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—Navy augmented–Yazoo Claims—Georgia presses President to buy out Indians— President's Action—His general Course in Respect to the Indians—His Speech to “Handsome Lake”—His Speech to Miamies and Delawares—A Dream of Philan. thropy—Indian Treaties–Congressional Measures—Dry Docks—Mitchell's Report— “He laughs best that laughs latest”—The Adjournment—Jefferson to his Daughters, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l

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Livingston's Reception in France–His Qualifications as a Minister–Communicates the Refusal of France to sell her new American Possessions—His Assurances to France in Respect to her colonizing them—These Assurances wholly at Variance with the President's Views—His Later Dispatches—Receives the President's Letter and Formal Instructions—The Discrepancy in the latter explained—The Federalists unconsciously playing into the President's Hands—Effect of their War Proposition in the Session of 1802–3 on Bonaparte—Why he preferred a Sacrifice of Louisiana to War with the United States—Why Monroe was sent to act with Livingston—President to Monroe and to M. Dupont—Livingston's Dispatches—England and France preparing for a Renewal of War—The Crisis anticipated by Jefferson reached—Talleyrand proposes to sell Louisiana–Marbois intrusted with the Negotiations by Bonaparte—His Official Offer to sell Louisiana—Answer of the American Minister–Treaty of Sale to the United States effected—Conditions of the Treaty and Conventions—Great Britain favors the Arrangement—Her Motives—The American Minister's Dispatches Home—The Secretary of State's Reply—Errors in the Minister's Dispatch corrected—Jefferson's Modesty— His Exclusive Origination of the Policy which led to the Acquisition never publicly avowed—Extent and Value of the Acquisition–Illustrative Statistical Comparisons— Other National Advantages secured besides Territory and Wealth—The Victories of the Gallic Caesar and of the Republican President compared—Consequences of President's Delicacy towards Livingston—President's Signals to England–His Letters to Sir John Sinclair and the Earl of Buchan—Republican Murmurs in 1803 at the President's Refusal to remove Federalists—His Unalterable Determination expressed to Nicholson–Result of the Spring Elections in 1803–Jefferson to Breckenridge on Further Territorial Acquisitions—The Effect of the Recent one on the Preservation of Union— Refuses to communicate his Birth-day to be made an Anniversary–Letter to Nicholas —Regards a Constitutional Amendment necessary to carry out the Stipulations of the Recent Treaty–Congress convened—Prominent Members—The President's Message —Treaty ratified by the Senate—Resolution in the House to carry it into Effect— R. Griswold's Resolution calling for Papers—Determined Opposition to Treaty by Federalists—Grounds of the Opposition—G. Griswold's Speech—Republicans take Ground that no Constitutional Amendments are Necessary–Speeches of J. Randolph, Nicholson, Rodney, etc.—Federalists admit Constitutionality of Purchase, but contend the Territories must be governed as Colonies—Motives and Effects of their I’ropositions—The Final Vote—Question reopened in the Senate on another Bill–Speeches of White, Pinckney, J. Q. Adams, Dayton, and Tracy—The Republican Speakers— Effect of the Federal Opposition–Political Comparisons–Ames and Morris on the State of Affairs—Hamilton Silent—Bankrupt Law Repealed—Barbary Affairs—Death of Samuel Adams and Pendleton—Impeachment of Judge Pickering—Articles of Impeachment ordered against Judge Chase—Adjournment, - - - - . 47

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Republican Congressional Caucus to nominate President and Vice-President–George Clinton—President's Correspondence—Considers Learned Professions overstocked and

CONTENTS OF THE THIRD WOLUME.

[A complete Analytical Index will be found at the End of this Volume.]

