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want of qualification as a clerk. Wilson o. Cott. man, Md. Ct. App. June 1886: 22 Rep. 335.

evidence to charge a purchaser of the note before maturity with notice that there has been a partial payment on the note. If anything appears to a party calculated to attract attention or stimulate inquiry, the person is affected with knowledge of all that the inquiry would have disclosed. Notice to an attorney of any matter relating to the business in which he is engaged for his client, is notice to the client. Where an attorney sold a note to a person who was occasionally his client, and such attorney, acting for the purchaser, investigated the title to the land on which the note was secured by a mortgage, and was afterwards employed by the purchaser to bring suit on, and collect the note; it was held, to be some evidence that the attorney was acting for the purchaser in the sale of the note. (Dnpree v. Ins. Co., 92 N. C. 417; Bunting v. Ricks, 2 Dev. & Bat. Eq. 130, cited and approved.) Hulbert v. Douglas, S. C. N. C., 1886; 1 Ga. Rep. 652.

33. SURETYSHIP-Guardian's Bond-Final Settle

ment.-In an action upon a guardian's bond for the recovery of the amount found due the wards after a final settlement of the guardian's accounts in the probate court, the sureties are concluded by the settlement, and will not be heard, in the ab. sence of fraud and collusion, to question its correctness, or to demand a rehearing of the accounts. Braiden v. Mercer, S. C. Ohio, June 1, 1886; 22 R. 340.

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30. PLEADING Evidence -- Judgments Amend

ments-Judicial Discretion-Lis Pendens-Abatement-Judgment.-A stipulation signed by the parties, and filed in an action, whereby it was admitted and agreed that the amount in controversy was involved in another action, and that the matters in the action, and the claim of plaintiff therein, should enter into and abide the event of such other suit, is admissible in evidence in support of a plea in bar of the judgment in such other action, notwithstanding such stipulation has not been specially pleaded. The allowance of amendments to pleadings is a matter within the discretion of the trial court, which has the power to permit the same at any stage of the trial, when necessary to the purposes of justice. Under the circumstances stated in this case, held, that there was no abuse of discretion in permitting the amendment of an answer by setting up the pendency of another action at the end of the trial, and before judgment. Where an action has been commenced for an counting, and subsequently one or more items of the account are made the subject of a separate suit between the same parties, a defense of prior lis pendens, set up in the latter suit, is good. Where judgment is rendered for defendant in an action, on his plea that the action is barred by the judgment in another suit, the proper order should be that the action abate, and not that the plaintiff take nothing by his action, and the defendant recover costs. * Conbrough v. Adams, S. C. Cal. Aug. 2, 1886; 11 Pac. Rep. 634.

34. TRADE-MARKS--Arbitrary Numbers-Quality-

Origin.-Arbitrary numbers, (viz. 30, 111, etc.,) not already known to the trade, and in use by others to indicate quality, may be appropriated to his exclusive use by a manufacturer, and they will be protected as trade-marks, if used to indicate ori. gin. American, etc. Co. v. Anthony, S. C. R. I.,

July 3, 1886; 3 Atl. Rep. 626. 35. TRESPASS--Liability for Others ActsState

Lands- Tresspass With Agent's Permission.Persons who without power authorize others to commit trespasses will themselves be held liable in damages for the injuries suffered. Where persons in charge of State lands consent that others may go upon them and commit trespasses thereon, they will be liable in damages for injuries done to the State. State v. Smith, S. J. Ct. Me. May 25, 1886;

22 Rep. 332. 36. USURY-Executor-Illegal Bonus for Loan of

Estate Funds.-Deed of Trust.-Where the executor of an estate, who was also president of a bank, loaned $16,000 of the funds of the estate, receiving therefor, a promissory note for said amount, secured by a deed of trust, and thereupon deposited in the bank to the credit of the maker of the note $15,000, taking a credit for himself of $1,000, as a bonus from the maker of the note in consideration of the loan; held, that the executor was trustee of the estate; tbat the contract for the bonus was illegal; and that a deduction of $1,000 must be made from the face of the note. Under Rev. St. Mo. $ 1008, the tender of payment, where no deposit is made in court, will not release the security created by a deed of trust for the amount due at the time the tender was made, but only stop the running of interest thereaftet. Landis v. Saxton, S. C. Mo., June 21, 1886; 1 S. W. R. 359.

