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and cultivated in the most careful manner, is publics, and has been since continued from now almost a desert. It is the region of insa- the dread of malaria in the bottom of the val ubrious air; and no means have yet been leys. It adds greatly to the picturesque effect devised by which it is possible to enable the of the mountain scenery, and gives it a chahuman race to flourish under its pestilential racter altogether peculiar. In the Tuscan influence. After leaving the highest state of states, the lower ranges of the Apennines have civilization in Florence or Rome, the traveller been the object of the utmost care, and of an is astonished to find himself in the midst of almost inconceivable expenditure of capital. vast plains, over which numerous flocks of They are regularly cut in terraces, and whencattle wander at large under the care of shep- ever an opportunity occurs, water is brought herds mounted on horseback, and armed after from the adjoining canals to every field, so the fashion of the steppes of Tartary. This that the whole valley is as it were covered division includes under it all the plains which with a network of small streams, which convey lie between the Apennines and the Mediterra- | their freshness all around. The olives and nean, in the Neapolitan territory, among which figs which flourish in this delightful region are the Maremma of Pestuni is most conspicuous; foreign to the Tuscan soil; there is not a tree and nothing but the vast population of Naples there which is the spontaneous production of prevents its celebrated Campagna from relaps- nature; they are all planted and pruned by the ing into the same desolate state.
hand of man. The fourth great division comprehends the Nothing can be imagined more sterile in plains which lie to the eastward of the Apen- itself, or more adverse to any agricultural imnines, in the kingdom of Naples, and is bound-provement, than the aspect of nature in the ed by the Adriatic sea on the one side, and the Apennines. Their sides present a series of irregular line of the mountains on the other. It broken rocks, barren slopes, or arid cliffs. is in some places from fifty to one hundred miles The roots of the bushes, laid bare by the aubroad, and in others the mountains approach tumnal rains, are, by degrees, dried up by the the sea-shore. The country is flat, or rises into heat of the sun. They perish, and leave nothing extensive downs, and is cultivated in large behind them but a few odoriferous shrubs disfarms, where it is under agricultural manage- persed on the rocks to cover the wreck. The ment; but a great proportion is devoted entirely narrow ravines between them present, in to pasturage. Immense forests of olive are summer, only the dry beds of torrents, in to be met with in this remote district, and the which fallen trees, rocks, and gravel, are hills are covered with vines, and oranges, and accumulated by the violence of the winter other fruits, with corn growing under them. . rains.
rains. This debris is brought down by the The only range of mountains which pro- torrents into the wider valleys, and whole tracts perly and exclusively belongs to Italy is the of country are desolated by a sterile mass of Apennines; and they extend over more than stone and gravel. Thus the mountains and half of the country. Their height is very va- the valleys at their feet seem equally incaparious; in the vicinity of Genoa they rise to ble of culture; but the industry of the Italians about 4500 feet; above Pontrimoli, on the has overcome these obstacles, and converted borders of Tuscany and Lombardy, they reach mountains, to appearance the most sterile that 5500 to 6000 feet, and the great ridge which imagination could conceive, into a succession stretches from Bologna by Valombrosa, to the of gardens, in which every thing that is most south-east, rises in some places to between delightful, as well as useful, is assembled. 3000 and 7000. They are not, in general, very This astonishing metamorphosis has been rocky; at least it is only in their higher emi- effected by the introduction of the terrace sysnences that this character appears. Their tem of culture, an improvement which seems lower parts, everywhere almost, are covered to have been unknown to the ancient Romans, with fruit trees, under the shade of which, in and to have spread in Europe with the return the southern exposures, crops of grain are of the Crusaders in the twelfth and thirteenth brought to maturity. Higher up, the sweet centuries. (Chateauvieux, 300.) Nothing could chestnut covers the ascent, and supports an oppose the destructive force of the torrents, but immense population at an elevation above the altering the surface of the hills, and thereby sea where no food for man could be procured breaking the course of the waters. This was in our climate. The pine, the beech, and the an immense work, for it required the whole fir, occupy those higher regions in which are soil to be displaced, and built up by means of Valombrosa, Lavernia, and Camaldoli; and at artificial walls into successive terraces; and the summits of all, the open dry pastures fur- this in many places could be effected only by nish subsistence to numerous flocks. This breaking solid rocks, and bringing a new soil great capability of the Apennines to yield food from distant places. for the use of man, is the cause of the extraor- The artificial land, so dearly purchased, is dinary populousness 01 its slopes. In the designed for the cultivation of fruits and vegeremotest recesses the trave jer discovers vil- tables. The terraces are always covered with lages and towns; and on the face of mountains fruit-trees placed in a reflected sun. Amidst where the eye at a distance can discern nothing the reverberations of so many walls, the fruit but wood, he finds, on a nearer approach, every is most abundant and superior in its kind. spot of ground carefully cultivated. The vil- No room is lost in these limited situations, iages and towns are commonly situated on the the vine extends its branches along the walls; summits of eminences, and frequently sur- a hedge formed of the same vine branches rounded by walls and towers; a practice which surrounds each terrace, and covers it with began in the turbulent periods of the Italian re-l verdure. In the corners formed by the meeting
