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evening prayers, and saw his form as he knelt in which they are interested. This striking before the crucifix which the piety of succeed- difference in the national character of the two ing ages had erected in his hermitage. The people appears in their different modes of conimage of many a patron saint has been seen ducting war. Firm in the maintenance of their to shed tears, when a reverse has happened to purpose, and undaunted in the discharge of the Tyrolese arms; and the garlands which military duty, the Swiss are valuable chiefly are hung round the crosses of the Virgin wither for their stubborn qualities-for that obstinate when the hand which raised them has fallen courage on which a commander can rely with in battle. Peasants who have been driven by perfect certainty for the maintenance of any a storm to take shelter in the little chapels position which may be assigned for their dewhich are scattered over the country, have fence. It was their stubborn resistance, ac seen the crucifix bow its head; and solemn cordingly, which first laid the foundation of the music is heard at the hour of vespers, in the independence of their republic, and which higher chapels of the mountains. The distant taught the Imperialists and the Burgundians pealing of the organ, and the chant of innu- at Laupen and Morat, that the pride of feudal merable voices is there. distinctly perceptible; power, and the ardour of chivalrous enterand the peasant, when returning at night from prise, may seek in vain to crush “the might the chase, often trembles when he beholds fu- that slumbers in a peasant's arm." In later nereal processions, clothed in white, marching times the same disposition has been evinced in silence through the gloom of the forests, or in the conduct of the Swiss Guards, in the slowly moving on the clouds that float over Place Carousel, all of whom were massacred the summit of the mountains.

at their post, without the thought of capitulaA country so circumstanced, abounding with tion or retreat being once stirred amongst them. every thing that is grand and beautiful in na- The Tyrolese, on the other hand, are more tural scenery, filled with Gothic castles, over distinguished by their fiery and impetuous which ruin has long ago thrown her softening mode of fighting. In place of waiting, like the hand, peopled by the phantoms of an extrava- Swiss infantry, the charges of their enemies, gant yet sublime superstition, and still inha- they rush on unbidden to the attack, and often bited by a valiant and enthusiastic people, accomplish, by the hardihood of the enterprise, seems of all others to be the fit theatre of poeti- what more cautious troops could never succal fancy. It is truly extraordinary therefore, ceed in effecting. In this respect they resemble that no poet has appeared to glean the legends more nearly the Highland clans, who, in the and ballads that are scattered through this in- rebellion in 1745, dashed with the broadsword teresting country, to perpetuate the aërial beings on the English regiments; or the peasants of with which superstition has filled its wilds, La Vendee,who,without cannon or ammunition, and to dignify its mouldering castles with the assaulted the veteran bands of the republic, recital of the many heroic and romantic ad- and by the fury of their onset, frequently deventures which have occurred within their stroyed armies with whom they would have walls. When we ręcollect the unparalleled been utterly unable to cope in a more regular interest which the genius of the present day system of warfare. has given to the traditions and the character One reflection there is, which may be drawn of the Scottish people, it is impossible not to from the determined valour of the Tyrolese, regret, that no kindred mind has immortalized and their success against the disciplined armies the still more wild and touching incidents that of France, which it is of the utmost importance have occurred amidst the heroic inhabitants to impress steadily on our minds. It is this; and sublime scenery of the Tyrol Alps. Let that the changes in the art of war in modern us hope, that the military despotism of Austria times has produced no alteration on the ability will not long continue to smother the genius, of freedom to resist the aggressions of despotic by restraining the freedom of those higher powers; but that still, as in ancient times, the classes of her people where poetical talents are discipline and the numbers of arbitrary governto be found; and that, before the present tra- ments are alike unavailing against the stubditions are forgotten, or the enthusiasm which born valour of a free people. In every age, the war has excited is subsided, there may yet and in every part of the world, examples are arise the Scott of the south of Europe. to be found of the defeat of great and power