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31. SALE- Warranty-Notice of Defect- Waiver

Notice by-Agent of Seller-Notice by Mail.-Upon a condition in a warranty of an agricultural machine that written notice, stating wherein the machine fails to satisfy the warranty, is to be immediately given by the purchaser to the seller at Battle Creek, Michigan, (the machine being sold in Minnesota,) and reasonable time allowed to get to it and remedy the defect, unless it is of such a nature that the seller can advise by letter, held, that the seller might waive the written notice. Also, that the purchaser might give the notice by agent, writing in his behalf, and for that purpose might select as his agent one who, was agent for the seller. Also that the notice might be given by properly mailing it. Nichols v. Root, S. C. Minn. July 7, 1886; 29 N. W. Rep. 160.

37. WILL-Contesting Probate- Testamentary Ca.

pacity-Question for Determination-EvidenceCrazy.—In an issue devisavit vel non, the precise question for determination is whether or not the testator's mind was sufficiently sound to enable him to know and to understand the business in which he was engaged at the time when he ex. ecuted the will. To charge the jury that testimony that testator was not competent to make a will amounts to nothing, when the witnesses do not testify that testator was crazy, which would have been evidence, is error. Shaver v. McCarthy, S. C. Penn. 5 Atl. Rep. 614.

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32. SLANDER--Of a Clerk--Actionable Words.-An

employer will be liable in slander to his clerk for words spoken of him which impute to him any

sum paid by him or only the $1,000, amount received by A.?

H. P. R.

QUERIES ANSWERED.

age, to pay the whole of the estate to her, or such portions of it as in their judgment should seem most beneficial. In case the daughter should die before eighteen, he disposed of his estate by various bequests over. The daughter was never married, and died at twenty-three. The trustees had never paid over the estate to her, acting, in withholding the same, according to their best judgment, and she had never demanded it. Held, that the estate vested in the daughter when she was eighteen, at least. Weatherhead v. Stoddard, S. C. Vt., August 18, 1886; 5 Atl. R. 517.

Query 10. [23 Cent. L. J. 70.)-A. loses his house, wbich was insured, by fire. The Insurance Company believed that A. either did or procured the burning thereof, refuses payment of loss. A. sues to recover the amount claimed under th policy. The company answers, setting up as their defense A's guilt in regard to the fire. What is the quantity of proof required at the company's hands to release it from liability? Must it establish A's guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt," as would be required of the State in a criminal prosecution for the crime, or must it simply show it by “the preponderance of testimony," only, as is the rule in other civil cases?

39.

Probate Jurisdiction Contest Depositions Almissibility Proof of NonResidence of Witnesses - Wills Execution of Validity.- A petition for the probate of a will need not state whether it is an olographic or other species of will, nor will any defect of form, or in the statement of the jurisdictional facts actually existing, make void the probate of a will; but the court is to admit the will to probate or not, under all the facts shown in evidence. On the contest of a will, where the tribunal found against the contestants on all the issues raised by them, the fact that it also found upon an issue not embraced in the pleadings of the contest, or that in such case there was no finding declaring the will valid as olographic, will not affect the validity of the probate of the will. Parties cannot complain on appeal of error in the court below, in the admission of depositions without the preliminary proof that the persons whose depositions were offered resided out of the county where the cause was tried, if, at the time of offering the depositions, the party presenting them also offered to prove the fact of such non-residence, and such fact was then admitted without proof by the opposing party. A will, made and executed by a testator in accordance with section 1277 of the California Civil Code, is pot invalid because made and executed by him anterior to the time when such section became operative, if the testator did not die until the statute referred to had gone into effect. In re Learned, S. C. Cal., July 13, 1886; 11 Pac. R. 589.