of the supporting walls, fig-trees are planted prevalence of the malaria renders it impossible to vegetate under their protection. - The owner to live permanently. This region is every takes advantage of every vacant space left be- where divided into great estates, and let ir iween the olive-trees to raise melons and vege- large farms. The Maremma of Rome, forty tables; so that he obtains on a very limited ex- leagues in length and from ten to fifteen in tent, olive, grapes, pomegranates, and melons. breadth, and which feeds annually 67,000 So great is the produce of this culture that, horned cattle, is cultivated by only eighty farm. under good management, half the crop of seven ers. These farmers live in Rome or Sienna, acres is sufficient for a family of five persons: for the unhealthiness of the atmosphere prebeing little more than the produce of three- cludes the possibility of their dwelling on the fourths of an acre to each soul. This little lands they cultivate. Each farm has on it space is often divided into more than twenty only a single house, which rises in the midst
of desolation. No garden, or orchards, or A great part of the mountainous part of meadows, announce the vicinity of a human Italy has adopted this admirable culture: and habitation. It stands alone in the midst of a this accounts for the great population which vast solitude, with the cattle pasturing up to everywhere inhabit the Italian mountains, and the walls of the dwelling. explains the singular fact, that, in scenes The whole wealth of these great farms conwhere nothing but continued foliage meets the sists in their cattle. The farm servants are eye, the traveller finds, on a nearer approach, comparatively few, and they are constantly villages and hamlets, and all the signs of a on horseback.
horseback. Armed with a gun and a lance, numerous peasantry.
the shepherds, as in the wilds of Tartary, are Continued vigilance is requisite to maintain constantly in the open air tending the herds these works. If the attention of the husband committed to their care. They receive no man is intermitted for any considerable time, fixed wages, but are paid in cattle, which graze the violence of the rains destroys what it had with the herds of their masters. The mildness of cost so much labour to create. Storms and the climate permits the grass to grow during all torrents wash down the soil, and the terraces the winter, and so the flocks are maintained there are broken through or overwhelmed by the in that season. In summer, as the excessive heat rubbish, which is brought down from the renders the pastures parched and scanty, the higher parts of the mountain. Every thing flocks are sent to the highest ridges of the Apenreturns rapidly to its former state; the vigour nines in quest of cool air and fresh herbage. of southern vegetation covers the ruins of The oxen, however, and cows of the Hungarian human industry: and there soon remains only breed, are able both to bear the heat of sumshapeless vestiges covered by briers.
mer, and to find food during its continuance in The system of irrigation in the valley of the the Maremma. They remain, therefore, during Irno is a most extraordinary monument of all the year; and the shepherds who tend them auman industry. Placed between two ridges continue exposed to the pestilential air during of mountains, one of them very elevated, it was the autumnal months. The woods are stocked periodically devastated by numerous torrents, with swine, and the marshes with buffaloes. which were precipitated from the mountains, So great is the quantity of the live-stock on charged with stone and rubbish. To control these immense farms, that on one visited by these destructive inundations, means were Mr. Chateauvieux were cattle to the value of contrived to confine the course of the torrents 16,0001. sterling, and the farmer had two other within strong walls, which serve at the same farms on which the stocking was of equal time for the formation of a great number of value. canals. At regular distances, openings are In the Terra di Lavoro, or Campagna of Naformed below the mean level of the stream, ples, the extreme richness of the soil has given that the water may run out laterally, overflow rise to a mode of culture different from any the land, and remain on it long enough to which has yet been described. The aspect of deposit the mud with which it is charged. A this great plain is, perhaps, the most striking great many canals, by successive outlets of the in point of agricultural riches that exists in the water, divide the principal current and check world. The great heat of the sun renders it its rapidity. These canals are infinitely sub- necessary that the grain should be shaded by divided, and to such a degree, that there is not trees; and accordingly the whole country is a single square of land, which is not súr- intersected by rows of elms or willows, which rounded by them. They are all lined with divide it into small portions of half or three walls, built with square bricks; the scarcity quarters of an acre each. A vine is planted. of water rendering the most vigilant economy at the foot of every tree; and such is the of it necessary. A number of small bridge's luxuriance of vegetation, that it not only rises connect the multitude of little islands, into in a few years to the very summit, but extends which these canals subdivide the country. its branches in a lateral direction, so as to These works are still kept in good repair; but admit of festoons being trained from one tree the whole wealth of Tuscany could not now to another. These trees are not pollarded as furnish the sums requisite for their construc- in Tuscany and Lombardy, but allowed to tion. That was done by Florence in the grow to their full height, so that it is not thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, in the days unusual to see a vine clustering around the of her republican freedom.
