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eacothrum mannuir. ne lyfdon. / we neither lived it ourselves not Thone naman a.nne

we lufdon left it to other men. We have that we Cristene wæron, and loved only the name of being swithe feawa tha thagwas. Tha ic Christians, and very

tew the duties. this eal ge-munde, tha ge-mund ic When I thought of all this, then I eac hu ic ge-seah är tham the hit thought also how I saw, before it cal for-heregod wære and for was all spoiled and burnt, how the bærned, hu tha circan geand eal churches throughout al. the Eng. Angel-cyn stodon mathm and lish nation were filled with treatboca ge-fylled, and micel ures and books, and also with a mæniu Godes theawa, and tha great multitude of God's servants, swithe lytle feorme thara boca and yet they knew very little fruit wiston, for tham the hi hira nan of the books, because they could thing ongitan ne mihton, for tham understand nothing of them, bethe hi næron hira agenge cause they were not written in theore awritene. Swilce hi cwæ- their own language; as they say don ure yldran, tha the thas stowa our elders, who held these places är heoldon, hi lufedon wisdome, before them, loved wisdom, and and thurh thone hi begeton welan through it obtained weal and left and us læfdon.

it to us.



4. LAYAMON. Brut, 1150-1250.

Brut, 1150-1250. The Dream of Arthur. .

(Manual, p. 32.)

(From Sir F. Madden's Edition, vol. iii. pp. 118-121.)

To niht a mine slepe,
Ther ich laei on bure,
Mei maette a sweuen;
Ther uore ich ful sari aem.
Me imette that mon me hof
Uppen are halle.
Tha halle ich gon bestriden,
Swulc ich wolde riden
Alle tha lond tha ich ah

Alle ich ther ouer sah.
And Walwain sat biuoren me ;
Mi sweord he bar an honde.
Tha com Moddred faren ther
Mid unimete uolke.
He bar an his honde
Ane wiax stronge.
He bigon to hewene
Hardliche swithe,
And tha postes for-heou alle
Tha heolden up the halle.
Ther ich isey Wenhever eke,

To-night in iny sleep (bed),
Where I lay in chamber,
I dreamt a dream,-
Therefore I am “full” sorry.
I dreamt that men raised (set) mo
Upon a hall;
The hall I gan bestride,
As if I would ride;
All the lands that I possessed

All I there overlooked (them saw).
And Walwain sate before me;
My sword he bare in hand.
Then approached Mod-ed there,
With innumerable folk;
He bare in his hand
A " battle”-axe (most) stre?!:iz.
He began to hew
Exceeding hardily;
And the posts all lewed in piecta,
That held up the hall.
There I saw Wenhaver ekę (the

"Dearest of women to me";
All the inickle hall roof
With her hand she drew dow;

Wiininonen leofuest me:
Al there muche halle rof
Mid hire honden heo to-droh.

Tha halle gon to haelden, The hall gan to tumble,
And ich haeld to grunden, And I tumbled to the ground,
That mi riht aerm to-brac.

So that my right arm brake is

pieces, Tha seide Modred, Haue that! Then said Modred, “Have that!" Adun ueol tha halle

Down fell the hall; And Walwain gon to ualle, And Walwain gan to fall inas

fallen), And feol a there eorthe;

And fell on the earth; !liy aermes brekeen beine.

His arms both brake. And ich igrap mi sweord leofe And I grasped my dear (good;

sword Mid mire leoft honde,

With my left hand, And smaet of Modred is haft, And smote of Modred his head, That hit wond a thene ueld; So that it rolled on the field. And tha quene ich al to-smathde, And the queen I“cut all in pieces Mid deore mine sweorde,

With my dear sword, And seodthen ich heo adun sette And afterwards I” set “her” dowo In ane swarte putte.

In a black pit. And al mi uolc riche

And all my good people Sette to fleme,

Set to flight,
That nuste ich under Criste So that I knew not under Christ
Whar heo bicomen weoren. Where (that) they were gone.
Buten mi seolf ich gond atstonden But myself I gan stand
Uppen ane wolden

Upon a weald,
And ich ther wondrien agon “And I there gan to wander
Wide yeond than moren.

Wide over the moors”;
Ther ich isah gripes

There I saw gripes, And grisliche fugheles.

And grisly (wondrous) fowls! Tha com an guldene leo

Then approached a golden lion Lithen ouer dune.

