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(NOVEMBER 1st, 1845.)

EXECUTIVE-PRESIDENT AND CABINET: SJAMES K. POLK, of Tennessee, President ........

ssee, President .......................... Salary $25,000) SGEORGE M. DALLAS, of Pennsylvania, Vice-President ...,

6,000 SJAMES BUCHANAN, of Pennsylvania, Secretary of State ............ 6,000 SROBERT J. WALKER, of Mississippi, Secretary of the Treasury....

6,000 WILLIAM L. MARCY, of New York, Secretary of War.....

6,000 GEORGE BANCROFT, of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Navy...... 6,000 JOHN Y. MASON, of Virginia, Attorney-General...

4,000 ICAVE JOHNSON, of Tennessee, Postmaster-General............

6,000

JUDICIARY-SUPREME COURT. ROGER B. TANEY, of Maryland, Chief Justice.... Salary $5,000. SAMUEL Nelson, of N. Y. Associate Justice. JAMES M. WAYNE, of Ga. Associate Justice. LEVI WOODBURY, of N. H.

John McKINLEY, of Ala. SJOLN MCLEAN, of Ohio,

WILLIAM CATRON, of Tenn. - , of Penn.

(PETER V. DANIEL, of Va. (Salary of Associate Justices, $4,500

Major-General of the Army-WINFIELD SCOTT, of New-Jersey.

KENTUCKY.

. 1847 James A MARYLAND. --.185) HOPE

| Reverdy Johnson ........... 1849 James

X XI Xth CONGRESS.
Assembled December 1st. 1845; Expires March 3d, 1847.

SENATE.
GEORGE M. DALLAS, of Pennsylvania, President.
Members. Term expires. Members. Term expires. | Members. Term expires.
MAINE.
DELAWARE.

TENNESSEE. (George Evans .............1847) Thomas Clayton ...........1847 Spencer Jarnagin ..........1847 John Fairfield .............1851 John M. Clayton ...........185) Hopkins L. Turney........1851

NEW-HAMPSHIRE, ? (Vacancy.) .. .1847 James A. Pearce............1819 Jam

......1849 James T. Morehead .........1847 Charles G. Atherton .......1849 Reverdy Johnson ...........1851 John J. Crittenden .........1849 VERMONT. VIRGINIA.

OHIO. > William Upham............1849 William S. Archer ..........1847 William Allen .............1849 Samuel s. Phelps ...........1851 (One vacancy.)

Thomas Corwin ............1851
MASSACHUSETTS.
NORTH CAROLINA.

INDIANA.
Daniel Webster ............

...1847 Willie P. Mangum .........1847 Edward A. Hannegan......1849 John Davis ................1851 Wm. H. Haywood, Jr......1849 One vacancy. RHODE ISLAND, SOUTH CAROLINA.

ILLINOIS. James F. Simmons..........1847] Daniel E. Huger ...........1847|James Semple.....

..1847 Albert C. Greene ..... .....1851 George McDuffie...........1849 Sidney Breese.............1849 CONNECTICUT.

GEORGIA,

MISSOURI. John M. Niles ..............1849 J

...1849 John McP Berrien .........1847|David R. Atchison .........18497 Jabez W. Huntington ......1851 Walter T. Colquitt. ........1849 Thomas H. Benton.........1851 NEW-YORK. ALABAMA.

ARKANSAS. John A. Dix ...............1847 Dixon H. Lewis............1847|Chester Ashley............1847) Daniel S. Dickinson ........1851 Arthur P. Bagby...........1849 Ambrose H. Sevier ........1849) NEW JERSEY. MISSISSIPPI.

MICHIGAN. SJacob W. Miller............1847rone vacancy.)

William Woodbridge .......1847) | William L. Dayton .........1851 Jesse Speight...

1851 Lewis Case ................1851 PENNSYLVANIA,

FLORIDA, Simon Cameron ...........1849 Alexander Barrow.......... 1847 David Levy .........

