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Sed during the improvident era of buying petition, the reduction of prices on Protected

much and selling little—1834 to 1839. All fabrics which would else have even thus) Sthis in the face of apprehensions that the promptly been realized.-Such was the state

Tariff of 1842 might be overthrown by its of things in which Mr. Polk met his first Jadversaries, an apprehension which rendered Congress, composed, by nearly two-thirds in' the advancement of 1843-5 much less rapid the House and by a large majority in the and constant than it would otherwise have Senate, of those who had aided to elect him Sbeen, and postponed or prevented in some and assembled as partisans of his Adminisinstances, by checking investment and com-ltration.


OREGON. s The National Convention at Baltimore, lof the British Minister, and claimed the whole {which nominated Mr. Polk for President, again, intimating that he would never again S(May, 1844,) had gravely resolved that “our recede, and would on no account surrender

right to the whole of Oregon is clear and un- the free navigation of the Columbia. Says Squestionable," and that the “reoccupation" his Message:

of that Territory is “a great American ques. “The right of any foreign power to the free na-) {tion,” &c. [Then why make it a party ques-vigation of any of our rivers, through the heart of

min our country, was one which I was unwilling to) Stion, when nothing had been said concerning

concede." Pit on the other side ?] The simple truth is, "Again he says: Sthat the nominators of Mr. Polk found this a "The extraordinary and wholly inadmissible National question and deliberately made it a demands of the British government, and the re

ljection of the proposition made in deference alone Sparty one, for their own use and benen. Ito what had been done by my predecessors, and

to all who the implied obligation which their acts seemed {desired the assertion at all hazards and to all to impose, afford satisfactory evidence that no{

compromise which the United States ought to acSextremes of our claim to the whole of Oregon, cept can be effected. With this conviction, the Yand to all who for any cause desired a War proposition of compromise which had been made

and rejected was, by my direction, subsequently? with Great Britain, “Help us elect Mr. Polk, withdrawn, and our title to the whole Oregon ter? )and you shall have Oregon up to 54° 40' or ritory asserted, and, as is believed, maintained by

irrefragable facts and arguments." (War for it.” They doubtless made party or Peace or War,” we were also told by Scapital out of this. Accordingly, Mr. Polk in the Secretary of State, on the 29th of January)

his Inaugural avowed his firm faith in our last, was involved in the issue of the surren-> Sclaim to Oregon and his resolution to mainder by

ution to main. der by England of the whole of Oregon. In

"]the same letter Mr. Buchanan said: tain it. (*The whole' was implied but nou “ The President will never abandon the position? (expressly stated.) In the Fall of that year, he has taken in his Message. Clearly convinced of $('45,) The Union, established by the will of the right of the United States TO THE WHOLE TERY

RITORY IN DISPUTE, and relieved, by the refusal 01) Mr. Polk and sustained by official patronage, the British Government to accept this otter of Sdeclared for « 54° 40, the whole or none." compromise, from the embarrassment in which

the acts of his predecessors had placed him, he) Every where those who counseled modera- would not authorize the conclusion of a Treaty on) {tion, compromise, conciliation, were scouted that basis. (The basis of 490.)" as enemies to the Country-British Whigs.' The leading members of the majority and

Yet when the Executive budget was opened, the Press of their Party took their cue from Sat the assembling of Congress, it came out this. “ 54° 40'—the whole or none !” was the that Mr. Polk had offered to compromise with touchstone of patriotism, the toast and the Great Britain on the line of 49°, but without war-cry of Northern and Western Loco-Fo-X conceding the portion of Vancouver's Island coism. To push Great Britain off the Conti Jsouth of 49°, or the free navigation of the Co- nent was the purpose avowed by many, but Slumbia. This offer being rejected, Mr. Polk to drive her forthwith out of all Oregon, was {withdrew it, rejected the counter proposition the object of the more judicious. All sorts

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Sof intemperate propositions and more intem-its part to compromise on the 49th degree,

perate speeches were made. But the South the reserving the possessory rights of her Suid not generally participate in this spirit. people in Oregon, obtaining the whole of