Over the down; Deoren swithe hende,

" A beast most fair, Tha ure Drihten make.

That our Lord made”; Tha leo me orn foren to,

The (this) lion ran towards quickly

to) me, And iueng me bi than midle, And took “me” by the middle, And forth hire gun yeongen

And forth gan her move (he gan mo

carry), And to there sae wende.

And to the sea went. And ich isaeh thae vthen

16 And I saw the waves I there sae driuen;

Drive in the sea”; And the leo i than ulode

And the lion in the flood Iwende with me seolue.

Went with myself. Tha wit i sae comen,

When we came in the sea, Tha vthen me hire binomen. The waves took her from me; Com ther an fisc lithe,

But there approached (came swim.

ming) a fish, Ind fereden me to londe.

And brought me to land; Cha wes ich al wet,

Then was I all wet, Aud weri of soryen, and seoc. “And” weary" from sorrow," ang

(very) sick. Tha gon ich iwakien

When I gan to wake, Swithe ich gon to quakien ; Greatly (then) gan I to quake; Tha gon ich to binien

“Then gan I to tremble Swule ich al fur burne.

As if I a'l burnt with fire." And swa ich habbe nl niht

And so (thus) I have all night

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Of mine sweuene su ithe ithoht;
For ich what to iwisse
Agan is all mi blisse:
For a to mine liue
Soryen ich not driye.
Wale that ich nabbe here
Wenhauer mine quene!

Of my dream much thought,
For I wot (all) with certainty,
Gone is all my bliss,
For ever in my life
Sorrow I must endure!
Alas! that I have (had) not her
Wenhaver, my queen!

5. The Ormulum. (Manual, p. 33.)

(Edited by Dr. White, Oxford, 1852.)

Nu, brotherr Wallterr, brotherr Now, brother Walter, brother mini

min Affterr the flaeshes kinde; After the flesh's kind (or nature); Annd brotherr min i Crisstenn- And brother mine in Christendom dom

(or Christ's kingdom) Thurrh fulluhht and thurrh trow- Through baptism and through wthe;

truth; Annd brotherr min i Godess hus, And brother mine in God's house, Yet o the thride wise,

Yet on (in) the third wise, [both Thurrh thatt witt hafenn takenn ba Though that we two have taken An reghellboc to folghenn,

One rule-book to follow, Unnderr kanunnkess had and lif, Under canonic's (canon's) rank

and life, Swa summ Sant Awwstin sette; So as St. Austin set (or ruled); Ich hafe don swa summ thu badd I have done so as thou hade Annd forthedd te thin wille; And performed thee thine will

(wish); Ice hafe wennd inntill Ennglissh I have wended (turned) into Eng.

Goddspelless hallghe lare, Gospel's holy lore,
Affterr thatt little witt tatt me After that little wit that me
Min Drihhtin hafеthth lenedd. My Lord hath lent.

0.-OLD ENGLISH, 1250-1350. 6. HENRY III. Proclamation in A. D. 1258. (From Marsh's Origin and History of the English Language, pp. 192, 193.) Henr', thurg Godes fuitume King Henry, by the grace of God king on Engleneloande, lhoaverd on in (of) England, lord in (of) Irco Irloand, duk' on Norm', on Aqui- land, duke in (of) Normandy, in tain', and corl on Aniow, send (of) Aquitaine, and earl in (of) igretinge to all hise halde ilaerde Anjou, sends greeting to all his and ilaewede Huntendon' lieges, clerk and lay, in Hunting. schir'.

donshire. Thael witen ge wel alle, thaet This know ye well all, that we we willen and unnen, thaet thaet will and grant that what our ccun. ure rardesmen alle other the moare cillors, all or the major part of dael of heom, thaet beoth ichosen them, who are chosen by us and thuig us and thurg thaet loandes by the land's people in our kingo


folk on urn kuneriche, habbeth dom, have done ars sha'l do, to idon and scliullen don in the worth the honor of God ani in allegiance nesse of Gode and on ure treowthe to us, for the good of the land, by for the freine of the loande thurg the ordinance of the aforesaid the besigte of than toforeniseide councillors, be steadfast and per redesmen, beo stedefaest and iles- manent in all things, time without tinle in alle thinge a buten aende, end, and we command all our and we lioaten aile ure treowe in lieges by the faith that they owe the treowthe, that heo us ogen, us, that they steadfastly hold, and thaet heo stedefaestliche healden swear to hold and defend the regu. and swerien to healden and to lations that are made and to be werien the isetnesses, thaet beon made by the aforesaid councillors,

