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lief into that of imagination; from subduing the triumph of the Barricades. Instead of the passions, or influencing the conduct, to these illustrious men has sprung up a host of thrilling the imagination, and captivating the minor writers, who pander to the depraved fancy. A people who entertained a sincere taste of a corrupted age; the race of Dumas's, and practical regard for religion of any sort, and Latouches, and Janins, men who apply great never could bear to see its incidents and cha- talent to discreditable but profitable purposes; racters blended with hobgoblins and demons,— who reflect, like the cameleon, the colours of with the spectres of the feudal, or the mytholo- the objects by which they are surrounded, and gy of the classic ages.
earn, like the opera-dancer, a transient liveliThis extraordinary change. in the lighter hood, sometimes considerable wealth, by exbranches of French literature is almost entirely citing the passions or ministering to the pleathe result of the late Revolution. The romantic sures of a depraved and licentious metropolis. school of fiction, indeed, had been steadily Thus, on all sides, and in every department growing up under the Restoration; and ac- of government, religion, morals, and literature, cordingly, the dramatized tales of Sir Walter is the debasing and pernicious influence of the Scott had banished in all but the Theatre Revolution manifesting itself; the thin veil Français, the works of Racine and Corneille which concealed the progress of corruption from the stage. But it was not till the triumph during the Restoration, is torn aside; governof the Barricades had cast down the barriers ment is settling down into despotism, religion of authority and influence, and let in a flood into infidelity, morals into licentiousness, liteof licentiousness upon all the regions of rature into depraved extravagance. What is to thought, that the present intermixture of ex- be the final issue of these melancholy changes, travagance and sensuality took place. Still it is impossible confidently to predict; but this grievous and demoralizing effect is not to of this we may be well assured, that it is not be ascribed solely or chiefly to that event, im- till the fountains of wickedness are closed by portant as it has been in scattering far and the seal of religion, and the stream of thought wide the seeds of evil. It is not by a mere is purified by suffering, that the disastrous prætorian tumult in the capital that a nation consequences of two successful convulsions is demoralized; Rome had twenty such urban can be arrested, or freedom established on a and military revolutions as that which over- secure basis, or public felicity based on a duthrew Charles X. without experiencing any rable foundation. material addition to the deep-rooted sources of The result of all this is, not only that no imperial corruption. It was the first Revolu- real freedom exists in France, but that the eletion, with its frightful atrocities and cryingments of constitutional liberty do not exist. sins, which produced this fatal effect; the se- Every thing depends on the will of the capital: cond merely drew aside the feeble barrier and its determination is so much swayed at which the government of the Restoration had present, at least by the public press, and armed opposed to its devastation. In the present force in the capital, that no reliance on the monstrous and unprecedented state of French stability of any system of government can be literature is to be seen the faithful mirror of placed. The first Revolution concentrated all the state of the public mind produced by that the powers of government in the metropolis; convulsion; of that chaos of thoughts and pas- the second vested them in the armed force of sions and recollections, which has resulted its garrison and citizens. Henceforth the strife from a successful insurrection not only against of faction is likely to be a mere struggle for the government, but the institutions and the the possession of the public offices, and the belief of former times; of the extravagance and immense patronage with which they are acfrenzy of the human mind, when turned adrift, companied: but no measures for the extension without either principle or authority to direct of public freedom will, to all appearance, be it, into the stormy sea of passion and pleasure. attempted. If the republican party were to