Daniel Sturgeon ...........18511 Henry Johnson ............1849 James D. Westcott ....... ? [Whigs, in Italics, 24; Locos, in Roman, 26. The Loco-Focos having a majority on joint ballot ins (the Legislatures of the States of New Hampshire, Virginia, as well as Mississippi and Indiana, where vacancies exist, calculate on 4 more Senators--making 30 in all, and a clear majority of 6.

Alexander LOUISIAN".*....1851/

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s (Whigs in Italics ; Locos in Roman; Natives in SMALL CAPS. Total Whigs, 76; Locos, 135; Na{tives, 6. Vacancies, 4. Mississippi (4) yet to elect.

THE TARIFF QUESTION.

10

The imposition of a Tariff, or schedule of (ral and intolerable distress. The old · Conti-) (varying duties on articles imported into the nental' paper had fallen into utter discredit?

United States from foreign countries, was one and worthlessness; the Specie had been
Sof the earliest acts of the first Congress which drained away to pay for Foreign fabrics,
assembled under the Federal Constitution. wbile scarcely anything produced in our
(In the preamble to that act, it is asserted that country would justify the expense of its trans->
\the Protection of Domestic Manufactures is mission to a foreign market, and general de
Jone of its objects, and to this no objection ap- solation and despair prevailed. The evils sos
Spears to have been made from any quarter. keenly felt on all sides overruled the dread>
The mechanics and tradesmen of New-York, and dislike of a more powerful central Gov-}
Boston, Baltimore and other portions of the ernment cherished by a majority of the lead-
Union had urgently and with apparent una-ing minds of that day, especially evinced by
Snimity petitioned Congress to levy duties for Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and Georges

this purpose, and so arrest the tide of exces-Clinton. An adequate and beneficent Na-
(sive and ruinous importation, which, during tional Currency and Protection to Home In-S
the absolute Free Trade (on our side) which dustry were so urgently needed, so generally
existed under the old Confederation from desired, that abstract notions of State Inde-
1783 to 1789, had inundated our ports with pendence yielded to the pressing demand for
foreign fabrics, deprived our artisans and la- the benefits to be derived only from a Fede-
borers of employment and bread, drained the ral Government competent in itself to guard
country of specie, paralyzed its industry and the interests and guide the destinies of the
Sbusiness, and rendered impossible even the entire Confederacy.
collection of taxes. The inability of the Con- Protection to Home Industry was proudly
{gress of the Confederation to levy duties with-borne on the banners of the friends of the
Sout the express concurrence of all the States Federal Constitution, at their great festival

was one of the prime incitements to the more held in this city to celebrate its adoption
(intimate Union established by the Constitution in 1789. It was the key which opened the

of 17879. The old Congress attempted to popular heart for the reception and defence)
Slevy a small revenue duty to provide for the of that instrument which made us truly as
payment of at least the interest on the Debt Nation. Its advantages and necessity were
incurred in the Revolution. The States gene. ably set forth by Alexander Hamilton, Wash-
rally assented to a measure of such obvious ington's Secretary of the Treasury, in his
necessity and justice, but little Rhode Island elaborate Report on Manufactures, 1790. It
Yobjected, being then largely engaged in for- was clearly sanctioned by Gen. Washingtons
Peign commerce, and her veto defeated the and the first Federal Congress, in the Tariff
measure throughout. Meanwhile, the abso- then adopted. True, the experimental Tarifi
lute inability of the People to pay their debts then adopted was generally a low one, but
Yand taxes, for want of any adequate circulat- some of the duties were far higher than the
ing mediam, led to an alarming popular out- average, and so made expressly for Protection,
break in Western Massachusetts, known as as the Debates abundantly establish. [For
/ Shays's Rebellion.' In New Hampshire, a abundant citations, see Mr. Choate's Speech
little previous, the Legislature sitting at Exe- on the subject, in Senate of the U. S. 1843–4.]
ter was surrounded by an armed mob, en- The expediency and necessity of counter-
deavoring to extort by intimidation the issue vailing the restrictive Tariffs of other Nations
Sof a State Paper Currency to relieve the gene-linjuriously affecting our own staples were

al

forcibly set forth by Mr. Jefferson in his Re-1and found our Industry as ill prepared as Sport on the subject as Secretary of State in our Arms for the deadly encounter. We had

