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to it in principle, but their untutored minds in full the policy of Mehemet Ali, which supcould not understand why, in order to use the posed the essence of civilization and of politimusket and bayonet, and maneuvre together; cal science to be contained in the word taxait was necessary to leave off wearing beards tion; and having driven his chariot over the and turbans.
necks of the dere beys, and of the Janissaries, “But Mahmoud, in his hatred, wished to he resolved to tie his subjects to its wheels, condemn them to oblivion, to eradicate every and to keep them in dire slavery. Hence a token of their pre-existence, not knowing that mute struggle began throughout the empire trampling on a grovelling party is the surest between the sultan and the Turks, the former way of giving it fresh spirit; and trampling trying to reduce the latter to the condition of on the principles of the party in question, was the Egyptian fellahs, the latter unwilling to trampling on the principles of the whole na- imitate the fellahs in patient submission. The tion. In his ideas, the Oriental usages in sultan flatters himself (1830) that he is suceating, dressing, &c., were connected with the ceeding, because the taxes he imposed, and Janissaries, had been invented by them, and the monopolies he has granted, produce him therefore he proscribed them, prescribing new more revenue than he had formerly. The modes. He changed the costume of his court people, although hitherto they have been able from Asiatic to European; he ordered his to answer the additional demands by opening soldiers to shave their beards, recommending their hoards, evince a sullen determination not his courtiers to follow the same example, and to continue doing so, by seceding gradually he forbade the turban,--that valued, darling, from their occupations, and barely existing. beautiful head-dress, at once national and reli. The result must be, if the sultan cannot comgious. His folly therein cannot be sufficiently pel them to work, as the Egyptians, under the reprobated: had he reflected that Janissarism lashes of task-masters, either a complete stagwas only a branch grafted on a wide-spreading nation of agriculture and trade, ever at a low tree, that it sprung from the Turkish nation, ebb in Turkey, or a general rebellion, produced not the Turkish nation from it, he would have by misery." seen how impossible was the more than Her- The result of these precipitate and monstrous culean task he assumed, of suddenly transform- innovations strikingly appeared in the next war ing national manners consecrated by centuries, with Russia. The Janissaries and dere beys -a task from which his prophet would have were destroyed—the Mussulmans everywhere shrunk. The disgust excited by these sump- disgusted; the turban, the national dress the tuary laws may be conceived. Good Mussul- scimitar, the national weapon, were laid aside mans declared them unholy and scandalous, in the army; and instead of the fierce and vàand the Asiatics, to a man, refused obedience; liant Janissaries wielding that dreaded wea but as Mahmoud's horizon was confined to his pon, there was to be found only in the army court, he did not know but what his edicts boys of sixteen, wearing caps in the European were received with veneration.
style, and looked upon as little better than he“If Mahmoud had stopped at these follies in retics by all true believers. the exercise of his newly-acquired despotic “ Instead of the Janissaries,” says Mr. Slade, power, it would have been well. His next the sultan reviewed for our amusement, on step was to increase the duty on all provisions the plains of Ramis Tchiftlik, his regular in Constantinople, and in the great provincial troops, which were quartered in and about cities, to the great discontent of the lower Constantinople, amounting to about four thouclasses, which was expressed by firing the sand five hundred foot, and six hundred horse; city to such an extent that in the first three though beyond being dressed and armed unimonths six thousand houses were consumed. formly, scarcely meriting the name of soldiers. The end of October, 1826, was also marked by What a sight for Count Orloff, then ambassaa general opposition to the new imposts; but dor-extraordinary, filling the streets of Pera repeated executions at length brought the with his Cossacks and Circassians! The people to their senses, and made them regret Count, whom the sultan often amused with a the loss of the Janissaries, who had been their similar