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President's Correspondence during late Session of Congress—His Reasons for not proclaiming Fast and Thanksgiving Days—Indian Delegations at the Capital—President's Address to them–Letters to his Daughter—News of Cession of Louisiana by Spain to France—President's decisive Letter there on to American Minister in France—He incloses it open to Dupont de Nemours—Its Contents intended for French Government— Morality of President's Attitude—Compared with Miranda Scheme—Hamilton's Plan in 1802–" The Christian Constitutional Society”—Bayard's Answer to Hamilton–Jef. ferson's View of Object of Marshall's forthcoming Life of Washington—His Letter to Priestley—Letters to his Daughter—To King in Respect to colonizing insurgent Blacks of Virginia–His Explanation of his Gratuities to Callender—Misapprehensions on this Subject corrected—Account of Career and Fate of Callender—The President at Home —Table of his Expenses for a Year—Another Letter to Livingston—No Retreat from former Views—To Gallatin on Constitutionality of Appropriations—The State Elections—To Lincoln on Removals of Federalists from Office–American Right of Deposit at New Orleans abrogated by Spanish Intendant—The Violation of our Treaty with Spain—Meeting of Congress—The President's Message—Comments on it, and on the State of Public Affairs, by Hamilton, Pinckney, Sedgwick, Morris, and John Adams— Discussion of Spanish Aggression at New Orleans opened in Congress—Party Skirmishing—Attempts of Federalists to make the Debate public—Randolph's and Griswold's Resolutions—Action of the House—Monroe nominated Minister Extraordinary—Ross's Conduct and Resolutions in the Senate—Breckenridge's Amendment—De Witt Clinton's Speech—Federalist Appeal to Example of Washington examined by him and Wright—Positions of Federalists in 1795 and 1803 in regard to calling on the Presi. dent for Diplomatic Papers—Their Positions at same periods in regard to Rights of Treaty-making Power—Their Overaction on the Spanish Question—The ex-Judges' Petition denied—Topographical Explorations authorized—Resolution for submitting Amendment of the Constitution in Regard to Manner of electing President and VicePresident–Ohio admitted into the Union—Importation of colored Persons prohibited —Navy augmented–Yazoo Claims—Georgia presses President to buy out Indians— President's Action—His general Course in Respect to the Indians—His Speech to “Handsome Lake”—His Speech to Miamies and Delawares—A Dream of Philan. thropy–Indian Treaties–Congressional Measures—Dry Docks–Mitchell's Report— “He laughs best that laughs latest”—The Adjournment—Jefferson to his Daughters, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 1

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Livingston's Reception in France—His Qualifications as a Minister—Communicates the Refusal of France to sell her new American Possessions—His Assurances to France in Respect to her colonizing them—These Assurances wholly at Variance with the Presi. dent's Views—His Later Dispatches—Receives the President's Letter and Formal Instructions—The Discrepancy in the latter explained—The Federalists unconsciously playing into the President's Hands—Effect of their War Proposition in the Session of 1802–3 on Bonaparte—Why he preferred a Sacrifice of Louisiana to War with the Uni. ted States—Why Monroe was sent to act with Livingston—President to Monroe and to M. Dupont—Livingston's Dispatches—England and France preparing for a Renewal of War—The Crisis anticipated by Jefferson reached–Talleyrand proposes to sell Louisiana–Marbois intrusted with the Negotiations by Bonaparte—His Official Offer to sell Louisiana—Answer of the American Minister–Treaty of Sale to the United States effected—Conditions of the Treaty and Conventions—Great Britain favors the Arrangement—Her Motives—The American Minister's Dispatches Home—The Secretary of State's Reply—Errors in the Minister's Dispatch corrected—Jefferson's Modesty— His Exclusive Origination of the Policy which led to the Acquisition never publicly avowed—Extent and Value of the Acquisition–Illustrative Statistical Comparisons— Other National Advantages secured besides Territory and Wealth—The Victories of the Gallic Caesar and of the Republican President compared—Consequences of President's Delicacy towards Livingston—President's Signals to England–His Letters to Sir John Sinclair and the Earl of Buchan—Republican Murmurs in 1803 at the President's Refusal to remove Federalists—His Unalterable Determination expressed to Nicholson–Result of the Spring Elections in 1803–Jefferson to Breckenridge on Further Territorial Acquisitions—The Effect of the Recent one on the Preservation of Union— Refuses to communicate his Birth-day to be made an Anniversary–Letter to Nicholas —Regards a Constitutional Amendment necessary to carry out the Stipulations of the Recent Treaty—Congress convened—Prominent Members—The President's Message —Treaty ratified by the Senate—Resolution in the House to carry it into Effect— R. Griswold's Resolution calling for Papers—Determined Opposition to Treaty by Federalists—Grounds of the Opposition—G. Griswold's Speech—Republicans take Ground that no Constitutional Amendments are Necessary—Speeches of J. Randolph, Nicholson, Rodney, etc.—Federalists admit Constitutionality of Purchase, but contend the Territories must be governed as Colonies—Motives and Effects of their Propositions—The Final Vote—Question reopened in the Senate on another Bill—Speeches of White, Pinckney, J. Q. Adams, Dayton, and Tracy—The Republican Speakers— Effect of the Federal Opposition—Political Comparisons–Ames and Morris on the State of Affairs–Hamilton Silent—Bankrupt Law Repealed—Barbary Affairs—Death of Samuel Adams and Pendleton—Impeachment of Judge Pickering—Articles of Impeachment ordered against Judge Chase—Adjournment, - - - - . 47