top of a poplar sixty or eighty feet high. The third agricultural division of Italy, is Under their shade the soil produces annuaily the Maremma, or the plains on the sea-shore a double crop, one of which is of wheat of in Tuscany, and the Roman States, where the maize. Melons are cultivated in great quantı
ties, and with hardly any manure. Thickets | charming perfumes over the adjoining country of fig-trees, of peaches, and aloes, grow spon- while the rocky eminences are covered with taneously on the borders of the fields. Groves vines, which produce fruits of the most deli of orange clothe the slopes, and spread their cious flavour.
SCOTT, CAMPBELL, AND BYRON.*
We have listened with admiration to the and the generous from every part of the world, eloquent strains in which the first in rankt from the Ural mountains to the banks of the and the first in geniust have proposed the Mississippi, on the shores of an island in the memory of the immortal bard whose genius Atlantic? My lord, it is neither the magniwe are this day assembled to celebrate; but I ficence of our cities, nor the beauty of our know not whether the toast which I have now valleys, the animation of our harbours, nor to propose has not equal claims to our enthu- the stillness of our mountains: it is neither siasm. Your kindness and that of the com- our sounding cataracts nor our spreading mittee has intrusted to me the memory of three lakes: neither the wilds of nature we have illustrious men-the far-famed successors of subdued so strenuously, nor the blue hills we Burns, who have drank deep at the fountains have loved so well. These beauties, great as of his genius, and proved themselves the worthy they are, have been equalled in other lands'; inheritors of his inspiration. And Scotland, these marvels, wondrous though they be, have I rejoice to say, can claim them all as her parallels in other climes. It is the genius of own. For if the Tweed has been immortalized her sons which have given Scotland her proud by the grave of Scott, the Clyde can boast the pre-eminence; this it is, more even than the birthplace of Campbell, and the mountains shades of Bruce, of Wallace, and of Mary, of the Dee first inspired the muse of Byron. which has rendered her scenes classic ground I rejoice at that burst of patriotic feeling; I to the whole civilized world, and now brings hail it as the presage, that as Ayrshire has pilgrims from the most distant parts of the raised a fitting monument to Burns, and Edin- earth, as on this day, to worship at the shrine burgh has erected a fitting structure to the of genius. author of Waverley, so Glasgow will, ere long, Yet Albyn! yet the praise be thine, raise a worthy monument to the bard whose Thy scenes with story to combine;
Thou bid'st him who by Roslin strays, name will never die while hope pours its balm
List to the tale of other days. through the human heart; and Aberdeen will, Midst Cartlane crags thou showest the cave, worthily, commemorate the far-famed tra- The refuge of thy champion brave;
Giving each rock a storied tale, veller who first inhaled the inspiration of na- Pouring a lay through every dale; ture amidst the clouds of Loch-na-Gar, and Knitting, as with a moral band, afterwards poured the light of his genius over
Thy story to thy native land;
Combining thus the interest high, those lands of the sun, where his descending Which genius lends to beauty's eye! orb sets
But the poet who conceived these beautiful “Not as in northern climes obscurely bright, lines, has done more than all our ancestors' But one unclouded blaze of living light.
valour to immortalize the land of his birth; Scotland, my lord, may well be proud of hav- for he has united the interest of truth with the ing given birth to, or awakened the genius of charms of fiction, and peopled the realm not such men; but she can no longer call these only with the shadows of time, but the creaexclusively her own their names have be- tions of genius. In those brilliant creations, come household words in every land. Man- as in the glassy wave, we behold mirrored the kind claims them as the common inheritance lights, the shadows, the forms of reality; and of the numan race. Look around us, and we yet shall see on every side decisive proof how So pure, so fair, the mirror gave, far and wide admiration for their genius has
As if there lay beneath the wave, sunk into the hearts of men.