1793. The general necessity of Protection to scarcely any Manufactures—we had hitherto? Home Industry, apart from all consideration purchased the better part of our Clothing from Sof the policy of foreign powers, is distinctly the very nation which we now grappled in maintained in the Letters and Messages of phrenzied hostility, and whose cruisers were Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, J. about to seal our coast against the approach SQ. Adams and Jackson, [for which see Slade's of any other vessels from abroad except at?

Speech, Ho. of Reps. Dec. 20, 1841, Am. La-their utmost peril. Although possessing the
Sborer, p. 6 to 22, or Whig Almanac, of 1843 ;] finest and amplest Cotton-growing soil in the
{in the Speeches, &c. of John C. Calhoun, Dr. world, with unsurpassed facilities for the pro-
SThomas Cooper, and other ultra-Southern duction of Wool, Flax, Hemp and Silk, wel

Statesmen who have more recently appeared were producing none of them but the two
Zas champions of Free Trade ; and in the former, and of these our Wool at least was
SMessages of George Clinton, D. D. Tompkins, inadequate in quantity and inferior in quality.
De Witt Clinton, W. L. Marcy, Wm. H. A state of war is necessarily of uncertain du-
Seward and other eminent Governors of the ration and most unfavorable to the commence?
State of New-York. (For citations, see Ame-ment of new industrial enterprises requiring a
Srican Laborer, pages 149–151.]

large outlay before any return can be real> But the breaking out of the great Europeanized. Labor and materials are then expen{wars consequent on the French Revolution sive, and the able-bodied men of the country} Sdiverted, to a great extent, the attention of are wanted in the fleets and the armies, in

our people from the building up of a self-sus-building ships, forts, &c. or in the production Staining and symmetrical system of Home In- of the means of sustenance for those or of de->

dustry and Home Markets. Our Maritime struction for their foes. Yet so great was the 3population found a lucrative though precari- scarcity of materials for Clothing in 1811-12) ous employment in the carrying trade be- and subsequently, that our Government, it is? tween the hostile nations, while our Agricul- stated, was compelled to send clandestinelys Sture was stimulated by the high prices readily to England for the means of clothing the

paid in Europe for food for the vast arma- troops they were about to raise with the inSments constantly maintained. In the excite- tent of fighting that country, obtaining the ment created by the prospect of immediate needed supplies under the pretence of pur-> and large gains, the idea of laying broad and chasing 'Indian blankets' to fulfil treaty stipSdeep the foundations of permanent and as-ulations with our Western savages. Cloths

sured prosperity was overlaid and practically now commanded such exorbitant prices that? Sdiscarded. The frequent and ruinous inter- if the People had really been compelled by a

ruptions of our profitable foreign pursuits by stringent Protection to pay more for them Borders in Council, Berlin and Milan Decrees, during the twenty preceding years, as the Yunjustifiable Embargoes, illegal confiscations, Free-Traders contend, they would have re

and the various resorts of powers unscrupu-ceived it all back again in the far lower prices) Slous in their hostility to each other and in their during the War which their Home Produc->

envy of our fortune, were treated as disagree-tion under seasonable encouragement would Sable accidents, and failed to make their legit- have inevitably secured. Now the business)

imate impression on the public mind. At of Manufacturing was hastily rushed into unSlength, the tempest of War burst upon our der the temptation held out by the high prices) Sown shores a war which would never have of Cloths, without experience, without proZoccurred had our pursuits and our policy been per machinery or artisans, for the War would Sas little dependent on Foreiga interests, ne- not allow us to obtain them. Some made cessities or caprices as they should have been money, or thought thoy did, in the business ;)

