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the form and placing of the inlets, and in the construction of the exit, will insure comfortable ventilation in rooms built with no special provision for it.

The tube which supplies the fire should have a valve to close it, so that when necessary the whole pumping power of the fire may be applied to sucking in fresh air through the room.

I will now refer to the last source of contamination mentioned above, viz., foul drains and water-closets.

Any unpleasantness from the former will commonly arise from faulty design, or malconstruction. A drain is ill designed which passes under any portion of the house, unlesss no other way is possible. Also where no provision is made for ventilating, and where it is not of ample size.

A drain unevenly laid, built of inferior materials badly jointed, or not properly connected with the main sewer, is badly constructed.

Of course, in use, a drain may become stopped by accident or design; this is another matter; all works are liable to acci

dents, but a mishap of this nature will soon show itself by the bursting or overflow of the drain.

The remedies for bad smells from drains are, 1st, the proper laying of the drain. It should be formed of socketed pipes, in no case less than 4 in. diameter, 6 in. will often be better, or even 9 in. pipes for large houses. Sufficient fall should be given, not less, if possible, than 3 in. in 10 ft. The pipes should be laid in good concrete, and jointed with Portland cement. 2d. The drain must be trapped. The common siphon trap is the best form for general use, and I believe a single trap is preferable to double, for with two traps, when the water has passed the first it compresses the foul air, which escapes through the upper one into the house. 3d. All injurious escape may be prevented by ventilating the drain. A pipe should be connected with the siphon, on the summit of the bend between the water which closes the trap and the leg of the siphon which joins the drain. This pipe Dr. Carpenter says should be of nearly the same bore as the siphon, and should be carried up out

side the house above the eaves, as far from any window as can be. Outside a chimney is a good place, but the opening should not be above or near the top of the chimney. Care must be taken to make the joints in the pipe gas-tight. The rain-water pipes should not be used as ventilators to the drains. - Unpleasantness from the water-closet will almost always arise from its position. This, as we all know, is commonly the very worst which could be found, viz., under or close to the stairs, the well of which forms a shaft for conveying foul air into all the bedchambers.

I have seen in London a water-closet opening into the dining-room, but even this is hardly so objectionable as the usual position.

The water-closet should, where possible, be outside the house. I do not mean detached, but separated by such a space as will allow of double doors, with sufficient distance between them for ventilation.

The building itself should also be thoroughly ventilated.

I will now briefly state how a house might be built so as to be efficiently ventilated on the principle of thermo-ventilation.

It will be sufficient take one room as a type of the rest, and I will assume that it is desirable to keep up the old-fashioned open fireplace, wasteful as it is.

The fresh air may be brought directly through the outer walls as in sketch B, or may be first slightly heated by passing through a hot water coil, or other apparatus.

If the former course be followed, air bricks must be inserted in the outer face of the walls communicating with a channel running round a portion or the whole of the room.

If warmed air is desired it must be brought into the channel through tubes in the wall.

The inner channel should be formed by a cast-iron box, with an ornamental openwork front, and without a back. The front, which may be of brass, should be fastened so as to be readily removable. The fine

wire gauze screen being fixed as shown in Fig. 2.

The exit for foul air should be through open work in the ceiling, as shown in Figs. 4,

FIG. 4.


A A --Spaces for escape of vitiated air.

5 & 6. This openwork might either be done in plaster similar to the centre ornament,

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