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unbalanced aggrandizement of the Slave more than two parties are engaged, to fall Power. Their votes in Congress had away from the weaker into the ranks of been gained for Annexation, upon a the two principal parties. Many thondistinet pledge that Mr. Polk would se- sands who would have preferred the eleclect the mode of effecting it prescribed tion of Van Buren to that of either of the by Mr. Benton's alternative joint resolu- leading candidates, were constrained ultition-a pledge falsified by the maneuver mateiy to reason thus— True, I prefer of having Mr. Tyler make the selection Van Buren, but my vote will not elect just as he was bidding adieu to power.- him, while it may decide the contest as Of course the Radicals unanimously and between Taylor and Cass, and I so greatly cordially supported the Proviso, and ad-prefér one of these to the other that I canhered to it throughout, while their adver- not consent to throw it away.' That this saries fell away from it. At the Syracuse argument did not prevail still more univer Convention which rejected Flagg and sally is a striking proof of the strength o' nominated Hungerford, one of the last the Free Soil sentiment throughout the acts was the laying on the table by the Free States. Only by convincing then Huuker majority a resolution proposed that the election of Gen. Cass would net by the Barnburners which affirmed the prove detrimental to the cause of Fre. principle of the Wilmot Proviso,
dom in the Territories, could the gret When, therefore, a call was issued by mass of the voters be brought to sustain an Ohio State Convention of dissenters one or the other. trom both the Philadelphia and Baltimore nominations for a more general Conven. President were chosen in every Sute,
On the 7th of November, Electors of tion at Buffalo of all devoted adherents to the Proviso to nominate a National ticket, save that in Massachusetts (where ama. the · Barnburners' naturally responded to jority of all the votes is requisite to a the call, as did the Liberty party and a
choice,) no election was made by the Peo large body of Whiş dissenters from the ple, but it was well known that the Les support ot"Gen. Taylor. The Buffalo Con- islature would choose the Taylor Electors. vention assembled on the 8th of August, chosen having
been nominated and up,
A decided majority of the Electors su and was imposing alike in numbers, in ability and in character. Nearly or quite ported by the Whig party as in fave of
ZACHARY TAYLOR and MILLARD JILLall the Free States, with several of the Slave States, were represented. The de- MORE, these candidates are already irtuliberations of the Convention were con
ally and will soon be actually chosen re. tinued through three days, were signally while the Congressional Electionstlus far
spectively President and Vice-President, harmonious and dignified, and resulted in indicate a very decided preponderance of the nomination of Martin
VAN BUREN for Whigs in the next House of Representa President, and CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS tives. The Senate will be more ecually of Massachusetts, (son of the late venerated ex-President,) for Vice-President. A divided, probably not more than five maseries of resolutions were adopted pro- and factious opposition to the new Presi
jority either way, but no indiscrininate claiming the most devoted attachment to the principle of Freedom in the Territories,
dent from a majority of this dignified body
need be apprehended. to the exclusion of Slavery therefrom; declaring in favor of free grants of Public On the 5th of March, 1849, (the 4th fall. Lands in limited quantities to Actual Set-ing on Sunday,) Gen. Taylor will doubtless tlers ; in favor of the Improvement of be inaugurated' as President and Mr. FillRivers and Harbors by the General Gov- more as Vice-President, and the former ernment; of the raising of an adequate will immediately form his Cabinet and Revenue by Duties on Imports, &c. &c.- enter upon the direction of our Nasional These Resolutions constitute the Buffalo concerns. On the 4th of December followPlatform, which was ably and forcibly com-ing, the XXXIst Congress will assemble mended to the People of the Free States to consider and adopt such Legislative thenceforward to the close of the Presiden- measures as the condition of the Country, tial canvass, by a number of the ablest and of its depressed Industry and dilapidated most effective public speakers in the Finances, may render necessary. May country, and which, we hazard nothing in the Divine blessing attend their mutual saying, were commended to the judgment labors: and general thrift, plenty, contentand approval of the People to an extent ment, happiness, crown their efforts with far beyond what was indicated by the vote that true glory which springs not from car. for Van Buren and Adams Electors. There nage and desolation but which results from is an irresistible tendency in a protracted exalted power wisely and unselfishly deand engrossing Political contest wherein voted to the lasting good of Mankind!