exhibition of his weakness, used to protectors as well as tormentors, inasmuch as say, in reference to the movements of these they had never allowed the price of provisions successors of the Janissaries, that the cavalry to be raised. These disturbances exasperated were employed in holding on, the infantry knew a the sultan. He did not attribute them to the little, and the artillery galloped about as though beright cause, distress, but to a perverse spirit longing to no party. Yet over such troops do of Janissarism, a suspicion of harbouring the Russians boast of having gained victories ! which was death to any one. He farther ex- In no one thing did Sultan Mahmoud make a tended his financial operations by raising the greater mistake, than in changing the mode of miri (land tax) all over the empire, and, in mounting the Turkish cavalry, which before ensuing years, by granting monopolies on all had perfect seats, with perfect command over articles of commerce to the highest bidder. their horses, and only required a little order to In consequence, lands, which had produced transform the best irregular horse in the world abundance, in 1830 lay waste. Articles of into the best regular horse. But Mahmoud, in export, as opium, silk, &c., gave the growers a all his changes, took the mask for the man, tho handsome revenue when they could sell them rind for the fruit. European cavalry rode flat to the Frank merchants, but at the low prices saddles with long stirrups; therefore he thought fixed by the monopolists they lose, and the it necessary that his cavalry should do the same, cultivation languishes. Sultan Mahmoud kills European infantry wore tight jackets and close the goose for the eggs. In a word, he adopted I caps; therefore the same. Were Chis blind
adoption of forms only useless, or productive this battle, our author gives the following chę. only of physical inconvenience, patience; bụt racteristic and graphic account: it proved a moral evil, creating unbounded dis- “In this position, on the west side of the gust. The privation of the turban particularly Koulevscha hills, Diebitsch found himself at affected the soldiers; first, on account of the daylight, June 11th, with thirty-six thousand feeling of insecurity about the head with a fez men, and one hundred pieces of cannon. He on; secondly, as being opposed to the love of disposed them so as to deceive the enemy. dress, which a military life, more than any He posted a division in the valley, its right other, engenders.”
leaning on the cliff, its left supported by re“Mahmoud," says the same author, “will doubts; the remainder of his troops he drew learn that in having attacked the customs of up behind the hills, so as to be unseen from his nation-customs descended to it from the ravine; and then with a well-grounded Abraham, and respected by Mohammed-he hope that not a Turk would escape him, waithas directly undermined the divine right of his ed the grand vizir, who was advancing up the family, that right being only so considered by defile, totally unconscious that Diebitsch was custom-by its harmonizing with all other che in any other place than before Silistria. He rished usages. He will learn, that in having had broke up from Pravodi the day before, on wantonly trampled on the unwritten laws of the receipt of his despatch from Schumla, and the land, those traditionary rights which were was followed by the Russian garrison, which as universal household gods, he has put arms had been reinforced by a regiment of hussars; in the hands of the disaffected, which no rebel but the general commanding it, instead of has hitherto had. Neither Ali Pasha nor Pass- obeying Diebitsch's orders, and quietly trackwan Oglou could have appealed to the fanati- ing him until the battle should have comcism of the Turks to oppose the sultan. Me- menced, harassed his rear. To halt and drive hemet Ali can and will. Ten years ago, the him back to Pravodi, caused the vizir a delay idea even of another than the house of Othman of four hours, without which he would have reigning over Turkey would have been heresy : emerged from the defile the same evening, and the question is now openly broached, simply have gained Schumla before Diebitsch got into because the house of Othman is separating it- position. self frum the nation which raised and support- “ In the course of the night the vizir was ined it. Reason may change the established ha- formed that the enemy had taken post between bits of an old people; despotism rarely can.” him and Schumla, and threatened his retreat.