The great circumstance which distinguishes ful armies by the cool and steady resistance the Tyrolese from their neighbours, the Swiss, which characterizes the inhabitants of free to whom in many respects they bear a close states. This is matter of proverbial remark; resemblance, is in the animation and cheerful- but it is of the more importance to observe, ness of their character. The Swiss are by na- that this g.neral steadiness and valour, which ture a grave and heavy people; nor is this pe- seek for no support but in the courage of the culiar character the result of their republican individual, can be attained only by the diffusion institutions, for we are told by Planta, that their of civil liberty, and that the valụe of such quastupidity had become proverbial in France be- lities is as strongly felt in modern wars as it fore the time of their republic. The Tyrolese, was in any former period of the world. It is on the other hand, are a cheerful and lively related by Homer, that at the siege of Troy, people, full of fire and animation, enthusiasti- the Trojan troops, in whom the vicinity of cally devoted to their favourite pursuits, and Asia had introduced the customs of oriental extremely warm in their resentments. Public warfare, and the feelings of oriental despotism, games are frequent in every valley; and the supported each other's courage by shouts and kcen penetrating look of the peasants shows cries during the heat of the battles; while the with what alacrity they enter into any subject | Grecians, in whom, as Mitford has observed

states,

the monarchical form of government was even is ample room," as a late eminent writer* bas then tempered by a strong mixture of republi-well observed, “ for national exultation at the can freedom,* stood firm, in perfect silerce, names of Cressy, Poitiers, and Azincour. So waiting the command of their chiefs. The great was the disparity of numbers upon those passage is remarkable, as it shows how early, famous days, that we cannot, with the French in the history of mankind, the great lines of historian, attribute the discomfiture of their distinction between the courage of freemen and hosts merely to mistaken tactics and too im. slaves was drawn; nor can we perhaps any- petuous valour. They yielded rather to the where find, in the subsequent annals of the intrepid steadiness in danger, which had alworld, a closer resemblance to what occurred ready become the characteristic of our English in the struggle between English freedom and soldiers, and which, during four centuries, has French despotism on the field of Waterloo. ensured their superiority wherever ignorance “ The Grecian phalanx,” says the poet,“ march- or infatuation has not led them into the field. ed in close order, the leaders directing each But these victories, and the qualities that sea his own band. The rest were mute; inso-cured them, must chiefly be ascribed to the much, that you would say, in so great á multi- freedom of our constitution and the superior tude there was no voice. Such was the silence condition of the people. Not the nobility of with which they respectfully watched for the England, not the feudal tenants, won the battles word of command from their officers. But the of Cressy and Poitiers, for these were fully cries of the Trojan army resembled the bleat- matched in the ranks of France, but the yeoing of sheep when they are driven into the men who drew the bow with strong and steady fold, and hear the cries of their lambs. Nor arms, accustomed to its use in their native did the voice of one people rise from their fields, and rendered fearless by personal com: lines, but a confused mixture of many tongues.”+ petence and civil freedom.t The same distinction has been observed in all Now, after all that we have heard of the art periods of the world, between the native un- of war being formed into a regular system, of bending courage of freemen, and the artificial the soldier being reduced to a mere machine, or transitory ardour of the troops of despotic and of the progress of armies being made the

It was thus that the three hundred subject of arithmetical calculation; it is truly Spartans stood the shock of a mighty army in consoling to find the discomfiture of the greatthe defile of Thermopylæ; and it was from the est and most disciplined army which the world influence of the same feeling, that, with not less has ever seen, brought about by the same devoted valour, the fifteen hundred Swiss died cause which, in former times, have so often in the cemetery of St. James, in the battle of given victory to the cause of freedom; to find Basle. The same individual determination the victories of Naefels and Morgarten renewwhich enabled the citizens of Milan to overed in the triumph of the Tyrolese patriots, and throw the whole feudal power of Frederic the ancient superiority of the English yeomanry Barbarossa on the plain of Legnano, animated asserted, as in the days of Cressy and Azinthe shepherds of the Alps, when they trampled cour, on the field of Waterloo. Nor is it perunder foot the pride of the imperial nobility haps the least remarkable fact of that memoon the field of Sempach, and annihilated the rable day, that while the French army, like the chivalry of Charles the Bold on the shores of Trojans of old, animated their courage by inMorat. It was among the free inhabitants of cessant cries; the English battalions, like the the Flemish provinces, that Count Tilly found Greek phalanxes, waited in silence the charge the materials of those brave Walloon guards, of their enemies : proving thus, in the severest who, as contemporary writers inform us, might of all trials, that the art of war has made no be knocked down or trampled under foot, but change on the qualities essential in the soldier; could not be constrained to fly by the arms of and that the determined courage of freemen is Gustavus at the battle of Leipsic;t and the still able, as in the days of Marathon and celebrity of the Spanish infantry declined from Platæa, to overcome the utmost efforts of milithe time that the liberties of Arragon and Cas- tary power. It is interesting to find the same tile were extinguished by Charles V. “There qualities distinguishing the armies of a free

