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was not a limb but an excrescence that for the future, the universal basis of was lopped off, and that it was folly to human reasoning and policy,—was the attempt to retain it—and from what the French Revolution. world has seen of the spirit and ten- In the great crisis, produced by this dencies of American patriotism, it may event, his late Majesty was still worthy be concluded that England has suffer- of himself and of his people. As a ed little by being dissevered from the British Sovereign, reposing upon the mighty mass of occidental pollution. deep and stable foundations of a conBut such were not the sentiments na- stitution, adapted at once to the digtural to the injured Monarch-for they nity and the imperfections of our were not the sentiments of what was common nature, and turning to scorn great and high-spirited among his peo- all the illusions of theory, by the visiple. He vindicated the dignity of his ble presence of various and unquestioncrown by pushing, to the farthest ed good, he could not look with verge, that coercion which aimed at favour upon a system over which emupholding the integrity of its domi- piricism presided, and in which the nions-he deserved success, although dawning of frenzy was coeval almost he could not command it; and while with the first movements of reform. the difficulties of a savage and remote As a Christian, he could not behold warfare baffled all rational calculation with indifference the march of the when rebellion raised its triumphant most daring impiety, nor, as a mighty crest over the disasters of legitimate prince, could he listen with equani. power when fortune had decided con- mity to the crash of neighbouring trary to every anticipation of reason, thrones, or view with composure the and had established a new order of subversion of empire. But, above all, things, which it was scarcely worth as the beloved chief of a generous and while to lament, and vain to resist, noble people, deeply participating their the sagacity as well as the magnani- genius, and attached to their proud mity of the Sovereign were conspicu- habitudes of thought and of action, he ously displayed in that memorable re- could not but contemplate with hormark to the first of his American ror the advance of an appalling spisubjects, whom he saw in the novel rit, which declared war against all dignity of the ambassador of an inde- that had been consecrated by their vependent state, that he, the King of neration for ages; which singled them England, had been the last man in his out for experiment and for vendominions to recognise the independ- geance,--and which threatened to tear ence of America, and would also be up by the roots whatever was most the last to violate it. The man who hallowed to their remembrance. The could speak thus, aye, and who could popular Monarch of England, in the act up to the dignity of his royal pledge, highest and most generous sense of was worthy to rule over a people, to that term, could not take part in this whose legitimate pride the revolt of foul conspiracy, or refrain from aniAmerica could not but be offensive, but mating, by his own resolute defiance, to whose lofty political system the in- the staggering resolution of his subdependence of nations must, when jects. And for this great work, it once established, appear for ever sacred. was the good fortune of the late King

The great and prominent event which to find a minister equal to the underdistinguished his Majesty's reign, taking, which fate had summoned which, although it occurred in a fo- him to perform,-a gigantic spirit, fitreign country, deeply coloured and ted to bear and to repel the terrors of affected the entire course of our do- mightiest revolutions. It was the mestic policy, which shook the ci- glory of the King that he could seFilized world with its volcanic agita- lect, appreciate, and confide in this tions, and rolled its burning lava over great Minister. William Pitt's was the entire surface of Christendom, indeed a majestic mind, -nursed and which, although originating in the cherished to its palmy state of special profligacy and peculiar mis- moral and intellectual grandeur in fortunes of one great nation, has in- the rich mould of English freedom. sinuated itself into the very being and There was, in all things, a fine syma history of all, and is destined to form pathy betwixt him and his royal masVol. VI.


ter-a conspicuous unity of aim and a moment the solemnity of such conequal devotion of patriotism-a love of templations, by turning aside to notice England, and of all that is implied the vulgar herds of faction which suein that venerable name, which nocessively arrayed themselves in resistcaprice of fortune could abate or ex- ance to the royal and illustrious tinguish. Together they walked in champions of their country's independ noble sincerity of purpose, and heroicence and fame. It has now pleased energy of resolution, throughout the fate to round the course of our late darkest periods of our modern history monarch's earthly career, without have -struggling to defend the ark of the ing permitted them to make any senBritish constitution, and the majesty sible breach upon its magnificent conof the British name, against the storms tinuity; and the sceptre which has by which they were assailed-main- dropped from his hand has been taining the native hue of courage and transferred to a successor, who will constancy amid the wreck of empire never bend it to their fantastic inand the desolation of the civilized solence and presumption. Be it world--and putting their humble but their bitter portion to remember, that assured trust in the immortal energy they struggled to embarrass the career of principle, of which it did not please of a prince

who was justly revered as the Providence that they should witness idol of his people, and that they strugo the final triumph, but which, through gled in vain-and that his fame is now the prevailing power of their spirit

and equally beyond the scope of their pa their example, was destined, at last, negyric and invective for it is recordto hold its rejoicings over the honoured ed in the triumph of all generons printomb of the great minister, and around ciple, and the glory of a mighty people, the unconscious solitude of his royal whose regrets now gather round his and revered master.

tomb, while their affections shall beam We cannot think of disturbing for for ever upon his blessed memory.