How completely has the event, both in the He might still have avoided the issue of a batRussian and Egyptian wars, demonstrated the tle, by making his way transversely across the truth of these principles! In the contest in defiles to the Kamptchik, sacrificing his bagAsia Minor, Paskewitch hardly encountered Igage and cannon; but deeming that he had any opposition. Rage at the destruction of the only Roth to deal with, he, as in that case was Janissaries among their numerous adherents his duty, prepared to force a passage; and the -indignation among the old population, in few troops that he saw drawn up in the valley, consequence of the ruin of the dere beys, and on gaining the little wood fringing it, in the the suppression of the rights of the cities--morning, confirmed his opinion. He counted lukewarmness in the church, from the antici- on success, yet, to make more sure, halted to pated innovations in its constitution-general let his artillery take up a flanking position on dissatisfaction among all classes of Mohamme- the north side of the valley. The circuitous dans, in consequence of the change in the na- and bad route, however, delaying this mational dress and customs, had so completely neuvre, he could not restrain the impatience of weakened the feeling of patriotism, and the the delhis. Towards noon, 'Allah, Allah her,' sultan's authority, that the elements of resist they made a splendid charge; they repeated it, ance did not exist. The battles were mere pa- broke two squares, and amused themselves rades--the sieges little more than the summon- nearly two hours in carving the Russian ining of fortresses to surrender. In Europe, the fantry, their own infantry, the while, admiring ruinous effects of the innovations were also them from the skirts of the wood. Diebitsch, painfully apparent. Though the Russians had expecting every moment that the vizir would to cross, in a dry and parched season, the path advance to complete the success of his cavalry less and waterless plains of Bulgaria; and --thereby sealing his own destruction-orthough, in consequence of the unhealthiness dered Count Pahlen, whose division was in the of the climate, and the wretched arrangements valley, and who demanded reinforcements, to of their commissariat, they lost two hundred maintain his ground to the last man. The thousand men by sickness and famine in the Count obeyed, though suffering cruelly; but first campaign, yet the Ottomans, though the vizir, fortunately, instead of seconding his fighting in their own country, and for their adversary's intentions, quietly remained on the hearths, were unable to gain any decisive ad- eminence, enjoying the gallantry of his delhis, vantage. And in the next campaign, when and waiting till his artillery should be able to they were conducted with more skils, and the open, when he might descend and claim the possession of Varna gave them the advantage victory with ease. Another ten minutes would of a seaport for their supplies, the weakness of have sufficed to envelope him; but Diebitsch, the Turks was at once apparent. In the battle ignorant of the cause of his backwardness, and of the 11th June, the loss of the Turks did not supposing that he intended amusing him till exceed 4000 men, the forces on neither side night, whereby to effect a retreat, and unwilling amounted to forty thousand combatants, and to lose more men, suddenly displayed his yet this defeat proved fatal to the empire. Of / whole force, and opened a tremendous fire on
the astonished Turks. In an instant the rout principal ports of the continent of Europe; the was general, horse and foot; the latter threw only duty on their commerce was five per away their arms, and many of the nizam dge- cent. ad valorem, to the sultan's custom-houses. ditt were seen clinging to the tails of the del- The great demand of the English merchants hi's horses as they clambered over the hills. for Turkish șilk, when Italian silk, to which it So complete and instantaneous was the flight, is superior, was difficult to procure, enriched that scarcely a prisoner was made. Redschid the Greeks of the interior, who engrossed the strove to check the panic by personal valour, entire culture. The continental system.obliged but in vain. He was compelled to draw his us to turn to 'Turkey for corn, large quantities sabre in self-defence: he fled to the Kamp- of which were exported from Macedonia, from tchik, accompanied by a score of personal re-Smyrna, and from Tarsus, to the equal profit tainers, crossed the mountains, and on the of the Grecian and Turkish agriculturists. fourth day re-entered Schumla.
The same system also rendered it incumbent “ This eventful battle, fought by the cavalry on Germany to cultivate commercial relations on one side, and a few thousand infantry on with Turkey, to the great advantage of the the other, decided the fate of Turkey-im- Greeks, who were to be seen, in consequence, mense in its consequences, compared with the numerously frequenting the fairs at Leipsic. trifling loss sustained, amounting, on the side Colleges were established over Greece and the of the Russians, to three thousand killed and islands, by leave obtained from Selim III.; wounded; on that of the Turks, killed, wound- principally at Smyrna, Scio, Salonica, Yanina, ed, and prisoners, to about four thousand. Its and Hydra; and the wealthy sent their children effect, however, was the same as if the whole to civilized Europe for education, without opTurkish army had been slain."
position from the Porte, which did not foresee We have given at large the striking account the mischief that it would thereby gather. of this battle, because it exhibits in the clearest “ In short, the position of the Greeks, in 1810, point of view the extraordinary weakness to was such as would have been considered which a power was suddenly reduced which visionary twenty years previous, and would, once kept all Christendom in awe. Thirty-six if then offered to them, have been hailed as the thousand men and a hundred pieces of cannon completion of their desires. But the general decided the fate of Turkey; and an army of rule, applicable to nations as well as to indiOttomans, forty thousand strong, after sustain- viduals, that an object, however ardently ing a loss of four thousand men, was literally aspired after, when attained, is chiefly valued annihilated. The thing almost exceeds belief. as a stepping-stone to higher objects, naturally To such a state of weakness had the reforms affected them: the possession of unexpected of Sultan Mahmoud so soon reduced the Otto- prosperity and knowledge opened to them man power. Such was the prostration, through further prospects, gave them hopes of realizing innovation, of an empire, which, only twenty golden dreams, of revenging treasured wrongs years before, had waged a bloody and doubtful --showed them, in a word, the vista of indewar with Russia, and maintained for four cam- pendence." paigns one hundred and fifty thousand men on These causes fostered the Greek Insurthe Danube.