Her more reflecting Statesmen could not see Vancouver's Island and the free navigation of {the utility of a doubtful and bloody War with the Columbia "to the Hudson's Bay Com. the Nation possessing greater means of assail-pany and all British subjects trading with sing us than any other on the earth-a nation them,” without limitation of time. This pro-) Swhich buys three-fourths of our Cotton-crop-ject of a Treaty Mr. Polk submitted privately

to enforce a questionable claim to a few thou-to the Senate for its judgment thereon, which, (sand square miles of mountainous wilderness being favorable, (as he well knew it would

in the far corner of our Continent. A stand be before he went through the farce of ask{was made in the Senate by Messrs. Calhoun, ing it,) a Treaty was promptly signed by Haywood and others; the resolution which Mr. Buchanan, approved by Mr. Polk, had passed the House authorizing the Presi. ratified by the Senate, and is now the su-3 dent to apprize Great Britain that the long-preme law of the Land. (See it on page 28.) standing Joint Occupation of Oregon would We rejoice that the difference has been setSterminate at the expiration of the stipulated |tled, even on such terms; but what must the twelve months' notice, was modified in the Country think of those who, to subserve al Senate, and, after a disagreement and confer- party end, pushed the Nation recklessly to ence, passed both Houses in a modified and the very brink of a desolating War, and then (inoffensive form. This being communicated backed out so ingloriously and atterly? Can? Sto the British Government, led to an offer on they ever again be trusted ?


3 In his Annual Message of Dec. 20, 1845, Mexico, it was notorious, had uniformly de

the President boasted of the Annexation of clared that she would regard Annexation as <Texas as one of the great events of the age, War upon her, and resist it accordingly. Now and adds :

suppose the weakness and fears of Mexico) I "The accession to our territory has been a blood. had sufficed to overbear her resentment, sol Sless achievement. No arm of force has been raised as to prevent any actual resistance to our ab-S

to produce the result. The sword has had no part in Sthe victory. We have not sought to extend air terri- sorption of Texas, would not the essential Storial possessions by conquest, or our Republican in- falsehood of Mr. Polk's boasts been still palstitutions over a reluctant people. It was the delibe(rate homage of each people to the great principle of Pios

00F pable? When the troops of Napoleon over-> Sour Federative Union."

Tran Portugal and captured Lisbon unresist"If we consider the extent of the territory

nin:led, driving off the Royal Family to Brazil (volved in the Annexation-its protective influenc Son America—the means by which it has been ac-amid the tears and wailing of their subjects,

complished, springing purely from the choice of was it true that the sword had no part' in (the people themselves to share the blessings of (our Union, the history of the world may be chal- the conquest, because the Portuguese dared? (lenged to furnish a parallel."

not resist the power of their colossal invader? All this boasting was not merely premature When the highwayman obtains your purse S-it was false from the outset. Mr. Forsyth, without a struggle by merely putting his pis-}

as Secretary of State under Mr. Van Buren, tol to your breast and demanding your mo-> Shad in 1837 declared that the Annexation of ney or your life,' could he truly proclaim STexas to this country, prior to the recognition that no arm of force has been raised to pro

of her Independence by Mexico, would be duce this result?' —But events were fast ri? San act of War on Mexico. Mr. Van Buren, pening calculated to put to shame the boasts Mr. Silas Wright, as well as Mr. Clay, Mr. and the boaster." Gallatin and nearly all the Whig Statesmen The original, uniform, well-defined Southin the land, took the same view of it in 1844. Western boundary of Texas as a province of

Mexico was the river Nueces from its mouth mouth, is to be deemed an exception. Mr. {to its source, thence Northwardly along the Benton in 1844 denounced the pretence of Scrests of a chain of mountains so as to include extending Texas to the Rio del Norte as “an

no portion of the valley of the long river act of unparalleled outrage on Mexico," ot' Sknown by the Mexican names of Rio Grande, aggression and unjust war. Yet Mr. Polk