The graver and more weighty works which dethrone Louis Philippe, they would raise the were appearing in such numbers under the most violent outcry about the triumph of freeRestoration, have all ceased with the victory dom, and in the midst of it quietly take posof the populace. The resplendent genius of session of the police-office, the telegraph, the Chateaubriand no longer throws its lustre over treasury, and begin to exercise she vast powers the declining virtue of the age: the learning of government for their own behoof in the and philosophy of Guizot is turned aside from most despotic manner. No other system of the calm speculations of history to the turbu- administration is practicable in France. After lent sea of politics. Thierry has ceased to the state to which it has been reduced by its diffuse over the early ages of feudal times, the two Revolutions, a constitutional monarchy, discriminating light of sagacious inquiry: the such as existed in Great Britain prior to the pen of Parente conveys no longer, in clear revolution of 1832--that is, a monarchy, in and vivid colours, the manners of the four- which the powers of sovereignty were reaily teenth to the nineteenth century: Thiers, trans- shared by the crown, the nobles, and the peo formed into an ambitious politician, strives in ple-could not stand in France for a week vain, in his measures as a minister, to coun- The populace of Paris and their despotic lead teract the influence of his eloquent writings, as ers, or the crown, with its civil and military an historian: the fervent spirit of Beranger is employers, would swallow up supreme power stilled; the poetic glow of Lamartine is quench- in a moment. ed; the pictured page of Salvandy is employed Every government, in the long run, must be only in pourtraying the deplorable state of so-founded on one of three bases : either the re cial and moral disorganization consequent on presentation and attachment of all the great interests of the state; or the force of a power-ental, despotism; between the government of ful and devoted soldiery; or the influence of the Prætorian guards, and the servility of the power derived from the possession of all the Byzantine empire. They are perpetually depatronage and appointments in the kingdom. claiming about the new era which their RevoConstitutional monarchies, the glory of Eu- lution has opened in human affairs, and the ropean civilization, are founded on the first; interminable career of modern civilization : Asiatic despotisms on the last. By the de- let them fix their eyes on the court of the Great struction of all the intermediate classes be- Mogul and the ryots of Hindostan, and beware tween the throne and the peasant, the French lest their changes afford a new confirmation have rendered the construction of a representa- of the old adage, That there is nothing new tive system and a limited throne impossible: under the sun; and the dreams of republican they have now to choose only between the fet- enthusiasm terminate at last in the strife of ters of a military, or the corruption of an ori- eunuchs and the jealousy of courtesans.
The scenery of Switzerland is of a dark and point on which vegetation can grow, is cover gloomy description. In the higher Alps, which ed with brushwood; and, instead of the gray lie between the cantan of Berne and the plains masses of granite which appear on the northof Lombardy, the great elevation of the moun- ern side, the cliffs of the southern valleys seem tains, the vicinity of perpetual snow, the tem- to have caught the warm glow and varied tints pests which frequently occur, and the devasta- of the Italian sky. Nor is the change less aptions of the avalanches, have imprinted a stern parent in the agricultural productions of the and often dismal aspect on the scenery. As soil. At the foot of the stupendous cliffs, the traveller ascends any of those paths, which which bound the narrow valleys by which the lead from the canton of Berne over the ridge mountains are intersected, the vine, the olive, of the central Alps to the Italian bailiwicks, and the maize, ripen under the rays of a verhe gradually approaches the region of eternal tical sun, while the sweet chestnut and the desolation. The beech and the oak succes- walnut clothe the sloping banks by which the sively give place to the larch and the fir, and wider parts of the valleys are surrounded. these in their turn disappear, or exhibit only While sinking under the heat of a summer the stunted forms and blasted summits which sun, which acquires amazing powers in these are produced by the rigour and severity of the narrow clefts, the traveller looks back with climate. Towards the summit of the pass, delight to the snowy peaks from which he had even these marks of vegetation disappear, and so lately descended, whose glaziers are softenhuge blocks of granite, interspersed with snow, ed by the distance at which they are seen, and or surrounding black and gloomy lakes, form seem to partake in the warm glow by which the only features of the scenery.
