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Affair of the Chesapeake and Leopard—Popular and Official Movements thereon—President's Views—His Attitude in relation to Spanish Affairs—Indian Difficulties—Private Correspondence—Considers a Presidential Tour improper—The President and his Grandson—Anecdotes—Carrying a Kentuckian en croupe—The drunken Soldier—An Acquaintance made under unusual Circumstances—Our Relations with England–Was the rejection of the Treaty the Cause of English Hostility?–Canning's Intercourse with American Ministers—British Proclamation and Orders in Council–Effects on United States—Meeting of Congress—President's Message—Embargo recommended—Was the President then apprised of last Orders in Council?—The Embargo Bill passes—President transmits to Congress Proceedings in Burr's Trials—Motion to expel Smith as an Accomplice of Burr–J. Q. Adams's Report thereon—Bayard's Opinion of Burr's Guilt —Vote in Smith's Case—Bills to amend the Laws of Treason—Pennsylvania Resolutions—Wilkinson's Conduct investigated—Supplementary Embargo Acts—Gardenier's Speech—Johnson's and Campbell's Replies—Duel between Gardenier and Campbell— Bills passed—Deaths—Adjournment—Arrival of English Minister—His Correspondence with Madison and Departure—President's Views of Objects and Effects of Embargo— His View of our Foreign Relations—Legislative and other Addresses approving Embargo--Eight Legislatures nominate the President for a Third Term—His decisive Refusal arrests further Nominations—Presidential Caucus—Clinton and Monroe's dissatisfaction—Correspondence between the President and Monroe–Claims of the latter compared with Madison's—The President's impartial Overtures to England and France Their Replies–Pinkney writes Home urging a full persistence in Embargo–Effects of Embargo on different Classes and Sections of our Country—Its comparative Effects in United States and England—England encouraged to persist by the Conduct of New England Federalists—Disingenuousness of their Appeals to Sectional and Class Interests–Comparative Exports and Tonnage of different Sections of the Union–Infractions of Embargo in New York and New England—Revenue Officers forcibly resisted –Conduct of New York and New England Executives—President's Impartiality in granting Permits—General Armstrong's Dispatches in regard to Florida–President's Views—Germ of the “Monroe Doctrine"—President's Views of English Relations— His View of the proper Manner of executing Criminal Justice on Indian Offenders— History of the “Batture Case,” . . . . . . . . . . .223

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The President at Home—Letters to his Grandson—Presidential Election, 1808–Our Rela. tions with England—Mr. Canning and Mr. Pinkney—Their Diplomatic Correspondence, etc.–Canning's offensive Communication—Meeting of Congress—President's Message—Action of Congress on Embargo—Embargo sustained by a larger Majority than that by which it originally passed—The Enforcing Law—President's continued Avowals that Embargo was intended as a Temporary Measure—A Federal Quibble to find a Fulcrum for Sedition—Reception of Enforcing Law in Massachusetts—Resistance and Disunion called for in Newspapers and Town Meetings–Gore's Resolutions passed by Massachusetts Legislature, January, 1809—Awkward Posture in which they placed some of the Federal Leaders—Silence of our Government in regard to Canning's offensive Communication—That Communication published, through British agency, in Massa. chusetts—Effect produced on Public Mind and in Congress—Key's Speech—Bill for an Extra Session passes Congress—This a test question on the Administration Policy— That Policy described by the President—Other Bills, and Federal Policy—Nicholas's Resolution–Quincy moves Resolutions preparatory to an Impeachment of the Presi. dent—They receive one Wote—A new Republican Wing, and its Plan—It unites with the Opposition to vote down Nicholas's Resolution—Defeat of the Administration— Jefferson to his Son-in-law on the Subject—Administration Party rally–The Non-Intercourse Law passed—President's contemporaneous Explanation of premature Repeal of Embargo—His Contradictory Statements to Giles in 1825–Causes of his manifest Error in them in regard to J. Q. Adams, etc.—They fortunately do no Injustice to Mr. Adams—Mr. Adams's Remarks on them in National Intelligencer—His charges against Federalists of Disunion Projects in 1808–9 and previously—Jefferson's Real Attitude on Repeal of Embargo—The later Assailants of that Law—An English and French View of the subject—Testimony of Edinburg Review and the Emperor Napoleon—What Substitute did its Opponents propose 2–Inconsistency of New England Maritime Federalists—Memorial of John Jacob Astor and others—Final success of the Policy— Mr. Jefferson's Consistency while in Office–His Personal Feelings unchilled—His Relations with Subordinates, etc.—His Feelings on leaving Office—Addresses pour upon him—Address of Virginia General Assembly—His Reply–Declines the Ovation of his Neighbors—His Answer to their Address, - - - - - - - . 270