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Republican Congressional Caucus to nominate President and Vice-President–George Clinton—President's Correspondence—Considers Learned Professions overstocked and proposes a Remedy—His Feelings towards U.S. Bank in 1803—His Enemies attacking an Imaginary Personage—Malthus and Say–Reasons for accepting a Renomination— Views on a Coalition with the Federalists—Family Letters—Death of his Daughter, Mrs. Eppes–Account of, by a Member of the Family—Condolences of Governor Page and Judge Tyler–Letter of Condolence from Mrs. John Adams and Reply—Their further Cor. respondence and the Sequel—The Conduct of both considered—A new Rule of Official Removals avowed—President's Views of Louisiana Boundary, etc.—official Appointments for Orleans Territory—A Letter to Mazzei-Provision for Lafayette—To Malison—Desires Republican Officeholders not to interfere in Elections—Death of General Hamilton–His last Public Letter—His Political Standing at the time of his Death— Result of the Presidential Election—Federal Calumnies—An Example—The Poet Moore's Statement that the President treated the British Minister with Incivility—The Circumstances—Official Correspondence on the Subject—The Sequel—Thomas Moore's individual Grievance—His Course and Views in this Country—His Presentation to the President—His Lampoons on the President–Anecdote—Jefferson and the Irish Melodies—J. Q. Adams's better kept Grudge--Second Session of Eighth Congress—President's Message—Changes in the Senate—Impeachment of Judge Chase—The Result—Reasons for his Acquittal—Constitutional Amendments proposed—Congressional Proceedings—Gun-boats—Classes interested in opposing them—President's Policy in not seeking to build up a great Navy–Disasters of War of 1812 imputed to this Cause— Strength of English Navy in 1803—Strength of American Navy on Jefferson's Acces. sion—Result of a great-navy Policy—Population and moneyed Wealth compared—The Absurdity of then attempting to rival England as a Naval Power—The Results of the Opposite Course–Growing a better way of acquiring Strength than Arming—The Peace Policy—Jefferson's exclusive Responsibility for it—Gun-boat Bill passed—Law against Violators of Neutrality—Enactments against American Contraband Trade in West Indies—Territoral Bills—President's Correspondence—Early Prejudices against the class of Artisans recanted—Letter to Taylor avowing his Determination to retire at close of Second Term–Inauguration–Inaugural Speech—Cabinet Changes—Local Republican Schisms—President's Letter to Logan on Consequences of these Schisms— Character of Family Correspondence henceforth—Letter to J.W. Eppes. . - 90

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The Tripolitan War—President strengthens Mediterranean Fleet–Tripoli bombarded– Catastrophe of the Ketch Intrepid—Preble returns Home and is succeeded by Barron —Preble's Opinion of Gunboats—Force left in Mediterranean–Eaton's romantic Expe. dition—Advances across the Lybian Desert and captures Derne–Barron refuses Reinforcements to attack Tripoli—Propriety of his Refusal considered—Barron succeeded by Rogers—Lear's Treaty with Tripoli–Criticisms on that Treaty—The Charge that Hamet Caramalli was dishonorably abandoned—Eaton's Testimony—Barron's Instructions—Hamet's own Testimony—Unfriendly Relations with Spain—Napoleon countenances Spain—The President's Manner of meeting the Insolence of French Minister— Considers a conditional Alliance with England necessary—The Battle of Trafalgar— It makes Napoleon our Friend and England our Enemy—Meeting of Ninth Congress —New Members—President's Message—Confidential Message on Spanish Affairs— Report of Committee—Two Millions appropriated to purchase Floridas—John Randolph's defection–His Character and Career—Jefferson's Estimation of him—Special Message on English Aggressions—Various Propositions and Debate thereon in the House—Votes on Gregg's and Sloane's Resolutions—The Administration Plan—Intercourse prohibited with St. Domingo–Appropriations—Cumberland Road Bill passed —Its History—Coast Survey originated—Mediterranean Fund—Bills which failed—A Political Ordeal passed by the Administration—Quarrel between John and Thomas