the atmosphere is illuminated. To the eye which has been habituated for a There is another feature by which these few days only to these stern and awful objects, valleys are distinguished, which does not octhere is no scene so delightful as that which is cur in the Swiss territories. Switzerland is a exhibited by the valleys and the lakes which country of peasants: the traces of feudal lie on the southern side of the Alps. The power have been long obliterated in its free and riches of nature, and the delights of a southern happy vallies. But on the Italian side of the climate, are there poured forth with a profusion Alps, the remnants of baronial power are which is hardly to be met with in any other still to be seen. Magnificent castles of vast part of Europe. The valleys are narrow and dimensions, and placed on the most prominent precipitous, bounded on either side by the most situations, remind the traveller that he is apstupendous cliffs, and winding in such a man- proaching the region of feudal influence; while ner as to exhibit, in the most striking point of the crouching look and abject manner of the view, the unrivalled glories of the scene. But peasantry, tells but too plainly the sway which though the vallies are narrower, and the rocks these feudal proprietors have exercised over are higher on the southern than the northern their vassals. But whatever may be the inside of the Alps, yet the character of the scene fuence of aristocratic power upon the habits is widely different in these two situations. The or condition of the people, the remains of larch and the fir form the prevailing wood in former magnificence which it has left, add the higher valleys to the north of the St. Go-amazingly to the beauty and sublimity of the thárd; but the birch, the chestnut, and the oak, scenery. In the Misocco these antiquated reclothe the sunny cliffs which look to the Italian mains are peculiarly numerous and imposing. Every crevice, and every projecting The huge towers and massy walls of these
Gothic castles, placed on what seem inacces* Blackwood's
Magazine, Feb. 1818, and Supplement sible cliffs, and frowning over the villages 10 Encyclopædia Britannica, article Italy. Written when uavelling in that country in 1816 and 1818.
which have grown up beneath their feet, give
an áfr of antiquity and solemnity to the scene, dren take care of the mulberries and the silk which nothing else is capable of producing; worms, which are here produced in grea for the works of nature, long as they have abundance; the husband dresses the vineyard, stood, are still covered with the verdure of or works in the garden, as the season may perpétual youth. It is in the works of man require. . On an incredibly small piece of alone that the symptoms of age or of decay ground, a numerous family live, in, what ap: appear.
pears to them, ease and affluence; and if they The Italian lakes partake, in some measure, can maintain themselves during the rear, and in the general features which have been men-pay their rent at its termination, their desires tioned as belonging to the valleys on the south- never go beyond the space of their own emern side of the Alps; but they are charac-ployment. terized a.so by some circumstances which are In this simple and unambitious style of life, peculiar to themselves. Their banks are al- it may easily be conceived what the general most everywhere formed of steep mountains, character of the peasantry must be. Genewhich sink at once into the lake without any rally speaking, they are a simple, kind-hearted, meadows or level ground on the water side. honest people, grateful to the last degree for These mountains are generally of great height, the smallest share of kindness, and always and of the most rugged forms; but they are willing to share with a stranger the produce clothed to the summit with luxuriant woods, of their little domains. The crimes of murder except in those places where the steepness of and robbery are almost unknown, at least the precipices precludes the growth of vegeta- among the peasantry themselves, although, on tion. The continued appearance of front and the great roads in their vicinity, banditti are precipice which they exhibit, would lead to the sometimes to be found. But if a stranger belief that the banks of the lake are uninha- lives in the country, and reposes confidence in bited, were it not for the multitude of villages the people, he will find himself as secure, and with which they are everywhere interspersed. more respected, than in most other parts of These villages are so numerous and extensive, the world. that it may be doubted whether the population There is one delightful circumstance which anywhere in Europe is denser than on the occurs in spring in the vicinity of these lakes, shores of the Italian lakes. No spectacle in to which a northern traveller is but little ac nature can be more beautiful than the aspect customed. During the months of April and of these clusters of human habitations, all May, the woods are filled with nightingales, built of stone, and white-washed in the neatest and thousands of these little choristers pour manner, with a simple spire rising in the cen- forth their strains every night, with a richness tre of each, to mark the number and devotion and melody of which it is impossible to form of the inhabitants, surrounded by luxuriant a conception. In England we are accustomed forests, and rising one above another to the frequently to hear the