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Mr. Jefferson's return Home—His Correspondence with the President—Jefferson's and Madison's Friendship—Their Similarities and Contrasts of Character, etc.—Their dif. ferent Degrees of Popularity among Political Friends and Opponents—Their Usefulness to each other—Erskine's Treaty—Jefferson's Views of it—His Annexation Views— The Treaty rejected by England—“Copenhagen Jackson" succeeds Erskine— Habitual deportment of British Ministers in the United States—How the Treaty had been received by the Federalists—Their Declarations on its Rejection—Feelings of the American people—Jefferson to Eppes—His Views on Equilibrium of Agriculture, Manufactures and Commerce—Dissensions in Mr. Madison's Cabinet—Jefferson dissuades Gallatin from retiring—Engaged in correcting Marshall's Life of Washington— Loss of his Indian Vocabularies—Domestic affairs—Letter to Kosciusko–Jefferson's Pecuniary Affairs—A Statement of them and of the Sources of his Pecuniary Misfortunes—Amount of his Property—Causes of the Depression of the Agricultural Interest in Virginia–Monetary Revulsions—Life at Monticello–Its Scale of Hospitality—A talk with old Wormley–Mr. Jefferson's proposed and actual Style of Living—Anecdote of Mr. C***.—The Current of Events unchangeable—The Sequel—Description of Monticello–Its Approach—The Grounds and Mansion—Interior of the House forty years ago—Prospect from Monticello—Looming of the Mountains—Jefferson's proposed Improvements to the Scenery—An early English Description of the Climate and Inhabitants—A Rain Storm and an important Computation—Reasons for Jefferson's building his House at Poplar Forest—The House and Life there described by his Grand-daughter—Journeying between his two Residences described by another Granddaughter—An Omission in the Sketch of the House at Poplar Forest—Interview with a Parson at Ford's Tavern–Jefferson in the Interior of his Family, his Reading, his Rural and Horticultural Tastes, described by a Grand-daughter—His Conduct and Manners in his Family, described by different Grand-daughters, . - - - . 307

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Jefferson's Correspondence in 1810—Anticipates a Financial Crash in England–Russian Ambassador and Jefferson—Publications suggested by Jefferson—Correspondence of 1811–Letter to Eppes—Views on Colonization and on Duties of Government in relation thereto–Misunderstandings in Madison's Cabinet—Duane's Attack on Gallatin—His Appeals to Jefferson for Aid—His Attack on the President—Jefferson's Views on proper Sacrifices to Party Unity—His Toleration of Individual Differences of Opinion in his Party—Gallatin—Thomas Ritchie—South American Revolt—Jefferson advises Barlow how to address Napoleon–His Views on War and Peace—“Gives Glory” to Gerry for “Rasping down” Traitors—The Conduct of the New England Federalists—Quincy's Declaration that it was the Duty of some States to prepare for a Separation of the Union—Resolutions of Federal Caucus in Boston–Gerry pronounces their Doctrines Seditious—Legislature go further—Jefferson's Illness—His Letter to Rush–Correspondence of 1812–His Reconciliation with John Adams—War declared between United States and Great Britain—Jefferson's Views of the kind of War it was Expedient to wage—His Suggestions to the President—Sanguine Hopes—Views after Hull's Surrender—A Glimpse of Jefferson's Pecuniary Affairs—He is urged to become a Candidate for the Presidency—Urged to enter Mr. Madison's Cabinet–General Result of the War in 1812–Conduct of the New England Federalists—Disunion instigated from the Pulpit—Quincy's Attack on the War and on Jefferson in Congress— Tallmadge's Speech—Clay's Reply to Quincy—Presidential Election—Progress of the War in 1813—Jefferson's Remarks and Suggestions thereon—Massachusetts Legislature resolve that it is “unbecoming a Moral and Religious People” to express Approbation of the Military or Naval Exploits of the War—Massachusetts Officials do not attend the Funeral of Lawrence—Quincy's Resolution in regard to Admission of States formed from Louisiana—Remonstrance of Massachusetts Legislature against the War—False Statements of the Document in regard to Impressment, etc.—Smuggling and Selling Supplies to the Enemy—How fostered in New England–Evasions of the Revenue Laws—British Blockade extended—The portion of New England still Exempted–Governor of Vermont attempts to Recall the Militia of that State from Canada–Proceedings in Congress thereon—Resolves of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey– Commodore Decatur's Account of the “Blue-light.” Treason—Jefferson's Correspondence in 1813–Dirge of the Indian Race—Jefferson's Letters to Eppes on the Banks and Currency—Attempt of Boston Banks to prevent the Government from obtaining Loans—Their Run on Banks of Middle and Southern States—Purchase of English Government Bills—The Massachusetts Press and Pulpit denounce those who lend Money to our Government—A new Rupture between Adams and Jefferson threatened—Reconciliation between Jefferson and Mrs. Adams—Jefferson's Views of Style in Writing, . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