Mann Randolph–Garland's Statements corrected—Miranda's Expedition sails from New York—Smith and Ogden prosecuted for Breach of Neutrality Laws—Their impudent Memorial to Congress—Quincy's Charge and Retraction—Votes of the House on the Memorial—The Finale of Miranda's Expedition—President's Correspondence with the Emperor Alexander—An International Policy inaugurated—Letter to Monroe on Death of Pitt—Outrage of the Leander–Hopes raised by the Accession of Fox to British Ministry–Domestic Political Triumphs—Randolph's Newspaper Attack on Administration—Burwell's Reply—Projects of Burr in 1805–His first Western Journey —At Blennerhasset's Island, Nashville, New Orleans, etc.—Return—Attempts to engage Eaton, Truxton, etc., in his Schemes—His Disclosures to Eaton—His Plans, how fostered—His second Trip West—His Bastrop or Washita Purchase—His and Blennerhasset's Preparations—Newspapers urging a Separation of the Atlantic and Western States—Wilkinson's and Burr's Correspondence—Burr sends Swartwout to Wilkinson—Burr's and Dayton's Letters in Cipher—Wilkinson's Proceedings thereon —Declares New Orleans under Martial Law–Sends Bollman and Swartwout Prisoners to Washington–The President's earliest Intimations of the Conspiracy—His proceedings thereon—Daviess's Measures against Burr in Kentucky—How thwarted— Henry Clay's Agency in the Affair—Further History of the Conspiracy—Broken up— Burr's flight—Arrested and sent to Richmond for Trial—President's Correspondence during the Affair, . - - - - - - - - - - - . 137

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Second Session of Ninth Congress—President's Message—Special Message on English Affairs—Congress ask Information in regard to Burr's Conspiracy—Senate pass a Bill to suspend the writ of habeas corpus—The House summarily reject the Bill—Eppes's Speech—Causes of reaction in public feeling—Bollman and Swartwout brought Prisoners to Washington—President's further Information to Congress—Bollman and Swartwout discharged from custody—Broom's Resolution to further secure privilege of the writ of habeas corpus rejected—Bill to suppress African slave trade—Naval defences —The different plans urged—Adjournment—Correspondence—New English Treaty—Its inconsistency with Instructions—The President to Monroe on the subject–He rejects the Treaty without consulting the Senate—Letters to his Cabinet–Spring Elections in 1807–Burr brought to Richmond—The Legal Proceedings before Judge Marshall– Burr held to Bail for a Misdemeanor—His Reception by the Federalists of Richmond– Mr. Wickham's Dinner-Party—Chief Justice and Burr meet as Guests there—Professor Tucker's Explanation of the Circumstance—Burr's Trial—Motion for a Subpoena duces tecum to the President—Offer of United States Attorney to voluntarily furnish all necessary evidence—Martin's Attacks on the President—Wirt's Reply–Chief Justice's Remarks—Attacks on the President continued—President's Indignation—Martin's Motives and Character—A Blunder avoided—The Subparna duces tecum issued—President's Offer in the interim to furnish all needful Testimony—His Answer on receiving the Subpoena, etc.—A practical Commentary–Manner of treating Government Wit. nesses–Indictment for Treason and Misdemeanor found–Burr confined in his Counsel's house—Arraigned—His Description of his “ Apartments” etc., in the Penitentiary— Trial opened—President's Letters to United States Attorney–Motion to stop the Introduction of Evidence in the Trial for Treason granted—Verdict of the Jury–Trial for Misdemeanor—The Proof relied on by the Prosecution ruled out—The Sequel–Burr held to Bail for a Misdemeanor in Ohio–President's Correspondence with District Attorney–Accused of undue eagerness for Prisoner's Conviction—Accused of Improper Interference–These Charges examined—Burr's Flight—His Miseries in Foreign Lands—Unable to get Home—Finally reaches Home in 1812–His obscurity and Dis. grace—Death of his Family—Dreads Imprisonment for Debt—Subsequent Course and Closing Scene, . - - - - - - - - - - - - . 189

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