nightingale, and his song highest parts of the mountains. Frequently has been celebrated in poetry from the earliest the village is concealed by the intervention periods of our history." But it is generally a of some rising ground, or the height of the single song to which we listen, or at most a adjoining woods; but the church is always few only, which unite to enliven the stillness visible, and conveys the liveliest idea of the of the night. But on the banks of the lake of peace and happiness of the inhabitants. These Como, thousands of nightingales are to be rural temples are uniformly white, and their found in every wood; they rest in every tree,spires are of the simplest form; but it is dif- they pour forth their melody on the roof of ficult to convey, to those who have not seen every cottage. Wherever you walk during the them, an idea of the exquisite addition which delightful nights of April or May, you hear the they form to the beauty of the scenery. unceasing strains : of these unseen warblers,
On a nearer approach, the situation of these swelling on the evening gales, or dying away, villages, so profusely scattered over the moun- as you recede from the woods or thickets tains which surround the Italian lakes, is often where they dwell. The soft cadence and meinteresting in the extreme. Placed on the lodious swelling of this heavenly choir, resummit of projecting rocks, or sheltered in the sembles more the enchanting sounds of the defile of secluded valleys, they exhibit every Eolian harp than any thing produced by morvariety of aspect that can be imagined; but tal organs. To those who have seen the lake wherever situated, they add to the interest, or of Como, with such accompaniments, during enhance the picturesque effect of the scene. the serenity of a summer evening, and with The woods by which they are surrounded, and the surroun'ling headlands and mountains. rewhich, from a distance, have the appearance flected on i's placid waters, there are few scenes of a continued forest
, are in reality formed, in nature, and few moments in life, which can for the most part, of the walnuts and sweet be the source of such delightful recollection. chestnuts, which grow on the gardens that The forms of the mountains which surround belong to the peasantry, and conceal beneath the Italian lakes are somewhat similar to those their shade,vineyards, corn-fields, and orchards. that are to be met with in the Highlands of Each cottager has his little domain, which is Scotland, or at the Lake of Killarney; but the cultivated by his own family; a single chest-great superiority which they possess over any nut, and a few mulberry trees, with a small thing in this country, consists in the gay and vineyard, constitutes often the whole of their smiling aspect which nature there exhibits. The humble property. On this little spot, however, base only of the Highland hills is clothed with they find wherewithal both to satisfy their wood; huge and shapeless swells of heath wants and to occupy their industry; the chil- form the upper parts of the mountains; and
the summits partake of the gloomy character dener, is universally allowed to be ill adapted which the tint of brown or purple throws over to the scenery of real nature, and is more pare the scene. But the mountains which surround ticularly out of place in the Italian lakes the Italian lakes are varied to the summit with where the vast and broken ridge of the Alps life and animation. The woods ascend to the forms the magnificent distance, and gives the highest peaks, and clothe the most savage prevailing character to the scene. cliffs in a robe of verdure; white and sunny The Isola Madre is the most pleasing of these villages rise one above another, in endless celebrated islands, being covered with wood in succession, to the upper parts of the moun- the interior, and adorned round the shores tains; and innumerable churches, on every with a profusion of the most beautiful flowerprojecting point, mark the sway of religion, ing shrubs. It is difficult to imagine a more even in the most remote and inaccessible si- splendid prospect than the view from this tuations. The English lakes are often cold island, looking towards the ridge of the Simplon. and cheerless, from the reflection of a dark or Numerous white villages, placed at intervals lowering sky; but the Italian lakes are per- along the shore, enliven the green luxuriant fectly blue, and partake of the brilliant colours woods which descend to the lake; and in the with which the firmament is filled. In the farther distance, the broken and serrated ridge morning, in particular, when the level sun of the mountains, clustering round the snowy glitters on the innumerable white villages peaks of Monte Rosa, combines the grandeur which surround the Lago Maggiore, the reflec- of Alpine with the softness of Italian scenery. tion of the cottages, and steeples, and woods, The buildings, which are so beautifully disin the blue and glassy surface of the lake, posed along the shore, partake of the elegance seems to realize the descriptions of the poets in of the scene; they are distinguished, for the their happiest and most inspired veins. most part, by the taste which seems to be the