EUROPE IN 1848.
The year now closing, will in all time sides. The troubles increased from day to to come remain an epoch in the History day, and Lombardy was declared by the of Europe. Within its compass are in. Government at Vienna to be in a state of cluded events of more importance to the insurrection. The army of Radetsky was future than any which have occurred for increased, and on the other hand, the centuries, and the rapidity with which the King of Sardinia, whose sympathies were entire condition and relative positions of known to be in favor of the Italian cause, the European nations have been changed, called out an additional force of 25,000 men is something for which we find no ade-on the 10th of the month, and concentrated quate parallel in the records of any age. his army on the line of the Ticino. Tłe history of the two or three previous In the meantime, similar movements yeurs, it is true, demonstrated the ex- had taken place in Sicily. The people istence of the causes which have led to demanded concessions from the King of these conclusions, but even those who Naples, which were not granted. An atwere most confident of the result, did not tempt was made to force them into subdrean the crisis was so near at hand. mission, but the Swiss troops refused to
The first token of the approach of these fire on the people, and the Duke of Serra changes, was given on the first day of the Capriola declined accepting the Viceyear, though its cause may be traced back royalty, unless he should have power to to the Amnesty granted by Pius IX. The make the desired reforms. Signs of reMilanese, who had never borne the Aus-sistance soon began to show themselves ; trian yoke patiently, toward the end of on the 4th a serious outbreak occurred in Decenber, 1847, formed a league by which Messina, which was followed on the 12th they bound themselves to abstain entirely the time secretly appointed for a general from the use of tobacco, after the first of rising—by the descent of the country Januuy. This league would have drawn people upon the garrison at Palermo.an important source of revenue from the The Cavalry which attacked them, was Austrian Government, and in order to repulsed with a loss of fifty, und, aided by break down the growing opposition, Ra- the citizens, they commenced barricading detsky, the Military Governor of Milan, the town. A Provisional Government took measures to bring on à collision be- was appointed on the 15th, and the troops tween the troops and the people.' Cigars soon after opened a bombardment, which were given to the garrison, with directions lasted twenty hours. A temporary susto smoke them in the public streets, and pension of hostilities was procured by the on the afternoon of the 3d, bands of intervention of the Foreign Consuls, but soldiers, thus provided, traversed the the strise was finally terminated on the promenades. The people gave vent to 19th by a sanguinary battle, which retheir disapprobation in murmurs and sulted in the taking of the Bank and hisses ; the troops fell upon them, and a Royal Palace by the people, after which massacre commenced, which lasted till the soldiers withdrew and the whole city midnight. The indignation of the Italians was surrendered to them. Trapani, Caat these barbarities was not confined to tania, Syracuse, and other towns, followed Milan. At Brescia, Pavia, and other the example of Palermo, and the struggle cities of Lombardy, disturbances occur- now commenced in earnest, for the Indered, in which persons were killed on both pendence of Sicily.
The news of this Revolution created a enlightening its followers in regard to the great sensation throughout Italy, · and character of the desired reforms, the prachastened the fulfillment of promises which tice of public dinners arose, at which they othes Princes had made to the People.- were freely discussed. These dinners The King of Naples resisted the demands soon grew into “banquets,” which were of his subjects for a long time. Roberti, held in Paris and the Provinces, and atGovernor of Naples, and Statello, Com-tended by large numbers of persons.mander of the Forts, having refused to the health of the King was purposely obey his command to fire upon the popu- omitted at many of these, and addresses lace, he was brought to terms, and on the of a bold and energetic character fre29th a Constitution was proclaimed, based quently delivered, reports of which found mainly upon the French Charter of 1830. their way into many of the public jourA general rejoicing followed this declara-nals. It was at length decided on the tion. Early in February, the Grand Duke part of the Government to suppress them, of Tuscany, who had previously given and a stormy discussion on this subjeci token of his liberal designs, granted a took place in the Chamber of Deputies op Constitution to his dominions, and the the 8th of February. It was again takei Dukes of Parma and Modena proposed to up on the 13th, when 100 Deputies of the do the same.