Rio Bravo or Rio del Norte. There is not, was resolved from the first to maintain this Inever was, any dispute about this. The lower atrocious claim. By his own order, without

portion of the Valley of the Rio del Norte a word of authority from Congress, our Army {formed the province of Tamaulipas, of which was sent to Corpus Christi, across the Nueces, Matamoros, lying on that river, was the capi- immediately upon advices that Texas had {tal; above this was New Leon ; then Chihua-consented to Annexation. This not sufficing,) Shua; then New Mexico or Santa Fé. On in the feeble and distracted condition of Mex?

each side of the river, but mainly on the ico, to provoke hostilities, our troops were or.) {West, Mexican towns or villages were thinly dered by him, without consulting or even in.) scattered, but no settlement of Texans, no forming Congress, to march to the Rio del election under the authority of Texas, no ser- Norte, over 100 miles beyond the well-de-> )vice of civil process under her laws, was ever fined boundary and the farthest settlement of (made in any part of the region watered by Texas, driving back the Mexican Corps of Sthe Rio del Norte and its tributaries. When Observation at the Sal Colorado, causing them

John Quincy Adams, in negotiating a Treaty to abandon and burn their Custom-House, &c. Sof Boundaries with Spain in 1818-19, set up at San Isabel, and taking post directly oppo-)

a claim that Louisiana extended to the Rio site Matamoros, the capital of the Province, Sdel Norte, he gave no intimation that Texas planting a battery of cannon so as to com Thad that extent, nor any color to the pre-mand it. All this while Mexico had commit(tence. So notoriously fraudulent is the ted no act of hostility against us, nor in any) Sclaim that Texas extends to the Rio del manner molested a settlement of Texas!?

Norte, that it may be abundantly refuted by The result was War, as everybody foresaw its STexan authorities alone. We have before must bemand what a War for a civilized and)

us a Map of Texas, prepared by STEPHEN F. Christian People! Give all the force you? SAustin, (well known as one of the pioneers can to the pretexts set up in its justification) of Texas and leaders in the struggle for her -say that Mexico owed us for Spoliations, Independence,) published by H. S. Tanner, and had withheld a part of the stipulated InSPhiladelphia, in 1837, the year after the in-demnity—that her poverty and the fact that)

dependence of Texas was established by the she had once provided for its payment are no SBattle of San Jacinto. This Map bounds excuses that she agreed to receive Mr. Sli-S

Texas on the south-west by the Naeces, ex. dell as Minister Plenipotentiary, (though she) Sactly as we have stated above, and gives not did not) and then (a revolution having mean Sthe least intimation of a claim that it should time occurred) refused to do it—and what mis.

extend farther. There Texan settlement, ju- erable apologies are they all for invading her Srisdiction and authority have uniformly stop- unquestioned territory, and slaughtering her)

ped, save in occasional and usually unsuccess-feeble, barbarous, wretchedly armed People! 3ful forays upon the Mexican villages on the [The History of the War, so far as it had trans.) Rio Grande, unless the little settlement of pired when this work went to press, is given in Corpus Christi, just across the Nueces at ito another part of the Almanac.]

OUR BRAVE DEFENDERS. The merits of a War always challenge theljustly in bloodshedding, and to resist, by all) Sscrutiny of every free citizen-he is bound to constitutional means, every attempt to do so take care that our rulers do not involve us an- If one nation makes war on another, it is ob-> vious that there must be great blame some fever can be swallowed must be taken with-S (where—the guilt of every death, every pang, out scruple. Lying down on the ground, as must fall heavily on the individuals who pri- a repast for musketoes instead of having anys {marily caused it. It is every man's duty to dinner or supper yourself, after marchitg all Stake care that it rests not on his soul. But day through swamps which take a model of}