Connexiori of Moon and Weather... that so abound in the calcareous formaDr Olbers denies that any connexion be- tions of Lower Normandy. One stratum tween the changes of the moon and of the in the vicinity of Caen is almost entirely weather is ever observable in the north of composed of them. They are in perfect Germany; and he asserts that, in the course conservation; and, from the singular chaof an extensive medical practice, continued racters which they exhibit, M. Lamouroux for a number of years, with his attention gives figures of the natural size, with some constantly directed to the lunar periods, he essential parts magnified by the aid of ophas never been able to discover the slightest tical glasses. The work will be of use to connexion between those periods and the geologists, by making them acquainted with increase or decrease of diseases, or their antediluvian animals of a description not symptoms.

visible or known at present. Some consti. Greenland. Gieske, the mineralogist, af, tute new genera, and others belong to known ter a residence of eight years, draws a som- genera : among these latter are sponges, brous picture of the colony of East Green and other animals of a similar kind. The land, which he visited and explored to the work will include a figure and description 62d 'degree of latitude. He is confident, of the fossile crocodile that has been disfrom the information given him by the na.

covered near Caen. tives, that at present that rigorous coast is State of German Literature in Sweden. hot inhabited, or even habitable, beyond German literature has been very much cul. the 64th degree at farthest ; and that it tivated of late years in Sweden. Exclu. would be difficult, if not impossible, to pe. sive of a collection of classical German au. netrate further.

thors printed at Upsal, in the original lanSalt Mines of Meurthe. The researches guage (sixty-six volumes in the whole), the for the discovery of rock-salt, which com, best works of various authors have been menced in July last at Moyenire, in the translated into Swedish. department of La Meurthe, is carried on Lalande's Journey to India.-M. de La. to advantage. After exploring to the lande, associate naturalist, to the king's depth of 200 feet, and reaching the first garden, Paris, has just set out on his tralayer, which is eleven feet in thickness, vels to the Cape of Good Hope, where the workmen had to perforate a bed of he will pursue his researches in botany, gypsum and clay of 526 feet, when they Zoology, and the various departments of came to a second stratum of salt, eight feet natural history. From thence he will proin thickness. It is intended to remove the ceed to India to prosecute the ulterior ob. researches to two other neighbouring points, jects of his mission in the Indian Seas. to ascertain the breadth and magnitude of Killing Animals by Carbonic Acid.. the whole bed. The two points form a A new method of putting animals to triangle nearly equilateral, each side of death, without pain, has been proposed by which may be about oor 700 toises in Dr Thornton ; in consequence of the emlength. One of these points is in the city ployment of which, it is said, the meat of Vic, and the other to the south of its would look better, last better, keep better, On this latter point, they have already and salt better. These desiderata are propierced to the depth of twenty-five feet of posed to be attained by means of fixed air. vegetable earth : the orifice of each bore is Crocodiles' Flesh an Article of Food 34 inches, which constantly fills up with At Sennaar crocodiles are often brought fresh water. The salt of the first bed is ex, to market, and their flesh is publicly sold tremely white, and transparent as rock-crys, there. I once tasted some of the meat at tal. It is likewise very pure, and free from Esne, in Upper Egypt; it is of a dirty every noxious or terrene substance. The white colour, not unlike young veal, with a second appears to be intermixed with gyp. slight fishy smell; the animal had been seous or argilaceous substances, but in a caught by some fishermen in a strong net, very small proportion. This salt is brown, and was above twelve feet in length. The not unlike a clouded fint ; both the kinds Governor of Esne ordered it to be brought are very compact, well crystallized, the frac. into his court-yard, where more than a huntures cubical, and the saline taste superior dred balls were fired against it without any to that of any salt obtained by evaporation. effect, till it was thrown upon its back, and It contains but very little of muriate of the contents of a small swivel discharged at magnesia, or of sulphate of time.

its belly, the skin of which is much softer Work on Petrifactions..