left, many of whom had already take Lombardy, whose example had partly part in the banquets, resolved to attend contributed to bring about these changes, them. was now in turn sustained by them. Tne Reform Banquet of the 12th ArroiMartial law was proclaimed by the Aus- dissement of Paris, which was appointed trian Governor, and the most stringent to be held on the 20th, on a grand scae, measures taken to suppress the revolu- gave the Government the occasion tley tionary feeling, but without effect. The desired. It was forbidden by the Miniter Municipality of Milan addressed a request of the Interior, and in anticipation of iny to the Government at Vienna, that they resistance, the fortifications of Paris were should grant a separate jurisdiction to the silently inspected and put in order. The Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, that the Banquet was postponed to the 22d, andin Government be administered by an Aulic the meantime a body of 250 Deputies, with Council, independent of that of Vienna, Odilon Barrot at their head, went tothe and that the Austrian employés be with- Minister and declared that his course was drawn, and the stamp and excise laws illegal. They obtained no satisfacion, abolished. This received no immediate however, and after some discussion, itwas attention, and the troubles increased so resolved to abandon the Banquet ani imrapidly that on the 15th of February the peach the Government. On the 224 the Austrian Government issued a manifesto city was filled with troops, between wlom to the Italians, bidding them remember and the people there were several olli. the fate of Poland, and admonishing them sions, though without bloodshed, and toto obedience. The activity of the Liberal ward night some barricades were erected. party, however, was not in the least dim- A charge of impeachment, signed by 50 inished, and the Government found it im- Deputies, was handed to the President of possible to suppress the manifestations of the Chaniber, but not read. sympathy with the movements in other The next morning, several bodies of the quarters. The King of Sardinia proclaim. National. Guards fraternized with the ed a Constitution in his dominions on the people. Barricades were again ereced 8th of February, similar in its features to on the Boulevards, which were attached that of France. The general rejoicing on by the troops of the Line and carried with this occasion was strongly expressed in considerable loss. Fighting also took Milan. The troops of Sardinia continued place at other points, and at 3 o'clock the to increase on the Lombard frontier, and it King was constrained to empower Count
now evident that their assistance Molé to form a new Ministry. A tempowould not be denied, when the Revolution rary pause followed, but towarı nizht should openly break out.
the crowd before the Hotel of the Minister At this time, public sentiment was of Foreign Affairs were fired on, and the aroused in Paris, by a question involving Revolution began in earnest. The deal the right of free assemblages of the peo-bodies were borne along the Boulevards; ple to discuss measures of political re- the night was spent in arming and builu form. The growing oppression of Louis ing barricades, and several companies of Philippe and his Government had not the Line having fraternized with the Na. been able to prevent the rapid spread of tional Guards, the city was next morning liberal principles among the people. As in the hands of the people. At 12 o'clock a means of organizing this opposition and the Palais Roval was attacked and iaken
with great slaughter; at 1 o'clock the ab- extremity in case their hopes of a Repeal dication of Louis Philippe in favor of the of the Union should be frustrated. WithCount of Paris, was announced, but without preventing by force the assemblages out effect, and immediately afterward the of the people, the British Government opTuileries was taken and sacked. The posed them in every way, and all the King and Queen escaped at the ļast mo- military strength which could be spared ment, and after traveling several days in from other points, was ordered to Dulidisguise, reached Havre, and went on lin and the disturbed districts. Ireland board an English steamer, which landed thus wavered for a time in that position, them at New Haven, near Brighton. where a slight preponderance would have