rection, which was secretly organized for 6. Among the immediate and most power- years before it broke out in 1821, and was then ful causes of the rapid fall of the Ottoman em- spread universally and rendered unquenchable pire, unquestionably, must be reckoned the by the barbarous murder of the Greek patriGreek Revolution, and the extraordinary part arch, and a large proportion of the clergy at which Great Britain took in destroying the Constantinople, on Easter Day of that year. Turkish navy at Navarino.
The result has been, that Greece, after seven On this subject we wish to speak with years of the ordeal of fire and sword, has obcaution. We have the most heartfelt wish for tained its independence; and by the destruction the triumph of the Cross over the Crescent, of her navy at Navarino, Turkey has lost the and the liberation of the cradle of civilization means of making any effectual resistance on from Asiatic bondage. But with every desire the Black Sea to Russia. Whether Greece has for the real welfare of the Greeks, we must be been benefited by the change, time alone can permitted to doubt whether the Revolution was show. But it is certain that such have been the way to effect it, or the cause of humanity the distractions, jealousies, and robberies of has not been retarded by the premature effort the Greeks upon each other since that time, for its independence.
that numbers of them have regretted that the Since the wars of the French Revolution dominion of their country has passed from the began, the condition and resources of the infidels. Greeks had improved in as rapid a progression But whatever may be thought on this subas those of the Turks have declined. Various ject, nothing can be more obvious than that causes have contributed to this.
the Greek Revolution was utterly fatal to the “ The islanders," says Mr. Slade, “it may be naval power of Turkey; because it deprived said, have always been independent, and in them at once of the class from which alone possession of the coasting trade of the empire. sailors could be obtained. The whole .com The wars attendant on the French Revolution merce of the Ottomans was carried on by the gave them the carrying trade of the Mediterra- Greeks, and their sailors constituted the entire nean; on the Euxine alone they had above two seamen of their fleet. Nothing, accordingly hundred sail under the Russian flag. Their can be more lamentable than the condition of vessels even navigated as far as England. the Turkish fleet since that time. The calas. Mercantile houses were established in the trophe of Navarino deprived them of theit
best ships and bravest sailors; the Greek revolt from the throne, and that every influence must drained off the whole population who were be destroyed which does not emanate from that wont to man their fleets. Mr. Slade informs source; “The Rights of Man" publicly an. us that when he navigated on board the Capi- nounced the sovereignty of the people, and tan Pasha's ship with the Turkish fleet in made every appointment, civil and military, 1829, the crews were composed almost entirely flow from their assemblies. So true it is that of landsmen, who were forced on board with despotism is actuated by the same jealousies, out the slightest knowledge of nautical affairs; and leads to the same measures on the part of and that such was their timidity from inex- the sovereign as the multitude; and sojust is the perience of that element, thát a few English observation of Aristotle: “The character of frigates would have sent the whole squadron, democracy and despotism is the same. Both containing six ships of the line, to the bottom. exercise a despotic authority over the better The Russian fleet also evinced a degree of class of citizens; decrees are in the first, what ignorance and timidity in the Euxine, which ordinances and arrests are in the last. Though could hardly have been expected, from their placed in different ages or countries, the court natural hardihood and resolution. Yet, the favourite and democrat are in reality the same Moscovite fleet, upon the whole, rode triumph- characters, or at least they always bear a close ant; by their capture of Anapa, they struck at analogy to each other; they have the principal the great market from whence Constantinople authority in their respective forms of governis supplied, while, by the storming of Sizepolis, ment; favourites with the absolute monarch, they gave a point