people in such distant periods of the world;

and it is the fit subject, not merely of national * Mitford, i. 158.

pride, but of universal thankfulness, to disco* *Ως τότ' έπασσύτεραι Δαναών κίνυντο φάλαγγες ver, that there are qualities in the composition

Νωλεμέως πόλεμονδε. κέλευε δε οίσιν έκαςος
Ηγεμόνων οι δ' άλλοι ακήν ίσαν-- ούδέ κε φαίης

of a great army which it is beyond the power Τόσσον λαόν έπεσθαι έχοντ' εν σηθεσιν αυτήν- of despotism to command; and that the utmoist Σιγή δειδιότες σημάντορας: αμφί δε πάσιν

efforts of the military art, aided by the strongest Τεύχεα ποικίλ' έλαμπε, τα είμένοι έριχόωντο. Τρώες δ', ώςτ' άϊες πολυπάμονος άνδρός εν αυλή

incitements to military distinction, cannot Μυρίαι εσήκασιν αμελγόμεναι γάλα λευκόν,

produce that steady and unbending valour 'Αζηχές μεμακυΐαι, ακούουσαι όπα άρνών: *Ως Τρώων άλαλητός ανά ςτρατόν εύρυν δρώρει.

which springs from the enjoyment of CIVIX Ου γαρ πάντων δεν δμος θρόος, ουδ' ία γήρυς, 'Αλλά γλώσσ' εμέμικτο πολύκλητοι δ' έσαν άνδρες.

Iliad iy. 427.

* Hallam's Middle Ages, i. 74. Memoirs of a Cavalier, by Defoe.

# Froissart, i. c. 162.

LIBERTY.

FRANCE IN 1833.*

OBSERVATIONS made on the spot by one who ivernment; we know the landmarks of the has long regarded the political changes of civilization which is receding from the view, France with interest, may possibly be of ser- and have gained some acquaintance with the vice, in conveying to the public on the other perils of that which is approaching; and comside of the Channel some idea of the present bining recent with former experience in our state and future prospects of a nation, avow- own and the neighbouring country, can form edly followed as the leader by the liberal party a tolerably accurate idea of the fate which all over the world, in the great work of politi- awaits them and ourselves. cal regeneration. Such a sketch, drawn with The leading circumstance in the present no feeling of political or national animosity, condition of France, which first strikes an but with every wish for the present and future English observer, and is the most important happiness of the great people among whom it feature it exhibits in a political point of view, is composed, may possibly cool many visionary is the enormous and apparently irresistible hopes, and extinguish some ardent anticipa- power of the central government at Paris over tions; but it will at least demonstrate what is all the rest of France.