Answer:-The question has frequently arisen, and been decided by the courts. Authorities are collected in May on Insurance (2d ed.), $ 583; also, 2 Greenleaf on Evidence (14th ed.), $ 408, note h. See also, Monaghan v. Agricultural Fire Ins. Co. 18 N. W. Rep. (N. S.) 797. In England it was held that the presumption of innocence must be rebutted by equally strong proof in a civil as in a criminal case; but while this view has heen followed here and there in this country, it is generally rejected. The so-called presumption of innocence" is not so much a presumption as a positive rule of law which prescribes that wben a man is accused of crime, and his life or liberty placed in jeopardy, the charge shall be proved beyond reasonable doubt. The rule was established in favor of life and liberty, nor does it obtain when these are not involved. In a civil case there is no such presumption as in a criminal case, and if the defendant makes out his defence by a preponderance of evidence he cannot be denied his civil rights merely because it happens to be disagreeable to the plaintiff to be stigmatized as a criminal, although no legal penalty can follow. W.W.C.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS.

40. WITNESS--Cross-Examination-Limit of -De

nial of Charge.--Where a party to a suit denies the principal allegation or charge made against him, in his direct examination, he thereby lays bimself liable to a cross-examination upon every circumstance or transaction with which he was connected, which may tend to establish the allegation or charge. Pullex v. Pullen, N, J. Ct. Ch., Sept. 9, 1886; 5 Atl. Rep. 639.

THE AMERICAN DECISIONS, Containing the Cases of

General Value and Authority Decided in the Courts of the Several States from the Earliest Issue of the State Reports to the Year 1869. Compiled and Annotated by A. C. Freeman, Counsellor at law, and Author of “Treatise on the Law of Judgments," “Co-tenancy and Partition," "Executions in Civil Cases,” etc. Vols, LXXIII and LXXIV. San Francisco: B'incroft-Whitney, Company, Law Publishers, Booksellers and Stationers 1836.

The issue of these volumes has been somewhat de. layed, in consequence, as we learn of the recent misfortune by fire of the publishers. In our last number we noticed the receipt of two later volumes, 75 and 76. We can add nothing to what we then said in commendation of the series, except that these volumes in typography and otherwise are fully up to the high standard of the collection.

QUERIES AND ANSWERS.* Correspondents are requested to draw up their answers in the form in which we print them, and not in the form of letters to the editor. They are also admonished to make their answers as bries as may be.-Ed.]

QUERIES. 24. A. sells a town lot to B. for $1,000; before the deed is given, B. sells to C. for $1,500. By an arrangement between A. and B. to which C. is not a party, the deed runs from A. to C. direct, and names the consideration as $1,500. C. is not informed of the actual amount received by A. The title fails and C. is ousted. In an action by C. against A. upon the covenants of warranty in A.'s deed, can C. collect the $1,500 actua

JETSAM AND FLOTSAM.

NOT OF THAT KIND.-"Was your husband on the stand yesterday?" asked the lawver of a woman in a case in which husband and wife were witnesses. “No," she answered with a snap, “he wasn't on the

stand. He was on the set. That's the kind of a man he is, whenever there is anything to set on, from a satin sofy to the top rail of a worm fence.”

ABOUT THE SUIT-Lawyer (to timid young woman) _"Have you ever appeared as witness in a suit before?

Young Woman (blushing)—“Y-yes, sir, of course."

Lawyer—"Please state to the jury just what suit it was."

Young wonian (with more confidence)-"It was a nun's veiling, shirred down the front and trimmed with a lovely blue, with hat to match."

Judge (rapping violently)—“Order in the court!”