18

but far more had but just completed the in-| Strenuous efforts were made at the long?
vestment of all they had and all they could Sessions in 1820 and '22 respectively to ren-
get credit for in mills and factories when der the Tariff more Protective ; and in the
(Peace came to blast their sanguine expecta- House they were rendered successful by the
Stions. The War duties and the War block-great ability and popularity of the Speaker,
ades were at an end; the contents of British HENRY CLAY, who, from his first entrance)
warehouses, including the accumulated refuse into Congress, and even before, in the Ken->
of former years, were heaped upon our shores tucky Legislature, had signalized himself as
sin reckless profusion and sold at any price- a champion of Protection to Home Industry
British fabrics being advertised at Boston to He was ably supported by Messrs. Tod and
be sold “pound for pound'—that is, $3.33 in Baldwin of Pa. and other advocates of the
Boston, duty paid, for what had cost $4.44 in true policy, but the bills failed in the Senate,
England—and our infant manufactories were through a union of the Commercial and Plant->
Soverwhelmed and crushed at once. It was ing interests, by a very close vote. In 1824,3
openly avowed by Lord Brougham in the the effort was renewed, and this time with
(British Parliament that the destruction of our success. A decided accession of National
Manufactures was an object of National so- prosperity was soon visible, though interrupt-
licitude. An appeal to the Congress of 1816 ed in the commercial sections by the insane
Selicited much excellent talk in favor of Pro-Cotton speculations which soon followed. In
tectien, but no adequate action corresponding 1828, a farther revision of the Tariff was had,
(thereto. On coarse Cottons (by means of the rendering it still more thoroughly Protective.
minimum, or principle of estimating all fab-The whole Union, except possibly the exclu-
(rics to have cost at least twenty cents the sively Cotton-planting region, felt the benefi->
square yard, and charging duties according- cent impulse given to Industry and Business
Sly) a sufficient duty was levied, and so on a generally by this act, and continued to feel its
few other descriptions of coarse manufac- so long as the vitality of the act remained.
tures. Generally, however, only low ad va- But South-Carolina attempted to nullify it; as
Slorem duties were imposed, which would not civil war appeared imminent; and a Congress)
sustain existing establishments against a ruin- assembled (1832–3) of which the majority of
Sous Foreign competition, much less call into the dominant party were hostile to Protection.
Sexistence the new branches imminently need-Mr. Verplanck, from the Committee of Ways!
Jed by the country. The consequence was a and Means of the House, had reported a bills
general prostration of the Manufacturing in- making a most sweeping change in the Tarifi
terest, followed in natural order by an ex- and destroying its Protective features entirely.
(treme depression of the prices of nearly all Mr. Clay, then in the Senate, and prominent)

Agricultural staples, so that the seven years in the councils of the Whig party, saw noz
{from 1819 to 1825 inclusive exhibited the low- reason for having a desolating civil war on
Jest average prices of those staples ever known account of the Protective principle, which
in America. The large class of farmers who was to be utterly abandoned as soon as the
Shad purchased lands during the War or other carnage was complete. He proposed a Com
1 periods of Agricultural prosperity and were promise, by which the existing Tariff was tos
(still in debt for a good part of them, were be gradually reduced through the ten suc-
fruined inevitably. There were townships if ceeding years, until it should reach the uni-s
not counties in New-England in which every form standard of twenty per cent. ad valorem;
fourth farmer was a bankrupt, and his farm at not as formerly twenty per cent on the For.)
the mercy of the Sheriff. Such was our sec- leign value of the articles imported, but twenty
Yond fair experiment of comparative Free per cent. on their value in this country,

Trade,--that under the Confederacy having which is a very different thing. This propo-,
Sbeen the first.

Isition was accepted by South-Carolina and by

they

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