This must appear the result, in the circumstances where it has rather a singular result after forty years of been most triumphant, of democratic ascend- ardent aspirations after freedom, but nevertheency; and prepare the inhabitants of Great less nothing is more certain, and it constitutes Britain for the fate, and the government which the great and distinguishing result of the Reawaits them, if they continue to follow the volution. footsteps of the French liberals in the career Such has been the centralization of power which has been recently brought, on this side by the various democratic assemblies, who, at of the channel, to so triumphant a conclusion. different times, have ruled the destinies of this

Most of the educated inhabitants of Great great country, that there is hardly a vestige of Britain visited France, during the restoration; power or influence now left to the provinces. many of them at different times. Every one All the situations of emolument of every de. thought he had acquired some idea of the scription, from the highest to the lowest, in political state and prospects of the country, every department and line of life, are in the and was enabled to form some anticipations gift of government. No man, in a situation as to its future destiny. We are now enabled approaching to that of a gentleman, can rise to say, that most of these views were partial either in the civil or military career in any

They were so, not so much part of France, unless he is promoted by the from defect in the observation of France, as central offices at Paris. These are general ignorance of the political principles and pas- expressions, which convey no definite idea. A sions which were at work amongst its inha- few examples will render the state of the bitants; from want of experience of the result country in this particular more intelligible. of democratic convulsions; from judging of a The Chamber of Peers, who now hold their country over which the wave of revolution situations only for life, are appointed by the had passed, with the ideas drawn from one Crown. which had expelled its fury. We observed The whole army, now four hundred thouFrance accurately enough; but we did so with sand strong, is at the disposal of government. English eyes; we supposed its inhabitants to All the officers in that great body of course be actuated by the feelings and interests, and receive their appointment from the War-office motives, which were then at work among our at Paris. selves; and could form no conception of the The navy, no inconsiderable force, is also new set of principles and desires which are appointed by the same power. stirred up during the agitation of a revolution. The whole artificers and officers connected In this respect our powers of observation are with the engineers and artillery, a most nynow materially improved. We have had some merous body in a country so beset with fortifiexperience during the last three years of de- cations and fortresses as France, derive their mocratic convulsion; we know the passion appointments from the central government. and desires which are developed by arraying The custom-house officers, an immense the lower orders against the higher. We have body, whose huts and stations are set down at acquired an acquaintance with the signs and short distances all round France, are all nomarks of revolutionary terror. Standing thus minated by the central office at Paris. on the confines of the two systems; at the ex- The whole mayors of communes, with their tremity of English liberty, and the entrance of " adjoints,” amounting over all France to French democracy, we are now peculiarly eighty-eight thousand persons, are appointed qualified to form an accurate opinion of the by the central government, or the prefects of tendency of these opposite principles of go-departments whom they have nominated.

The post-office, in every department through. * Blackwood's Magazine, October and December, 1833.-Written during a residence at Paris, and in the out the kingdom, is exclusively filled by the north of France, in the autumn of that year.

servants of government.

or erroneous.

The police, an immense force, having not sous-prefets, procureurs du roi, and in gener less than eighty thousand employés in constantral all the legal offices of every description, are occupation, and which extends its iron net appointed by government. The only excepover the whole country, are all appointed by tion are the judges du paix, a sort of arbiters the minister at the head of that department. and mediators in each canton, to settle the

The clergy over the whole country receive trifling disputes of the peasants, whom they their salaries from government, and are ap- are permitted to name for themselves. pointed by the crown.

The whole officers employed in the collec The whole teachers of youth of every de- tion of the revenue, over the whole country, scription, in all public or established semina- are appointed by the government. They are ries, whether parochial or departmental, are an extremely numerous body, and add imappointed by the minister of public instruc- mensely to the influence of the central authortion.

ity, from whom all their appointments emanate. The management of the roads, bridges, and It would be tedious to carry this enumerachaussées, throughout all the kingdom, is in- tion farther. Suffice it to say, that the govern trusted to persons appointed by the crown. No ment of France has now drawn to itself the man can break a stone, or mend a bridge, or whole patronage in every department of busi repair a pavement, from Calais to Bayonne, ness and line of life over the whole country. unless he is in the service of government; and The army, the navy, the law, the church, the all the labourers on the roads have an uniform professors and teachers of every description; hat, with the words “Cantonnier,” or “Pon- the revenue, the post-office, the roads, bridges tonnier," upon it, indicating that they are in and canals, the post-horses, the postillions, the the service of the state.