The Lago Maggiore is the most celebrated of native growth of the soil of Italy; and the lake these lakes, because it lies most in the way of itself resembles a vast mirror, in which the ordinary travellers; but, in variety of forms, splendid scenery which surrounds it is reflected, and in the grandeur of the surrounding objects, with more even than its original beauty. it is decidedly inferior to the Lago Lugano, The lake of Como, as is well known, was which is, perhaps, upon the whole, the most the favourite residence of Pliny; and a villa beautiful lake in Europe. The mountains on its shore bears the name of the Villa Pliwhich surround this lake are not only very niana; but whether it is built on the scite of lofty, from 4000 to 5000 feet high, but broken the Roman philosopher's dwelling, has not into a thousand fantastic forms, and split with been ascertained. The immediate vicinity, chasms of the most terrific description. On however, of the intermitting spring, which he one of the loftiest of these pinnacles, immedi- has so well described, makes it probable that ately above the centre of the lake, is placed the the ancient villa was at no great distance from castle of St. Salvador; and the precipice, from the modern one which bears its name. Eustace its turrets to the surface of the water, is cer- has dwelt, with his usual eloquence, on the tainly not less than 2000 feet. Nevertheless, interest which this circumstance gives to this this stupendous cliff is clothed, in every cre- beautiful lake. vice where the birch can fix its root, with Towards its upper end, the lake of Como luxuriant woods; and so completely does this assumes a different aspect from that by which soft covering change the character of the scene, it is distinguished at its lower extremity. The that even this dreadful precipice is rather a hills in the vicinity of Como, and as far to the beautiful than a terrific object. The great north as Menagio, are soft in their forms, and characteristic and principal beauty of the Lago being clothed to their summits with vineyards Lugano, arises from its infinite variety, occa- and woods, they present rather a beautiful sioned by the numbers of mountains which than a sublime spectacle. But towards the project into its centre, and by presenting an upper end the scene assumes a more savage infinite variety of headlands, promontories, and character. The chestnut woods and orange bays, give it rather the appearance of a great groves no longer appear; the oak and the fir number of small lakes connected together, than cover the bold and precipitous banks which of one extensive sheet of water. Nor can hang over the lake; and the snowy peaks of imagination itself conceive any thing equal to the Bernhardin and Mount Splugen rise in the endless variety of scenery, which is pre- gloomy magnificence at the extremity of the sented by following the deeply indented shores scene. On approaching Chiavenna, the broad of this lake, or the varied effect of the number- expanse of water dwindles into a narrow less villages and churches, which present stream; the banks on either side approach so themselves at every turn, to relieve and ani- near, as to give the scenery the appearance of mate the scene.
a mountain valley; and the Alps, which close Foreigners, from every part of Europe, are it in, are clothed with forests of fir, or present accustomed to speak of the Boromean Islands vast and savage precipices of rock. From with a degree of enthusiasm which raises the this point there is an easy passage over the expectation to too high a pitch, and of course Bernhardin to the Rheinthal, and the interestis apt to produce disappointment. They are ing country of the Grisons; and the Val de laid out in the Italian style of gardening, with Misox, through which the road leads, is one of stiff alleys, marble fountains, statues, terraces, the most beautiful on the southern side of the and other works of art. But this style, how- Alps, and particularly remarkable for the ever curious or meritorious in itself, and as a magnificent castles with which its projecting specimen of the skill or dexterity of the gar- points are adorned.
The tour which is usually followed in the reassumes its delicious blue, and the sun Italian lakes, is to visit first the Lago Maggiore, shines with renovated splendour on the green and then drive to Como, and ascend to the woods and orange groves which adorn the Villa Pliniana, or to Menagio, and return to mountain sides. Perhaps the remarkable and Como or Lecco. By following this course, beautiful greenness of the foliage, which chahowever, the Lago Lugano is wholly omitted, racterizes the scenery of all these lakes, is which is perhaps the most picturesque of all owing to the frequent showers which the the three. The better plan is to ascend from height of the surrounding mountains occaBaveno, on the Lago Maggiore, to the upper sions; and if so, we owe to them one of the end of that lake; and after exploring its varied most singular and characteristic beauties by beauties, land at Luvino, and cross from thence which they are distinguished. to Ponte Tresa, and there embark for Lugano, ITALY comprises four great divisions: in from whence you reach Porlezza by water, each of which the face of nature, the mode of through the most magnificent part of the Lago cultivation, and the condition of the people, is Lugano; from thence cross to Menagio, on the very different from what it is in the others. lake of Como, whence, as from a central The first of these embraces the vast plain point, the traveller may ascend to Chiavenna, which lies between the Alps and the Apenor descend to Lecco or Como, as his time or nines, and extends from Coni on the west to inclination may prescribe.