-M. Lamou- than that of the back.Burckhardt': roux, Professor of Natural History in the Travels. Royal Academy of Caen, is about pub- Remarkable Phenomena at Christiana.. lishing a work (with 40 plates), contain. The following curious details have been ing some account of the marine polypi received from Christiana, in Norway:

On the 7th instant, the barometer rose to Some of our northern constellations, such as the extraordinary height of 29 inches, 16 the Great and Little Bear, on account of lines, which has not taken place here for a their depth in the horizon, appear of an' aso great number of years. The sea was eight tonishing size. feet lower on that day than it has been for Machine for crossing Rivers. The methe last twenty years. Professor Hansteen, chanist, Xavier Michel, residing at Offenwho measured its height, made also some bach, has invented a very simple and com

a experiments as to the intensity of the mag- pact machine, by the aid of which rivers netic force, and found the needle in such may be crossed, and even the sea attempt agitation that he could obtain no fixed re- ed, without any danger of sinking. It is sult from his experiments. These different nearly five feet in diameter when unfolded. phenomena appear to portend some extra- An opening of about thirteen inches in the ordinary revolution in nature.

centre is destined to receive the traveller. Calcareous Formations, with enclosed Skele. When dismounted, this apparatus is easily tons and Bones of the Human Species. transported from place to place for its ena The absence of calcareous mountains, and tire weight scarcely exceeds five pounds. even of considerable masses of that sub- The inventor has made a number of exstance, is one of the geological charac- periments on the Rhine, all of which have teristics by which Trinidad, Tobago, and been crowned with entire success. He can the chain of Cumana, differ essentially make the machine move forward, or otherfrom the Antilles, or Caribbean Islands, wise, at pleasure, and without any great which have calcareous rocks, and even exertion. In order more fully to prove the mountains in strata, in which are found va- utility of his invention, M. Michel has derious kinds of agglomerated and petrified termined to embark at Khel, and descend shello.

the Rhine to its mouth. Of all these calcareous rocks, the most Pedes Scansorii of Birds." The toes of remarkable and worthy of fixing the atten. Woodpeckers,” says Ray, “ stand two fortion of naturalists, is á bank of carbonate wards, two backwards; which disposition of lime, rather hard, on the sea shore, in (as Aldrovandus well notes) Nature, or ra. the district of Moule in Guadaloupe. ther the wisdom of the Creator, hath grant

This calcareous bank is on a level with ed them- because it is very convenient for the sea, and covered at high-water. General the climbing of trees." The attempt to Ernouf, having heard that it contained hu- prove this assertion, adopted by so many man skeletons, sent, towards the end of and able naturalists, to be altogether un1804, M. Gerard, a naturalist of Brassels, founded, must appear to savour of preto make excavations there. He extracted a sumption in one who has so little of the block from it, in which was found a human philosopher about him ; nevertheless, I hope skeleton perfectly encrusted in the stone, to convince you, that such disposition of the and completely identified with it. I was in toes in the Woodpecker-tribe, was intended Guadaloupe at that period, and ordered by the Author of Nature for a very differworkmen to dig there on my own account. ent though equally wise purpose. I know I could not obtain an entire skeleton, but of but six genera, viz. Psittacus, Cucutus, heads, arms, legs, and fragmenns of the Picus, Ramphastos, Trogon, Bucco, that dorsal spine. With a sufficient number of are furnished pedibus scansoriis, i.e. with workmen, I might have obtained complete two toes before and two behind ; and of skeletons, and more accurately delineated this number I am acquainted with the manthan that of M. Gerard. There are several ners of the three first only. parts of his skeleton of which the linea- To begin with Cuculus-I speak only ments cannot be clearly distinguished with- of our common species---Here is a bird fure out the assistance of a magnifying glass. I nished with two toes before and two behind, remarked, that all those anthopolites are and yet is actually never known to climb at placed east and west, according to the an- alla convincing proof that such confirmacient custom of the Asiatics and Ameri- tion does not necessarily bring with it the cans. By the side of the skeletons were power of climbing ; more especially, when found pestles, mortars, hatchets, clubs of a we consider that the Nathatch (Sitta Exbasaltic or porphyritic stone, and instru- ropæa) and Tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris) ments similar to those which the savages have their toes placed in the usual manner, still use. Those instruments are petrified. and yet run up and down trees with a But I found no trace, nor the smallest ves , much facility as the Woodpeckers. The tige of organic bodies, though there are use of the Pedes scansorii, then, to the banks of madrepores quite near them, Cuckoo (as they evidently, in this case, con

The Fixed Stars. The most beautiful duce not to climbing), I judge to be this i part of the southern celestial hemisphere, It is well known that this bird wil oftenwhich comprehends the Centaur, Argo, and times sit by the half hour together, on the Cross, is always hidden from the inhabi-, bough of a tree, vociferating its loud and tants of Europe. It is only under the pleasing note. In doing this it sits remark Equator that the magnificent spectacle is to ably forward, and appears in constant apie be enjoyed, of seeing, at the same time, all tation, continually moving its body up and the stars of the two celestial hemispheres down with great elegance. Now, as it sits