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The Military Campaign of 1814–American and British Soldiership—Chippewa, Bridgewater, Plattsburgh and New Orleans—The Treaty of Peace—Jefferson Pronounces it an Armistice—Results and Lessons of the War—Jefferson's Miscellaneous Correspondence in 1814–His Delineation of Washington—Aid to Bible Society—On States adding to Qualifications of Members of Congress—The “Two Hooks” on which Republican Government hangs—Letter to Granger–Blackstone and Hume–On Banks and Currency–Literary and Scientific Correspondence—On the Spanish Constitution—To a person who had a Revelation to attempt his Religious Conversion—Continued Views on Negro Slavery—The Head of the Old French Party attacking Napoleon, and the Head of the Old English Party attacking “John Bull”—Situation of Virginia Agriculturists in 1814–Jefferson's Diplomas and Honorary Memberships of Societies—Offers. his Library to Congress—Report of Joint Committee thereon–Action in the two. Houses—The Purchase—Valuation of the Books—Proceedings of the Opposition in Massachusetts—Legislature determines to raise a State Army, and calls the Hartford! Convention—Proceedings in other New England States—Disunion advocated by Press, and Pulpit—Federal Action out of New England—Meeting of Hartford Convention—. Report of the Delegates to their Legislatures—Proposed Amendments of the Constitution—Massachusetts and Rhode Island appoint Commissioners to proceed to Washington—Attempts to annoy, and thwart the Measures of the General Government —The Commissioners proceed to Washington—The Bubble burst—Public Derision— The Speculations on the Secret Proceedings of Hartford Convention—Discrepancy in the Explanation of its Members, etc.—Wherein the Explanations agree—Character of the Members—John Holmes's Solution—Jefferson's several References to the Convention—His Contempt for its Menaces—His Erroneous Views in respect to some of its Members—Sources of the Odium which rests on the Measure—The Sequel—Action of the States on the Constitutional Amendments proposed by the Convention—Domestic matters at Monticello in 1815–Agricultural Statistics, etc.—Correspondence—On the Right to preach Politics from the Pulpit—How Jefferson wished to be treated in History —His Occupations in the Summer of 1815–Correspondence in 1816–His Health and Habits—Letter to Adams on Living this Life over again—On Uses of Grief—To Col. Yancey on the Bank Mania—Jefferson's continued Hostility to United States Bank– To Austin on encouraging Domestic Manufactures—How far he went in this Direction —Virginia Improvements, etc.—Jefferson to Kercheval on amending the Constitution of Virginia–Tucker's and Grigsby's Statements—A Singular Tribute to Jefferson's Influence—Jefferson accuses King of having suppressed his Friendly Overture to England—Family Letters—A Hint concerning Pecuniary Matters, . - - . 395

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Lieutenant Hall's Account of his Visit to Monticello–Jefferson to Mrs. Adams–To Adams in regard to Disclosing religious Views, etc.—A Practical Commentary on Arraigning Private Religious Views of Candidates for Office–Monroe elected President—J. Q. Adams Secretary of State—Jefferson's Comments on Adams' Appointment —Central College—Miscellaneous Correspondence of 1817—Views in regard to the Great Canal in New York–0n an Amendment of the Constitution sanctioning Internal Improvements—On Persecution of Shakers in New York—Indoor Occupations of the Year, described by Himself—He keeps Copies of only a portion of his Letters–0missions in the Congress Edition of his Writings—Illness in 1818–Kosciusko's Death— He leaves Jefferson Executor of his Will—Death of Mrs. Adams—Jefferson's Letter of Condolence to Mr. Adams—Wirt's Life of Henry—Historic Reclamations—Jefferson advises a Course of Female Education–His List of approved Novels—Tribute to Franklin–Temperance Reform Theories forty years ago—Correspondence of 1819– His Account of his Physical Habits and Condition—His Reading for half an hour before going to Bed—His first Book of Selections from the New Testament—His Remarks on it to Charles Thompson–His Polyglot Book of Selections from New Testament—Contents of both Selections—His Remarks on the Materials for writing his Biography, etc.—His Strictures on Judicial Encroachments—Attacks of Illness in 1819–The Missouri Question—Jefferson's Remarks on it in 1820 and 1821—Virginia University–Its History Published in 1856–Professor Minor's Sketch of its Early History—Meeting of Commissioners to select a Site, etc.—First Board of Visitors Chosen–Jefferson appointed Rector–Plan of the Buildings—Establishment under Control of Jefferson—Expense exceeds Public Expectation—Struggles and Triumphs— Jefferson's Coadjutors—Joseph Carrington Cabell—An exciting Episode—Dr. Cooper's Appointment as a Professor, attacked by the Clergy—The Sequel—Later Charges— Explanations of Professors Tucker and Dunglison–The Charge that Religious Instruction was excluded from the University—Invitation of the Visitors to all Sects to establish Chairs of Divinity—Reasons for the Omission of the Visitors to provide for Religious Instruction with the Funds of the Institution—By-laws in regard to Religious Instruction–Jefferson's Miscellaneous Correspondence in 1820–Financial Affairs in Virginia–On the Florida Treaty and Texas—“Monroe Doctrine” full blown—JefferRon's Views of the Administration–His health in 1820–His Correspondence in 1821–