firemen, the police, the gen-d'armes, the pre The post-horses over all France are under fects, the mayors, the magistrates, constitute so the control of the crown. Not only the post- many different branches in which the whole masters, but every postillion from Brest to patronage is vested in the central government Marseilles, and Strasburg to Bourdeaux, are at Paris, and in which no step can be taken, nominated by the government. No additional or thing attempted, without the authority of hand can be added in the remotest relay of the minister for that department, or the deputy horses without the authority of the Parisian in the capital. In consequence of this prodibureaux. On all the great roads in the north gious concentration of power and patronage in of France there are too few postillions, and the public offices of Paris, and the total stripping travellers are daily detained hours on the of every sort of influence from the departroad, not because horses are awanting, but ment, the habit has become universal in every because it has not pleased the ministers of the part of France, of looking to Paris, not only interior to appoint a sufficient number of pos- for the initiation in every measure and thought, tillions for the different stations. In the south, but for the means of getting on in every line the case is the reverse; the postillions are too of life. Has a man a son to put into the army numerous, and can hardly live, from the divi- or navy, the law, the church, the police, or resion of their business among so many hands; venue? He finds that he has no chance of but the mandate has gone forth from the success 'unless he is taken by the hand by the Tuileries, and obedience must be the order of government. Is he anxious to make him a the day.

professor, a teacher, or a schoolmaster? Hé The whole diligences, stage-coaches, mails, is obliged to look to the same quarter for the and conveyances of every description which means of advancement. Is his ambition liconvey travellers by relays of horses in every mited to the humbler situation of a postmaster, part of France, must employ the post-horses a bridge contractor, a courier, or a postillion ? and postillions appointed at the different sta- He must pay his court to the prefect of the detions by the crown. No private individual or partment, in order to obtain a recommendation company can run a coach with relays with to the minister of the interior, or the director their own horses. They may establish as of bridges and roads. Is he even reduced to many coaches as they choose, but they must earn his bread by breaking stones upon the all be drawn by the royal horses and postillions, highways, or paving the streets of the towns ? if they do not convey the travellers en voiturier He must receive the wages of government, with the same horses all the way. This great and must wear their livery for his twenty sous monopoly was established by an arret of the a day. Thus in every department and line of Directory, 9th December, 1798, which is in life, government patronage is indispensable, these terms; " Nul autre que les maitres de and the only way in which success is to be poste, munis d'une commission speciale, né obtained is by paying court to some person in pourra etablir de relais particuliers, relayer ou authority. conduire à titre de louage des voyageurs d'un In a commercial and manufacturing country relais à un autre, à peine d'etre contraint de such as England, many and various means payer par forme d'indemnité le prix de la exist of rising to wealth and distinction, indecourse, au profit des maitres de poste et des pendent of government; and in some the oppo. postillons qui auront été frustrés."

sition line is the surer passport to eminence The whole firemen throughout France are of the two. Under the old constitution of organized in battalions, and wear a uniform England, when political power was vested in like soldiers, and are appointed by govern- the holders of great property, and the great ment.

body of the people watched their proceedings The whole judges, superior and inferior, with distrust and jealousy, eminence was to over the whole kingdom, as well as the prefets, l be attained in any public profession, as the bar or the senate, chiefly by acquiring the suf- 1797; when Napoleon seized the reins o frages of the greater number of the citizens; power in November, 1799; when he declared and hence the popular independent line was himself emperor, and overturned all the prin. the one which in general led soonest to fame ciples of the Revolution in 1804; when he was and eminence. Commerce and manufactures vanquished by the allies in 1814; when he re. opened up a thousand channels of lucrative sumed the helm in 1815; when he was finally industry, independent altogether of government dethroned after the battle of Waterloo; when support; and many of the most important the revolt of the barricades established a res branches of patronage, great part of the church, volutionary government in the capital; when and the majority of all establishments for the suppression of the insurrection at the education, were in the hands of corporations cloister of St. Merri defeated a similar attempt or private individuals, often in opposition to, two years afterwards, the obedient departments or unconnected with, ministerial influence. were equally ready with their addresses of But the reverse of all this obtains in France. congratulation, and on every one of these vaThere little commerce or manufactures are, rious, contradictory, and inconsistent changes, comparatively speaking, to be found. With France submitted at once to the dictatorial the exception of Paris, Lyons, Bourdeaux, power of Paris; and thirty millions of men Rouen, and Marseilles, no considerable. com- willingly took the law from the caprices or mercial cities exist, and the innumerable chan- passions of a few hundred thousands. The nels for private adventure which the colonial subjection of Rome to the Prætorian guards, possessions and immense trade of Britain open or of Turkey to the Janizaries, was never more up are unknown. All the private establish- complete. ments or corporations vested with patronage It was not thus in old France. The greatest in any line, as the church, education, charity, and most glorious efforts of her people, in faor the like; were destroyed during the Revolu- vour of freedom, were made when the capital tion of 1793, and nothing left but the great and was in the hands of foreign or domestic eneoverwhelming power of government, standing mies. The English more than once wrested the more prominently forward, from the extinc- Paris from their grasp; but the forces of the tion of every riyal authority which might | south rallied behind the. Loire, and at length compete with its influence.