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80 forward whilst using this exertion, it expected astronomical facts. The author would be liable to lose its balance, and quit deduces the motion of the whole of our sys. its hold, had it only one toe behind ; where- tem from the progressive motion of the sun as, by the contrivance of two, it is enabled itself; a quality which, he says, must be strongly to adhere to the branch.

equally possessed by all the heavenly boPsittacus also has the pedes scansorii, and dies, resulting from the universally acknowis actually a climbing genus 4 yet this con- ledged laws of gravitation. He argues, & firmation does not, in my opinion, in any priori, that from progressive motion rotamanner induce thereto. To say that Par- tion is produced, and, a posteriori, that a rots assist themselves with their beaks in body in free space, having rotation round climbing, would not argue the pedes scanso.. its own axis, is a clear indication of its berii to be of no utility. Their real use to ing in progressive movement. This he corthis genus seems to be not only to grasp roborates by the general belief now entertheir food (for the foot of a Parrot serves tained, that our sun and planets-are advancthe purpose of a hand in that respect), but ing towards the constellation Hercules. The to enable them to step securely from one opinion that the sun has progressive motion, branch to another, and likewise to hang was not entertained till long after its rotasuspended as they often do ; in which case, tory motion was discovered. Captain B.' the two toes before, and two behind, certain- states his conviction, that if, from the discoly give stability to their hold.

very of the sun's rotation, and the acknow.. With respect to the Pici, rather a clumsy ledged universality of gravity, its progrestribe, the very stiff feathers in the tail are of sion had been inferred, when Kepler first material service to prop them up in the act suggested that the planets moved round the of climbing ; not so the pedes scansorii, for sun by means of its atmosphere, the system the Nuthatch, without them, runs up trees of this philosopher would have obtained ime equally well. Of what use then can these mediate and lasting credit, and that the hy. be to the Woodpecker ? I answer, that in 'pothesis of these bodies being continued in boring trees, in which occupation the bird motion by an original projectile impulse, is often engaged for a considerable length of would not have been resorted to in accounts time, its weight is thrown backward, and ing for the phenomena of their motions. thus the supply of two toes behind is ren. Potato. The general opinion is, that dered extremely necessary for its support this vegetable is indigenous in America, and What makes me think the wise Author of that it was brought from that Continent to Nature had this end principally in view is, Europe by the Spaniards, soon after the that the Nuthatch, from the want of this discovery of America by Columbus. A fact confirmation; is, when breaking nuts, under mentioned in the Transactions of the Linthe necessity of sitting with its head down- nean Society, vol. xii. p. 585, may, perwards. It may be alleged, that its flexible haps, be considered as a corroboration of tail compels it to this position ; but, as I this opinion. Don Jose Pavon, of Madrid, have before observed, it runs up trees with one of the authors of the Flora Peruviana, equal or greater facility than the Woodpeck- states, in a letter to Mr Lambert, that he er, notwithstanding this disadvantage. and his companions, Ruiz and Dombey,

It would be a curious circumstance, and had found the potato (Solanum tuberosum) a conclusive argument in my favour, should growing wild in the environs of Lima, and it ever be ascertained that the three-toed fourteen leagues from thence on the coast Woodpecker (picus tridactylus ), which has of Peru, as well as in Chili; and that it is only one toe behind, bores trees in the attie cultivated very abundantly in those coun. tude assumed by the Nuthatch when break- tries by the Indians, who call it papas. ing nuts. REVETT SHEPHARD. Portable Gas Lamp. The ingenious idea

of compressing gas for the purpose of renMumination of Coal Mines. The inger dering it' portable, and thus adapting it to nious plan for illuminating cities by the various economic purposes, appears to have means of an electrifying machine, appears been suggested by Professor Brande, in a well adapted for the use of coal mines, &c. lecture delivered May 1816. But the merit and bids fair to reduce the number of those of using condensed gas for economical purterrific explosions of such frequent occur. poses, is due to Mr Gordon, who lately ob. rence in an inflammable atmosphere. The tained a patent for gas lamps, &o. electric fluid, in Professor Meinecke's ap- Phosphoric Acid in Vegetables. Mr Barparatus, acts on a similar principle to the ry, in making experiments on pharmaceutigalvanic column lately applied to the for- cał extracts obtained by carrying on the mation of a self-moving machine.

evaporation in vacuo, " became acquainted New Theory of the Motions of the with the singular fact, that phosphoric acid, Planetary System. A curious commen- in a soluble state, was found in all the extary, or rather an attack upon the received tracts. On further investigation, it was asa system of the planetary motions, has re- certained that this acid, besides that porcently been published, in a smal pamphlet, tion of it which exists as phosphate of lime, by Captain Burney, which is likely to is contained in a vast variety of vegetables. excite the attention of the scientific world. All those which are cultivated seem to conand may lead to the discovery of very un- tain phosphoric salt in great abundance."


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