Pickering's Overture and its Acceptance—On Judiciary Encroachments—On the Abuse of his Confidence in publishing his private Letters–Correspondence of 1822–0n a United States Society for the Civilization of the Indians—Jefferson accused in the Newspapers of Overdrawing his Accounts while Minister to France—His Reply–His Letter to John Adams—His Statement of his Persecution by Letter Writers—His Remarks on the Obliteration of Party Lines—Parentage of the Navy–Letters to his Grandson, - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 435

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An Accident–Correspondence of 1823–0n Style—On O'Meara's Voice from St. Helena —Complaint that the Republican side of American History is Unwritten–Declares that the breaking up of hordes of Private Letters will ultimately disclose the truth —Considers J. Q. Adams unfriendly to himself—To Monroe, on Interference of Holy Alliance in South America—On the Acquisition of Cuba—On the Proposition of England to join in Resisting Interference of the Holy Alliance—The “Monroe Doctrine" proposed to Monroe six weeks before he announced it—John Adams's Cunningham Correspondence published—Jefferson to Mr. Adams, on the Strictures it contained on himself—Their remaining Correspondence—Jefferson's Expressions in regard to the Presidential Candidates in 1823–Letter to George Ticknor—Their previous Acquaintance—Jefferson's Absorbing Topic in 1824–Selection of Professors of the University—To Dr. Sparks, on Emancipation and Colonization—To Garnett, on Constitutional Amendments—To Englebrecht, on 15th Psalm of David—Reconciliation with Edward Livingston–Correspondence with the old “Heart of Sedition" in England–Displeasure with Cartwright, and its Termination–Correspondence with Henry Lee–Lafayette's Visit to the United States–Jefferson proposes a Public Testimonial to him–Lafayette's Visit to Monticello–The Banquet—Jefferson's Speech —Ticknor and Daniel Webster Visit Monticello–Webster's Account of his Visit— Remarks ascribed to Jefferson in regard to Wirt's Life of Henry, and to the Character of General Jackson—A Letter from one of Mr. Jefferson's Family on the subject— Jefferson's Feelings towards Wirt, and his habitual way of speaking of Henry—His Feelings towards General Jackson—Mr. Jefferson Twice in a Rage—His Remarks on the Presidential Candidates in 1824—Arrival of the Professors, and Opening of the University–Jefferson's Estimate of the Professors—Dr. Dunglison's Memoranda— Extracts from these Memoranda—The University Buildings—Architecture—All the Professors Foreigners—Jefferson's Illness—His Ideas of Physic–Jefferson at his Table, his Visitors, etc.—His Manners—His Openness in Conversation–Lafayette's Second Visit to Monticello–Levasseur's Statements—The Dinner in the Rotunda– Lafayette's Solicitude for Jefferson's Health–Sends Instruments to him from France— Proposes to send Dr. Cloquet–Laws of the University—Republicanism thought unable to stand against College Burschenschaft—Difficulties in the University—Mr. Jefferson's Attentions to the Students, . - - - - - - - . 486

C H A P T E R XIII. 1825–1826. Visitors at the University in 1825. Mr. Wirt's last Visit to Monticello—Mr. Kennedy's Visit—The Duke of Saxe-Weimar's Account of his Visit—Mr. Jefferson's Correspondence in 1825–His persistent Views in regard to the Aims of our early Political Parties–To Mr. Livingston, concerning his Civil Code—Miscellaneous Letters—Letter of Advice for the Future Guidance of a Child–Views on President J. Q. Adams's first Message—Proposes that Virginia protest against Internal Improvements, by Congress–Suggests a Constitutional Amendment—Asks Permission of Legislature to sell his Lands by Lottery–His Paper on the Subject—Reasons for the Request—Other Plans suggested–Grant to University refused—A misrepresented Joke—Declines a

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