The Duchess of Orleans appeared be turned the balance either way. fore the Deputies with her sons, accom Germany was ripe for a change, and the panied by the Princes, but the Regency effect of a newly-created Republic of was refused, and the victorious mob hav- France was instantaneously manifested. ing invaded' the Chamber, they were ob- The people rose up everywhere, and again liged to fly. After a scene of indescribable demanded those reforms which had been tumult, the people agreed that Dupont de so long promised and withheld. Their l'Eure, Lamartine, Arago, Ledru-Rollin, call was this time stern and peremptory, Marie and Cremieux should constitute a and their Kings and Princes found it conveProvisional Government, with Marrast, nient to listen. The first concessions were Pagnerre, Ferdinand Flocon and Albert made by the Grand Duke of Baden, who, as Secretaries. The announcement of on the 29th of February, granted his peothese names was received with loud cries ple Freedom of the Press, a National of Vire la République ! and the Assembly Guard, Trial by Jury, and the Right of then proceeded to the Hotel de Ville, Public Assembly. On the same day, the where, after a sitting of two days and Canton of Neufchatel, which had previnights, surrounded by an armed and threat- ously had some misunderstanding with the ening mob, the Republic was finally pro- Swiss Diet, declared itself an Independent claimed by Lamartine. This was followed Republic. The Elector of Hesse Cassel, on the 27th by the opening of the National after a stubborn resistance to the wishes Workshops for those who were without of his people, was besieged in his palace work, and a decree for a National Assem- on the first of March, and obliged to grant bly of 900 Representatives, elected by the desired reforms. On the 2d the King universal suffrage, to meet on the 9th of of Wirtemberg proclaimed Liberty of the April. The Chambers of the Peers and Press, which was also promised to the Deputies were dissolved; the emancipa- people by the King of Prussia and the tion of Slaves in all French Colonies pro- Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar. The Duke claimed; the Liberty of the Press estab- of Nassau followed on the 4th by conceding lished; with many other reforms of nearly the usual reforms, and the King of Bavaria equal importance. The Republic gained on the 6th, after a violent tumult which strength with every day, and those fac- lasted two days. tions which had held aloof from it in the The citizens of the two great German commencement, soon found it advisable to Capitals, emboldened by the changes in pronounce in its favor.
other quarters, now assumed a firmer atThe effect of this startling and unex- titude toward their Governments, and pected Revolution was tremendous : its pressed their demands with urgency.-rebound came back from nearly every They received no satisfactory reply, and capital in Europe. The Italians, seeing a an insurrection broke out simultaneously war with Austria inevitably at hand, pre- in Vienna and Berlin, on the 13th of pared to face it with a confident courage ; March. In Vienna, a body of 2,000 the Irish and Scotch celebrated the news Students, with the officers of the Univerwith enthusiastic public demonstrations, sity, marched to the Palace to demand and especially in the former country, the Freedom of the Press. Refusing to retire spirit of opposition to British rule rose to at the command of the Archduke Adalan alarming hight. Meetings of the ola bert, they were fired upon, and several and Young Ireland parties were held al- killed. Having been joined by 20,000 of most nightly, addressed by John Mitchel, the populace, they attacked the soldiers, W. Smith O'Brien, T. F. Meagher and captured some cannon, and barricaded the others, and the United Irishman, the organ city. The fight lasted till night, terminatof the Young Ireland or Physical Force ing in the triumph of the People, and the party, was filled with articles on the sub-granting of all their demands. The Villa ject of defence and military discipline. of Prince Metternich was destroyed, and The popular leaders openly avowed their that Minister was obliged to flee from determination to push matters to the last Austria.