d'appui to Diebitsch on the demagogues with the sovereign multitude.? coast within the Balkan, without which he The immediate effect of the great despotic could never have ventured to cross that formi- acts in the two countries, however, was widely dable range. This ruin of the Turkish marine different. The innovations of Sultan Mahby the Greek Revolution and the battle of Na- moud being directed against the wishes of the varino, was therefore the immediate cause of majority of the nation, prostrated the strength the disastrous issue of the second Russian cam- of the Ottomans, and brought the Russian batpaign; and the scale might have been turned, talions in fearful strength over the Balkan. and it made to terminate in equal disasters to The innovations of the Constituent Assembly the invaders, if five English ships of the line being done in obedience to the dictates of the had been added to the Turkish force; an people, produced for a time a portentous union addition, Mr. Slade tells us, which would have of revolutionary passions, and carried the Reenabled the Turks to burn the Russian arsenals publican standards in triumph to every capital and fleet at Swartopol, and postponed for half of Europe. It is one thing to force reform a century the fall of the Ottoman empire. upon an unwilling people; it is another and a
Nothing, therefore, can be more instructive very different thing to yield to their wishes in than the rapid fall of the Turkish power; nor imposing it upon a reluctant minority in the more curious than the coincidence between the state. despotic acts of the reforming eastern sultan But the ultimate effect of violent innovaand of the innovating European democracies. I tions, whether proceeding from the despotism The measures of both have been the same; of the sultan or the multitude, is the same. both have been actuated by the same principles, In both cases they totally destroy the frame of and both yielded to the same ungovernable society, and prevent the possibility of freedom ambition. The sultan commenced his reforms being permanently erected, by destroying the by destroying the old territorial noblesse, ruin- classes whose intermixture is essential to its ing the privileges of corporations, and subvert- existence. The consequentes of destroying ing the old military force of the kingdom; and the dere beys, the ayams, the Janissaries, and he is known to meditate the destruction of the ulema in Turkey, will, in the end, be the same Mohammedan hierarchy, and the confiscation as ruining the church, the nobility, the corpoof the property of the church to the service of the rations, and landed proprietors in France. public treasury. The Constituent Assembly, The tendency of both is identical, to destroy before they had sat six months, had annihilated all authority but that emanating from a single the feudal nobility, extinguished the privileges power in the state, and of course to render that of corporations, uprooted the military force of power despotic. ' It is immaterial whether that the monarchy, and confiscated the whole pro- single power is the primary assemblies of the perty of the church. The work went on far more smoothly and rapidly in the influence to be destroyed is that of the church hands of the great despotic democracy, than or the ulema, the dere beys or the nobility. In of the eastern sultan; by the whole forces of either case there is no counterpoise to its authe state drawing in one direction, the old thority, and of course no limit to its oppresmachine was pulled to pieces with a rapidity sion. As it is impossible, in the nature of to which there is nothing comparable in the things, that power should long be exercised by annals, even of Oriental potentates. The rude great bodies, as they necessarily and rapidly hand even of Sultan Mahmoud took a lifetime fall under despots of their own creation, so it to accomplish that which the French demo- is evident that the path is cleared, not only for eracy effected in a few months; and even his despotism, but absolute despotism, as comruthless power paused at devastations, which pletely by the innovating democracy as the they unhesitatingly adopted amidst the applause resistless sultan. There never was such a of the nation. Despotism, absolute despotism, pioneer for tyranny as the Constituent Aswas the ruling passion of both; the sultan proclaimed the principle that all authority flows
* Arist. de Pol. iv. c. 4.