IN THE OLD ATTORNEY'S OFFICE.--"Well, what can I do for you, ladies, this morning ?

“Why, I want to see if I can get a divorce from my husband,” said the sharp-nosed, thin-lipped one. “What are your grounds for a divorce?"

“Well, he's been with some other woman. I reckon that's enough; and I've got this lady to prove that she heard him, as well as I did, say that at a certain time he was wrapt in the arms of Morpheus.”

“Umph, Morpheus isn't any woman; it's"

“Ye can't fool me. Ye wouldn't catch him wrapt in the arms of any man. I know him, and I'll be durned if you can't get me a divorce I'll go to a Chicago lawyer, where I know I'll get it. Good-bye.”

with holy water and making them drink, presented them with the gospels to kiss, and then crossed them. The service of the mass was then begun,and from tha moment the fire was no more increased, but the iron was left on the embers until the last collect. That finished, the iron was raised, and prayers were addressed to the Deity to manifest the truth. Thereupon the accused took the iron in his band, and carried it the distance of nine feet; his hand was then bound up and the bandage sealed, and after three days iš was examined to ascertain whether or not it was impure; it being accounted impure, and therefore the accused to be guilty if it should turn out to have suppurated; if, on the other hand, the sore was found to be healthy, the accused was adjudged to be innocent. The ordeal by water consisted in the accused plunging his arm up to the wrist for inferior crimes, and up to the elbow for crimes of deeper dye, in a vessel filled with boiling water. The other proceedings were similar to those in an ordeal by fire.-Canada Law Journal.

MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE.-- The London Daily Tel. egraph gives an account of a case in which a very lamentable miscarriage of justice bas just been brought to light. It seems that a man, named David Wilby, who was sentenced to five years' penal servitude, for a robbery with violence, last February has been set free from Chatham Convict Prison "without a stain on his character.” He was employed as groom to a retired contractor, living in Ealing, and his master alleged that Wilby attacked him on a dark night and robbed him of a bag containing £180. Subsequently the prosecutor commited suicide, and at the inquest it was shown that his brain was diseased, and that he had been subject to hallucinations for several years. This fact, and the absence of any corroboration of the story of robbery, sufficed to induce the Home Secretary to send the convict back to his wife and children.

A Tight DECLARATION.-"The following declaratioe, drawn up by an Hibernian attorney, in an action of assault, is an impressive warning against loose methods of constructing pleadings. "The plaintiff further says, that on the night of the first of June the defendant herein came to this plaintiff's house and demanded admission in a noisy and boisterous manner, which admission this plaintiff refused to grant, being in fear of bodily harm; that the defendant notwithstanding continued to demand admission and pounded heavily on the door; that this plaintiff then opened an upper window and warned the defendant to go away, whereupon the said defendant pointed a loaded blunderbuss at this plaintiff, and told him that if he (the plaintiff) did not open the door he (the defendant) would send his soul to h--, which this plaintiff verily believes he would have done if he had not opened the game."--Ex.

We do not see anything loose in this declaration. On the contrary, we regard it as particularly “tight.” The plaintiff, wiser than some people are now-a-days, knew “where he was going to," and the attorney merely reproduced that knowledge in the declaration. The plaintiff's faith in bis destiny is a-kin to that of the gambler in a Mississippi steamboat wreck, who, at the ultimate moment, jumped overboard with the exclamation--"Now, gallows, save your own!"

“What is this man charged with?” asked the Judge. “With whisky, your Honor,” replied the sententious policeman.

A young lawyer in this city, who boasted that he had been engaged in the trial of an interesting liquor case, neglected to state that it was a case of cham pagne, which he and some companions had been try. ing the night before.