the Soldier has no discretion in the premises, your legs at every step, is inconvenient; but Sconsequently no moral responsibility beyond these are only the accessories of successful? that of being a soldier; he must march as he campaigning. If there is any fighting, yous is ordered and fight whoever opposes him. get that extra, and in case of a reverse The injustice of a War detracts nothing through ambush or famine, then look out for from the merit of those who, being already a bullet from every rod of chapporal, and for Soldiers when it commenced, fought gal- the sick, way-worn or wounded there is the lantly in its prosecution. Honor, then, to deadly Spanish knife to shorten their mis-, the Heroes of Palo Alto and Resaca de la eries. Such is a rough sketch of campaignPalma! honor also to those who, prompted ing in Mexico. by a sense of duty-mistaken though we Now for this service, Mr. James K. Polk, must believe it—have volunteered to upbear who wantonly created the necessity for it, Your National Eagles even in their predatory has never hinted that our fellow-citizens) {flight to the Halls of the Montezumas.' We whom he has sent there ought to be paid

could not fight in an invading army, unless more than the seven dollars a month which {to open a passage homeward to our own is the pay of private soldiers in our Army, Ssoil, but many think differently, so far as they while bis supporters in Congress have steadallow themselves to think at all. And, ily voted down every proposition to increase (whether any allowance should be made for that miserable stipend! While he takes his wear and tear of conscience or not, it must ease on some Sixty-eight Dollars per day, Sbe palpable to every man willing to live and his very slaves would loathe the fare Sand let live' that the wretched pittance of which American soldiers in Mexico musts seven dollars per month, now paid to our subsist on, his supporters in Congress voted Regulars and Volunteers, is shamefully inad-down (May 12th) a proposition to increase Jequate as a recompense forthe toils, privations, the pay of privates in the regular service to and perils of a soldier invading such a Country Ten Dollars a month : vote 119 to 50. Again Sas Mexico. An army finds little food there but on the 20th of May, when it had become evi-S

such as it carries along, consequently detach- dent that a heavy Volunteer force would be? Sments must often be without for days together, required for a protracted and difficult ser} even when provisions are wholesome and vice, Mr. Andrew Stewart of Penna. moved) Jabundant, owing to the inability of the bag. that the rules of the House be suspended to Sgage wagons to make their way through the enable him to offer this Resolution :

! Resolved. That the Committee on Military Af Sthrough the swampy valleys of that singular fairs be instructed to report a bill increasing the

pay of Volunteers from seven to ten dollars per country, where roads are bridle-paths, springs month, and granting to those who serve to ihe) (as scarce as mines, and internal navigation end of the war, or die in the service, one hun->

dred and sixty acres of land. Junknown. Mouldy bread and tainted meat The said resolution was read. And the ques.) are not to be reckoned unpalatable there; a tion being put, Shall the rules be suspended It) Sbiscuit that the insects within do not walk was decided in the negative, (two-thirds not vo->

ting in favor thereof, Yeas 70, Nays 75.) off with ranks A No. 1. Swamp-water is al The yeas and nays being desired by one-fifth of Sluxury often to be obtained only at intervals the Members present, were taken as follows :

YEAS.-Abbott, J. Q. Adams, Ashmun, Barringer, Yof two and three days; and he who is so Bell, Blanchard, Bowlin, M. Brown, W. G. Brown, 3 Inice as to strain it through his shirt to take Ranch

Campbell, Carroll, C. W. Cathcart, J. G. Chapman,

R. Chapman, Chase, Cocke, Collamer, Crozier, CulJout the larger insects before drinking, will lom, Darragh, Davis, Dixon, Edsall, Ewing, Foot,

Gentry, Giles, Graham, Grider, Grinnell, Harper, soon be cured of such finical folly. What-Hilliard, Holmes, Houston, Hubbard, Hunt, Inger-> soll. Jones, D. P. King, T. B. King, Lewis, W. B. fight our battles. Now the men who refused Maclay, R. McClelland, McHenry, Mcllvane, Martin, (Miller, Morse, Mogeley, Parish,' Payne, Relfe, Rock-this small installment of justice to our Soldiers) (well, Root, Rusk, Schenck, Seaman, T. Smith, A. were themselves receiving Eight Dollars per! Smith, R. Smith, Stephens, Stewart, Thibodeaux, Thomasson, Thompson, Tibbuts, Trumbo, Went-day for service far less arduous and perilous;)

vorth, White. (All Whigs but the 17 in Italics.] INAYS.-Adams. Atkinson. Bedinger, Benton. with Eight Dollars for every twenty miles?