expelled the cruel invaders from their shores. From the same cause has arisen a degree The forces of the League were long in possesof slavish submission, in all the provinces of sion of the capital; but Henry IV., at the head France, to the will or caprice of the metropo- of the militia of the provinces, it length conlis, which is almost incredible, and says but quered its citizens, and Paris received a master little for the independence of thought and cha- from the roots of the Pyrenees. The Revoluracter which has grown up in that country tion of 1789 commenced with the provinces: since the schoolmaster has been abroad. From it was their parliaments, which, under Louis the habit of looking to Paris for directions in XV. and XVI., spread the spirit of resistance every thing, from the making of a king to the to arbitrary power through the country; and repairing of a bridge, from overturning a dy- it was from their exertions, that the unanimous nasty to breaking a stone, they have absolutely spirit, which compelled the court to convoke lost the power of judging for themselves, or the states-general, arose. Now all is changed; taking the initiative in any thing either of the not a murmur, not a complaint against the greatest or the smallest moment. This ap- acts of the capital, is to be heard from Calais pears, in the most striking manner, in all the to Bayonne; but the obedient departments are political changes which have taken place in equally ready at the arrival of the mail, or the the country for the last forty years. Ever since receipt of the telegraph, to hail with shouts a the bones of old France were broken by the republic or an empire; a dictator or a consul; Constituent Assembly: since the parliaments, a Robespierre or a Napoleon; a monarch, the the provinces, the church, the incorporations, heir of fourteen centuries; or a hero, the child were swept away by their gigantic acts of de- of an hundred victories. mocratic despotism, the departments have All the great and useful undertakings, which sunk into absolute insignificance, and every in England, and all free countries, emanate thing has been determined by the will of the from the capital or skill of individuals, or ascapital, and the acts of the central government sociated bodies, in France spring from the goat its head. When the Girondists, the illus- vernment, and the government alone. Their trious representatives of the country districts, universities, schools, and colleges; academies were proscribed, the most violent feelings of of primary and secondary instruction; miliindignation spread through the south and west tary and polytechnic schools; hospitals, chaof France. Sixty-five, out of the eighty-four ritable institutions, libraries, museums, and departments, rose in insurrection against the public establishments of all sorts; their hardespotism of the capital; but the unwonted bours, bridges, roads, canals-every thing, in exertion surpassed their strength, and they short, originates with, and is directed by, the soon yielded, without a struggle worth the no- government. Hence, individuals in France tice of history, to its usurped authority. When seldom attempt any thing for the public good: Robespierre executed Danton and his adher- private advantage, or amusement, the rise of ents; when he himself sunk under the stroke fortune, or the increase of power; constituie of the Thermidorians; when Napoleon over the general motives of action. Like the pasa threw the national guard of Paris, in October, sengers in a ship, or the soldiers in an army 1795; when the Directory were expelled by the the French surrender themselves, without a bayonets of Augereau, on the 18th Fructidor, I struggle, to the guidance of those in possession

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