sembly, they outstripped Sultan Mahmoud weakness to wreak vengeance for the wrongs himself
inflicted under the infatuated guidance of the It is melancholy to reflect on the deplorable whig democracy. Louis XIV., humbled by state of weakness to which England has been the defeats of Blenheim and Ramillies, yet reduced since revolutionary passions seized spurned with indignation at the proposal that upon her people. Three years ago, the British he should join his arms to those of his enename was universally respected; the Portu- mies, to dispossess his ally, the King of guese pointed with gratitude to the well-fought Spain; but England, in the hour of her greatfields, where English blood was poured forth est triumph, has submitted to a greater degralike water in behalf of their independence; the dation. She has deserted and insulted the Dutch turned with exultation to the Lion of nation which stood by her side in the field of Waterloo, the proud and unequalled monu- Vittoria; she has joined in hostility against ment of English fidelity; the Poles acknow- the power which bled with her at Waterloo, ledged with gratitude, that, amidst all their and deserted in its last extremity the ally sorrows, England alone had stood their friend, whose standards waved triumphant with her and exerted its influence at the Congress of on the sands of Egypt. Vienna to procure_for them constitutional The supineness and weakness of ministers freedom; even the Turks, though mourning in the last agony of Turkey have been such as the catastrophe of Navarino, acknowledged would have exceeded belief, if woful experithat British diplomacy had at length interfered ence had not taught us to be surprised at noand turned aside from Constantinople the thing which they can do. France acted with sword of Russia, after the barrier of the Bal- becoming foresight and spirit; they had an kan had been broke through. Now, how wo- admiral, with four ships of the line, to watch ful is the change! The Portuguese recount, Russia in the Dardanelles, when the crisis apwith undisguised indignation, the spoliation proached. What had England? One ship of the of their navy by the tricolour feet, then in line on the way from Malta, and a few frigates close alliance with England; and the fostering in the Archipelago, were all that the mistress by British blood and treasure, of a cruel and of the waves could afford, to support the honinsidious civil war in their bosom, in aid of our and interests of England, in an emergency the principle of revolutionary propagandism. more pressing than any which has occurred The Dutch, with indignant rage, tell the tale since the battle of Trafalgar. Was the crisis of the desertion by England of the allies and not foreseen? Every man in the country of principles for which she had fought for a hun- any intelligence foresaw it, from the moment dred and fifty years, and the shameful union that Ibrahim besieged Acre. Can England of the Leopard and the Eagle, to crush the only fit out one ship of the line to save the independence and partition the territories of Dardanelles from Russia? Is this the foreHolland. The Polish exiles in foreign lands sight of the Whigs, or the effect of the dockdwell on the heart-rending story of their yard reductions ? Or has the reform act wrongs, and narrate how they were led on by utterly annihilated our strength, and sunk our deceitful promises from France and England name? to resist, till the period of capitulation had It is evident that in the pitiable shifts to gone by; the eastern nations deplore the occu- which government is now reduced, foreign pation of Constantinople by the Russians, and events, even of the greatest magnitude, have hold up their hands in astonishment at the in- no sort of weight in its deliberations. Resting fatuation which has led the mistress of the on the quicksands of popular favour; intent seas to permit the keys of the Dardanelles to only on winning the applause or resisting the be placed in the grasp of Moscovite ambition. indignation of the rabble; dreading the strokes It is in vain to conceal the fact, that by a mere of their old allies among the political unions; change of ministry, by simply letting loose awakened, when too late, to a sense of the revolutionary passions, England has descended dreadful danger arising from the infatuated to the rank of a third-rate power. She has course they have pursued; hesitating between sunk at once, without any external disasters, losing the support of the revolutionists and from the triumphs of Trafalgar and Waterloo, pursuing the anarchical projects which they to the disgrace and the humiliation of Charles avow; unable to command the strength of the II. It is hard to say whether she is most nation for any foreign policy; having sown despised or insulted by her ancient allies or the seeds of interminable dissension between enemies; whether contempt and hatred are the different classes of society, and spread far strongest among those she aided or resisted and wide the modern passion for innovation in the late struggle. Russia defies her in the in lieu of the ancient patriotism of England; east, and, secure in the revolutionary pas- they have sunk it at once into the gulf of desions by which her people are distracted, pur- gradation. By the passions they have-excited sụes with now undisguised anxiety her long in the empire, its strength is utterly destroyed, cherished aud stubbornly-resisted schemes of and well do foreign nations perceive its weak. ambition in the Dardanelles. France drags ness. They know that Ireland is on the verge her a willing captive at her chariot-wheels, of rebellion; that the West Indies, with the and compels the arms which once struck down torch and the tomahawk at their throats, are Napoleon to aid her in all the mean revolu- waiting only for the first national reverse to tionary aggressions she is 'pursuing on the throw off their allegiance; that the spiendid surrounding states. Portugal and Holland, empire of India is shaking' under the demosmarting under the wounds received from cratic rule to which it is about to be subjectec heir oldest ally, wait for the n'oment of British Ion the expiry of the charter; that the dock.