Biggs, Black, Boyd, Brinkerhoff, Brockenbrough, travel to and from Washington-many of
(Broadhead, Burt, Clarke, Collin, Cranston, Cun-In
{ningham, Daniel, Dargan, Davis, Dobbin, Dockery, them receiving over $100 for one day's riding)
Dromgoole, Ellsworth, Erdinan, Ficklin, Fries,
Garvin, Grover, Hamlin, Holmes, Houston. Hun at an expense of $10 or $15. The pay of thel
gerford, Hunt, Hunter. Ingersoll, Jenkins, J. H. Members of Congress for this single Session
Johnson, J. Johnson, King, Lawrence, Leake, Lev-
Sin, J.J. McDowell, J. McDowell, McGaughey, Mc-amounted to Two Thousand and Twenty-
(Kay, Marsh, Morris, Mott, Moulton, Norris, Owen, four Dollars each, beside Mileage, which to
(Phelps, Price, Reid, Rhett, Ritter, Roberts, Sawyer,
Seddon, A. D. Sims, L. H. Sims, Simpson, Stanton, some was over $1,000. For the same term
Starkweather, Sykes, James Thompson, J. Thomp-.
son, Tredway, Vance, Vinton, Williams, Wood, of hard service in Mexico a citizen soldiers
SWoodward, Woodworth, Yancey. [All Loco-Fo-receives less than Sixty Dollars! Ought

cos but the six in Italics.]
> The payment of three dollars more per

per not this to be reformed? Yet a bill retrench(month to privates would have amounted to ing somewhat the enormous allowance to) Sbut $75,000 per month or $900,000 a year for Members for traveling to and from Congress, lan army of Twenty-Five Thousand men; not/(which is now practically twice as high as its (equal to the cost of the California Expedi- was when the present rate was fixed, owing) Stion alone. It is in Provisions, Munitions, to the great improvement in facilities for trav(Transportation, pay of Officers, &c., that the eling,) was lost in this present Congress.-) Sexpensiveness of War consists. Of the ag. Eight Dollars per day for Congress, seven Ogregate cost of this Mexican War, not an dollars per month for the soldier—this wills (eighth part will be paid to the soldiers who have to be corrected.


When nearly or quite all the Banks in the him and his party. The succeeding Congress Country suspended Specie Payment in May, promptly repealed the act. It has been res 21837, owing directly to commercial bank-enacted in substance by the present ConSruptcy and a heavy demand for Specie to go gress, by a strict party vote. It is a long bill,

abroad, but primarily to the mischievous pro-providing for new officers to be styled · AsSjects and measures of the Executive with resistant Treasurers' at New-York, Boston, {gard to Currency and Finance through seve-Charleston, (S. C.) Detroit and St. Louis, beKral preceding years, Mr. Van Buren called a sides devolving similar duties on the Treasu

Special Session of Congress, and recommend-rers of the Mints at Philadelphia and New{ed to it a total · Divorce of Bank and State,'Orleans, who are to receive and keep the Sby collecting, keeping and disbursing the Public Moneys, with each a retinue of Clerks, Public Moneys entirely independent of &c. to handle and count the coin. The AsBanks. A majority of this Congress wassistant Treasurers' salaries will amount to but composed of friends of his Administration, $15,000 a year, the cost of refitting the old (but they refused to sanction this scheme.-Sub-Treasury vaults and safes is limited to SThe People declared against it in the Elec- $12,000, and the Clerks will cost a good deal

tions; even his own State, so long faithful, more. There are in the bill very minute Swas swept as by a whirlwind, and returned directions for making deposits, drafts, ex(100 Whigs out of 128 Members of Assembly. changes, &c. of funds, penalties for exchangSHe pressed the measure upon Congress ating the funds actually paid in, &c. but the

each succeeding Session, encountering defeat gist of the bill is all comprised in these two {after defeat, until at last it was carried in sections : $1840, when the People speedily overwhelmed Sec. 19. And be it farther enacted, That on the

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