the Adriatic on the east. It is bounded on the It is one most interesting characteristic of south by the Apennines, which, branching off the people who dwell on these beautiful lakes, from the Maritime Alps, run in a south-easterly that they seem to be impressed with a genuine direction to the neighbourhood of Lorretto, and unaffected piety. The vast number of and on the north by the chain of the Alps, churches placed in every village, and crown- which presents a continued face of precipices ing every eminence, is a proof of how much from sea to sea. This rich and beautiful plain has been done for the service of religion. But is, with the exception of a few inconsiderable it is a more interesting spectacle, to behold hills, a perfect level; insomuch that for two the devotion with which the ordinances of hundred miles there is not a single ascent to religion are observed in all these places of be met with. Towards its western end, in the worship. Numerous as the churches are, they plain of Piedmont, the soil is light and sandy; seem to be hardly able to contain the numbers but it becomes richer as you proceed to the who frequent them; and it is no unusual eastward, and from Lodi to Ferrara is comspectacle to behold crowds of both sexes posed of the finest black mould. It is watered kneeling on the turf in the church-yard on by numberless streams, which descend from Sunday forenoon, who could not find room in the adjacent mountains, and roll their tributary the church itself
. There is something singu- waters to the Pó, and this supply of water larly pleasing in such manifestation of simple joined to the unrivalled fertility of the soil, devotion. Whatever may be the diversity in renders this district the richest, in point of points of faith, which separate Christians from agricultural produce, that exists in Europe. each other, the appearance of sincere piety, An admirable system of cultivation has long more especially in the poorer classes, is an been established in this fertile plain ; and three ohject of interest, and fitted to produce respect. successive crops annually reward the labours We are too apt to imagine, in England, that of the husbandman. real devotion is little felt in Catholic states; The second extends over all the declivities but whoever has travelled in the Alps, or of the Apennines, from the frontiers of France dwelt on the Italian Lakes, must be convinced to the southern. extremity of Calabria. This that this belief is without foundation. The immense region comprises above half of the poor people who attend these churches, are in whole superficial extent of Italy, and maingeneral neatly, and even elegantly, dressed; tains a very great proportion of its inhabitants. and the Scripture pieces which are placed It everywhere consists of swelling hills, rapid above the altar, rude as they may be, are dis- descents, and narrow valleys, and yields spontinguished by a beauty of expression, and a taneously the choicest fruits. The olive, the grace of design, which proves in the most vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate, the sweet striking way how universally a taste for the chestnut, and all the fruits of northern climates, fine arts is diffused throughout the peasantry flourish in the utmost luxuriance on the sunny of Italy. While gliding along the placid sur- slopes of Tuscany and the Roman States; while face of these lakes, the traveller beholds with in Naples and Calabria, in addition to these, delight the crowds of well-dressed people who are to be found the orange tree, the citron, the descend from the churches that are placed palm, and the fruits of tropical regions. The along their shores; and it is sometimes a most higher parts of these mountains are covered interesting incident, amidst the assemblage of by magnificent forests of sweet chestnuts, forests and precipices which the scenery pre- which yield subsistence to a numerous popusents, to see the white dresses of the peasantry lation, at the height of many thousand feet winding down the almost perpendicular face above the sea; while, at the summit, pastures of the mountains, or emerging from the luxu- are to be found, similar to those of the Cheriant forests with which their sides are clothed. yiot Hills in Scotland.
The climate in these lakes is delightful. The The third region comprises the plains which vicinity of the mountain indeed attracts fre- lie between the Apennines and the Mediterraquent rains, which has rendered Como pro- nean, and exiends from the neighbourhood of verbial in Lombardy for the wetness of its Pisa to the mountains of Terracino. This dis eiimate ; but when the shower is over, the sky | trict, once covered by a numerous population,