imakede and beon to makien thurg or by the major part of them, as is • than toforeniseide raedesmen other before said, and that each help

thurg the moare dael of heom others this to do, by the same oatli, alswo alse hit is biforen iseid, and against all men, right to do and to thaet aeho other helpe thaet for to receive, and that none take of land done bi than ilche othe agenes alle or goods, whereby this ordinance men rigt for to done and to may be let or impaired in any wise, spangen, and noan ne nime of and if any [sing.) or any [plural) loande ne of eyte, where-thurg transgress here against, we will and this besigte muge beon ilet other command that all our lieges them iwersed on onie wise and gif oni hold as deadly foes, and because other onie cumen her ongenes, we we will that this be steadfast and willen and hoaten, thaet alle ure permanent, we send you these lettreowe heom healden deadliche ters patent sealed with our seal, tu ifoan, and for thaet we willen, keep among you, in custody. thaet this beo stedcfaest and lestinde, we senden gew this writ mpen iseined with ure seel to halden amanges gew ine hord.

Witnesse usselven aet Lunden' Witness ourself at London the thane egtetenthe day the eighteenth day in the month of monthe of Octobr' in the two and October in the two and fortieth fowertigthe geare of ure cruninge. year of our coronation.

Aid this wes idom aetforen ure And this was done before oui isworene redesmen :

sworn councillors : [licre follow the signatures of several redesmen or councillors]

[Signatures] and aetforen othre moge.

and before other nobles [?] And al on tho ilche worden is And all in the same words is isend in to aeurihce othre shcire sent into every other shire over all ouer al thaere kuneriche on Engle- the kingdom in (of) England arid Deloande and ek in tel Irelonde. also into Ireland.


17. King Alisaunder. (Manual, p. 34.)

(From Guest's History of English Rhythms, vol. ii. p. 142.)

Averil is merry, and longith the April is merry, and length'neth day;

the day; Ladies loven solas and play; Ladies love solace and play; Swaynes justes; knyghtis turnay: Swains the jousts; knights the


Syngeth the nyghtyngale; gredeth | Singeth the nightingale; screan. theo jay;

eth the jay; The hote sunne chongeth the clay; The hot sun changeth the clay; A, well yseen may.

well may see.

Alisaunder, 140


8. Havelok. (Manual, p. 34.)

(From Guest's History of English Rhythms, vol. Il. pp. 142-145.)

llwan lie was hosled and shriven, When he was housled and shrives, llis quiste maked, and for him His bequests made, and for him. given,

given, Ifis knictes dede he alle site, His knights he made all sit, For thorw them he wolde wite, For from them would he know, Hwo micte yeme hise children who should keep his children yunge,

young Till that he couthen speken wit Till they knew how to speak with tunge,


(horse, Speken, and gangen, on horse To speak, and walk, and ride on Knictes and sweynes bi hete Knights and servants by their side. siden. [sone

[soon He spoken there offe — and chosen They spoke thereof- and chosen A riche man was, that, under Was a rich man, that, under mone,

moon, Was the trewest that he wende Was the truest that they knewGodard, the kinges oune frende; Godard, the king's own friend; And seyden, he moucthe hem And said they, he might best them best loke

keep Yif that he hem undertoke, If their charge he undertook, Till hise sone mouthe bere

Till his son might bear Helm on heued, and leden ut here, Helm on head, and lead out host, (In his hand a spere stark) (In his hand a sturdy spear) Ànc king ben maked of Denmark. and king of Denmark should he


i This is clearly a mistake for here.

9. ROBERT oF GLOUCESTER. (Manual, p. 33.)

Thuse come lo! Engelond into|Thus came lol England into Not. Normannes honde,

mans'-hand. Add the Normans ne couthe speke And the Normans not could speai tho bote her owe speche,

then but their own speech, And speke French as dude atom, And spake French as (they) did

and here chyldren dude al so at home, and their children teche;

did all so teach : So that heymen of thys lond, that So that high men of this land, that of her blod come,

of their blood come, Holdcih alle thulke speche that hii Hold all the same speech that they of hem nome.

of them took; Vor bote a man couthe French me. For but a man know French inen tolth of hym wel lute;

tell (reckon) of him well little:

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