hand of Edward I, who first rallied Both had implicitly adopted the Machiavelian the native English population to the support maxim, that the end will in all cases justify of the crown, and by his vigour and abilities the means, and employed without scruple fraud overawed the Norman nobility in the end of and perfidy, as well as wisdom and perseverthe 13th century. To the latter, by the mise- ance to accomplish their grand object, the rerable weakness which overtook the empire of storation of the throne, and abasement of the Charlemagne under the rule of his degenerate great feudatories. Both were equally successsuccessor; until at length its frontiers were ful. The reunion of the apanages to the crown contracted from the Elbe and the Pyrenees to of the Russian Grand Prince, the subjugation the Aisne and the Loire,-till all the great of the ancient republic of Novogorod, the anfeudatories in the monarchy had become inde-nexation of that of Pfosk by his successors, pendent princes, and the decrees of the king were steps extremely analogous to the defeat of France were not obeyed farther than twenty of Charles the Bold, and the acquisition of miles around Paris.

Normandy and Acquitaine by Louis XI., and The woful period of Moscovite oppression, the happy marriage of Anne of Britanny to his when ravaged by the successful armies of royal successor. Nor was the coincidence of Genghis Khan, Tamerlane, and Bati, and a similar monarch on the throne, and a similar

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