Secure from trouble, toil, and care,
A world than earthly world more fair. attracts strangers from every part of the world, Years have rolled on, but they have taken nointo this distant land, and has more than compensated for a remote situation and a churlish thing, they have added much, to the fame of
those illustrious men. soil, and given to our own northern isle a splendour unknown to the regions of the sun?
Time but the impression deeper makes, What is it which has brought together this
As streams their channels deeper wear. mighty assemblage, and united the ardent The voice of ages has spoken: it has given
Campbell and Byron the highest place, with
Burns, in lyric poetry, and destined Scott * Speech delivered at the Burns Festival, on 6th August, 1844, on proposing the memory of Scott, Campbell, To rival all but Shakspeare's name below. and Byron.
Their names now shine in unapproachable + Earl of Eglinton, who presided. | Professor Wilson.
splendour, far removed, like the fixed stars,
from the clouds and the rivalry of a lower ground, where the scenes which speak most world. To the end of time, they will maintain powerfully to the heart of man are brought their exalted station. Never will the culti- successively before our eyes. The east, with vated traveller traverse the sea of the Archipe- its deathless scenes and cloudless skies; its lago, that "The isles of Greece, the isles of wooded steeps and mouldering fanes, its glassy Greece,” will not recur to his recollection; seas and lovely vales, rises up like magic be never will he approach the shores of Loch fore us. The haughty and yet impassioned Katrine, that the image of Ellen Douglas will Turk; the crouching but still gifted Greek; not be present to his memory; never will he the wandering Arab, the cruel Tartar, the fagaze on the cliffs of Britain, that he will not natic Moslem, stand before us like living beings, thrill at the exploits of the “ mariners of Eng- they are clothed with flesh and blood. But land, who guard our native seas.” Whence there is one whose recent death we all deplore, has arisen this great, this universally acknow- but who has lighted" the torch of Hope at naledged celebrity? My lord, it is hard to say ture's funeral pile," who has evinced a yet whether we have most to admire the brilliancy higher inspiration. In Campbell
, it is the moof their fancy, or the creations of their genius, ral purposes to which he has directed his the beauty of their verses, or the magic of mighty powers, which is the real secret of his their language, the elevation of their thoughts, success; the lofty objects to which he has deor the pathos of their conceptions. Yet can voted his life, which have proved his passport each boast a separate grace; and their age to immortality. To whatever quarter he has has witnessed in every walk the genius of turned his mind, we behold the working of the poetry elevated to its highest strain. In Scott same elevated spirit. Whether he paints the it is variety of conception, truth and fidelity disastrous day, when, of delineation in character, graphic details of Oh bloodiest picture in the book of Time, the olden time, which is chiefly to be admired.
Sarmatia fell, unwept, without a crime ; can read without transport his glowing or portrays with generous ardour the imadescriptions of the age of chivalry? Its massy ginary paradise on Susquehanna's shore, castles and gloomy vaults, its haughty, nobles where and beauteous dames, its gorgeous pageantry
The world was sad, the garden was a wild, and prancing steeds, stand forth under his
And man, the hermit, sighed till woman smiled; magic pencil with all the colours and bril- or transports us to that awful time when Chrisliancy of reality. We are present at the shock tian faith remains unshaken amidst the dissoof armies, we hear the shouts of mortal com- lution of nature, batants, we see the flames of burning castles,
And ships are drifting with their dead, we weep in the dungeon of captive innocence.
To shores where all is dumb, Yet who has so well and truly delineated the we discern the same mind, seeing every obless obtrusive but not less impressive scenes ject through its own sublime and lofty vision. of humble life? Who has so faithfully por- Thence has arisen his deathless name.--It is trayed the virtues of the cottage; who has done because he has unceasingly contended for the so much to elevate human nature, by exhibiting best interests of humanity; because he has its dignity even in the abyss of misfortune; ever asserted the dignity of a human soul; bewho has felt so truly and told so well “the cause he has never forgotten that amidst all might that slumbers in a peasant's arm ?” In the distinctions of time Byron it is the fierce contest of the passions,
“ The rank is but the guinea stamp, the yearning of a soul longing for the stern
The man's the gowd for a' that; realities of life, amidst the seduction of its because he has regarded himself as the highfrivolity; the brilliant conceptions of a mind priest of nature, and the world which we in. fraught with the imagery and recollections of habit as the abode not merely of human cares the east, which chiefly captivates every mind. and human joys, but as the temple of the liv. His pencil is literally " dipt in the orient hues ing God, in which praise is due, and where of heaven.” He transports us to enchanted service is to be performed.