In Berlin, an outbreak took place on the of troops held in readiness. But the meet13th, followed, on the 15th, by barricades ing on Kennington Common proved a failand a fight between the citizens and ure in point of numbers and sentiment, soldiers. The King retired to Potsdam, and the petition was presented without but returned on the morning of the 18th, violence. The objects of the movement and issued a decree granting the usual were comprised in the following six liberal measures. A collision with the points : 1. Universal Suffrage; 2. Vote by troops was again brought on, resulting in ballot; 3. No property qualification ; 4. a bloody struggle, which lasted 18 hours. Annual Parliaments; 5. Payment of Mem Order was finally restored, but the dead bers; 6. Equal Electoral Districts. bodies were carried in solemn procession The French Republic was not inactive to the King, who was obliged to stand un- during these occurrences. The Proviscovered before them. The Ministry hav- ional Government labored hard to mold ing been changed, immediate measures the convulsed elements of France into were taken to call together a Constitu- their new form, yet, on account of physitional Assembly, elected by the people.- cal difficulties, the election of RepresentaSimilar revolts took place in Magdeburg, tives was necessarily postponed till the Halle and Erfurt.
23d of April, and the opening of the AsUp to this time Lombardy had remain- sembly to the 4th of May. Large deed in a highly inflamed and unsettled monstrations of the people were state. On the 18th, the Emperor of stantly held, and the Deputations of Irish, Austria issued a proclamation at Milan, Poles and Italians, who demanded assistpromising to grant a Constitution. Cas- ance from the Provisional Government, sati, the chief Magistrate, immediately considerably embarrassed its operations, hoisted the Italian tricolor, and a battle yet the country was preserved from seensued, which lasted till the 23d, when the rious difficulty by the admirable line of army of Radetsky retreated to Mantua, policy adopted by Lamartine. There and Charles Albert entered the city at the were also dissensions in the Government head of the Piedmontese troops. At the concerning the Organization of Labor, and same time this Monarch declared war on the 16th of April Paris was so violently against Austria. On the 1st of April he agitated on this subject, that the rappel was in possession of Lodi, and, gradually was beaten and the National Guard called advancing with his army, threw up a out. Nevertheless, the elections passed line of fortifications between Parma and over without serious disturbance, and on Piacenza, while Radetsky invested Man- the 4th of May the National Assembly, tua, Verona and Peschiera. Parma took about 800 in number, met together in advantage of this state of affairs, to force Paris, and commenced the labor of organa liberal Constitution from its Duke, and izing a Constitution, Lamartine, Arago, in Modena a Provisional Government was Garnier-Pages, Marie, and Ledru-Rollin, declared.
having been elected as an Executive The King of Bavaria abdicated his Council, to administer the Government.throne on the 22d of the month, in favor The disturbances occasioned by the deof his son, Maximilian II. Four days af- sign of the Council to abolish the National terward, the Duchies of Schleswig and Workshops, and other causes, increased Holstein declared themselves free of al- nevertheless, and on the 15th of May the legiance to Denmark, and were insured National Assembly was invaded by & of the protection of Prussia. In Ireland, large body of rioters headed by Barbès, as a means of checking the revolutionary Blanqui, and others. The Assembly was spirit, the Government caused the arrest declared to be dissolved, and the mob proof O'Brien, Mitchel and Meagher on the ceeded to the Hotel de Ville to form a 22d of March, on a charge of sedition.- new Provisional Government, where they These proceedings created a great ex- were surrounded by the National Guard citement among the people, who in many and arrested. This was the second crisis (listricts were in a starving and desperate in the history of the Republic. condition. The greatest anxiety at this In Italy, the army of Charles Albert, time, however, was felt in regard to the augmented by troops from all parts of Chartists' movement in England. Their Italy, continued to gain advantages over meetings had been revived, and a system the Austrian forces. By the 28th of April of organization adopted, which excited it had broken the Austrian line in three great alarm. The 10th of April was fixed places and advanced to Vallegio ; on the upon for the presentation of their monster 4th of May the King crossed the Adige, petition to Parliament, and in anticipation and on the 18th commenced the siege of of an outbreak, upward of 50,000 Special Peschiera. Gen. Nugent, whose forces Constables were enrolled and large bodies I had threatened Venice, now effected a