We stand in this community in a very | Flanders and Holland the wealth and enterpeculiar situation, and which loudly calls for prise of commerce, notwithstanding the disimmediate attention of all interested in their advantages of a level soil, a cloudy atmosphere, country's greatness. We have reached the very and a humid climate, have produced the imhighest point of commercial greatness. Such mortal works of Rubens, Vandyķe, and Remhas been the growth of our mechanical power, brandt. Why should a similar result not take such the marvels of our commercial enter- place here ? Arrived at the summit of manuprise! But, when we turn to the station we oc- facturing greatness, why should we be second cupy in the arts of design, in these very arts to any in the arts of design? Have they posin which, as a manufacturing community, we sessed advantages which we do not enjoy ? are so deeply interested, we see a very different Had they finer cataracts than the Falls of the spectacle. We see foreigners daily flocking Clyde, or glens more romantic than Cartland from all parts of the world to the shores of the Crags-had they nobler oaks than those of Clyde or the Mersey, to study our railways, Cadzow, or ruins more imposing than those and our canals; to copy our machinery, to of Bothwell had they galleries finer than the take models of our steam-vessels--but we see halls of Hamilton, or lakes more lovely than none coming to imitate our designs. On the Loch Lomond, or mountains more sublime contrary, we, who take the lead of all the world than those of Arran? Gentlemen, within two in mechanical invention, in the powers of art, hours' journey from Glasgow are to be found are obliged to follow them in the designs to combined which these powers are to be applied. Gentle
“Whate'er Lorrain hath touched with softening hue men, this should not be. We have now arrived Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew." at that period of manufacturing progress, when
The wealth is here, the enterprise is here, we must take the lead in design, or we shall the materials are here; nothing is wanting cease to have orders for performancewe but the hand of genius to cast these precious must be the first in conception, or we will be elements into the mould of beauty--the lofty the last in execution. To others, the Fine Arts spirit
, the high aspirations which, aiming at may be a matter of gratification or ornament; greatness, never fail to attain it. Are we to to à manufacturing community it is one of be told that we cannot do these things; that life or death. We may, however, be encou- like the Russians we can imitate but cannot raged to hope that we may yet and ere long conceive? It is not in the nation of Smith attain to eminence in the Fine Arts, from ob- and of Watt,—it is not in the land of Burns serving how uniformly in past times com- and Scott,-it is not in the country of Shakmercial greatness has co-existed with purity speare and Milton,—it is not in the empire of of taste and the development of genius ; in so Reynolds and Wren, that we can give any much that it is hard to say whether art has
weight to that argumenti Nor is it easy owed most to the wealth of commerce, or com
to believe that the same genius which has merce to the perfection of art. Was it not drawn in such enchanting colours the lights the wealth of inland commerce which, even in and shadows of Scottish life, might not, if the deserts of Asia, reared up that great com- otherwise directed, have depicted, with equal monwealth, which once, under the guidance felicity, the lights and shadows of Scottish of Zenobia, bade defiance to the armies of imperial Rome, and the ruins of which, at we have spoken of our capabilities,,we have
scenery. We have spoken of our interests, Tadmor and Palmyra, still attract the admira-spoken of what other nations have done ;-but tion of the traveller? Was it not the wealth there are greater things done than these. No of maritime commerce which, on the shores one indeed can doubt that it is in the moral and of the Ægean sea, raised that great republic religious feelings of the people, that the broad which achieved a dominion over the minds of and deep foundations of national prosperity men ynore durable than that which had been can alone be laid, and that every attempt to reared by the legions of Cæsar, or the phalanx attain durable greatness on any other basis of Alexander ? Was it not the manufactures will prove nugatory. But we are not only of Tuscany which gave birth at Florence to moral and intellectual, we are active agents. that immortal school of painting, the works We long after gratification—we thirst for enof which still attract the civilized world to the joyment; and the experienced observer of shores of the Arno? The velvets of Genoa, the man will not despise the subsidiary, but still jewelry of Venice, long maintained their as
important aid to be derived in the great work cendency after the plitical importance of of moral elevation, from a due wirection of the these republics had declined ; and the school active propensities. And he is not the least of design established sixty years ago at Lyons friend to his species, who, in an age peculiarhas enabled its silk manufactures to preserve ly vehement in desire, discovers gratifications the lead in Europe-despite the carnage of the which do not corrupt-enjoyments which do Convention, and the wars of Napoleon. In
not degrade. But if this is true of enjoyments * Speech delivered on Nov. 28, 1843, in proposing the simply innocent, what shall we say of those Botablishment of a School of Design in Glasgow. which refine, which not only do not lead to