The money value of a wife's services above the food, clothing, and medicine, to which she is legally entitled from her husband, has just had a curious illustration in Rhode Island. During the civil war, William R. Cripps, of Newport, married Mrs. Elizabeth H. Thurston, whose husband was supposed to have been killed while serving in a Rhode Island regiment; but after the lapse of years the first husband re-appeared, and upon learning the state of things, married another woman. Cripps, a few months ago, turned his wife out of doors, refused to support her, and applied for a divorce, which the judge granted, as the marriage was illegal. The woman was destitute. A lawyer, J. P. Galvin, took her case in hand, and brought suit against Cripps for services rendered by his supposed wife as his housekeeper, and secured judgment in the sum of two thousand dollars.

ANCIENT PROCEDURE.-The trial by ordeal was a very ancient mode of trial, and seems to have been in existence in England so early as the reign of Ina; and we may conclude these somewhat discursive remarks by stating briefly how the trial by ordeal was conduct. ed according to the laws of Ina. The trial took place in a temple or church. A piece of iron, weighing not more than three pounds, was placed upon a tire, the fire being watched by two men, who placed themselves on either side of the iron, and who were to determine upon the degree of heat it ought to possess. As soon as they were agreed, two other men were introduced, who placed themselves at either extremity of the iron. All these witnesses passed the night fasting. At daybreak the priest who presided, after sprinkling them

OF

The Central Law Journal. protected property or money contracts, and

did not restrain the States in the regulation

of their civil institutions. This latter conST. LOUIS, OCTOBER 8, 1886.

cession was as the “letting out of water;"

under it all manner of licenses, State and CURRENT EVENTS.

municipal, and the vast, indefinite, indefina

ble “Police Power” of the States were emanTHE OBLIGATION

CONTRACTS. cipated from the operation of the constituIn October last Mr. Aldace F. Walker, tional restriction. Mr. Justice Bradley said: President of the Vermont Bar Association, “Legislative discretion as to the exercise of delivered before that body an address upon the police power can no more be bargained the Dartmouth College Case, and subsequent away than the power itself.” 4 Mr. Walker adjudications on the same clause of the Con enumerates in detail the successive adjudicastitution. That address, re-printed in a

tions by which this great, general, pervasive, pamphlet bearing the rather fantastic title, and beneficent constitutional provision has "A Legal Mummy,” is now before us. To been shorn of its power and restricted in its ward the close of his address he says of this operation. Upon its face, and in its terms, celebrated case: “In fact this historic cause

it included all contracts, but the Supreme has been embalmed in spices, and laid care

Court has decided that it does not include imfully away upon a shelf, like the corpse of an plied contracts, or contracts which do not Egyptian king.” It may, however, be ques “respect property or some object of value, tioned whether the rulings of that case are so and confer rights which may be asserted in a very dead, as Mr. Walker supposes, but it is court of justice.” It must succumb to the certainly true that the constitutional provision Police Power of the States, and affords no has been shorn by judicial construction of

protection against demands made in the name very much of its efficiency. The provision

of Eminent Domain. We have not the space is short, and apparently very simple. “No

to follow Mr. Walker through his long list of State shall pass any law impairing the Obli- adjudications, each of which clips off somegation of Contracts." No ten words in the thing from the efficacy of the provision, and language have occasioned so much contro

but for three recent cases in which its vitality versy. If the matter were res integra there

is asserted,' we would be ready to believe, would seem to be no difficulty. There are

with Mr. Walker, that the constitutional probut two questions latent in the provision. vision, and the "great historic cause” in What is a contract, and what is its obligation?

which it is expounded, are as dead as PtolThe answer to the first would be, that a con

emy Philadelphus. All these modifications tract is an agreement of two or more compe

of our organic law have, no doubt, been rentent persons, for a consideration, reciprocally,

dered necessary or expedient by the changes to do, or abstain from doing, stipulated wrought by time and progress, but we are of things. The obligation of a contract is the

the opinion that they are of too radical a naduty of the parties to it, to perform or fulfil

ture to have been appropriately accomplished it according to its terms. In the first case

by judicial construction, but should have involving this clause of the Constitution, in

been effected by constitutional amendment. 1810, the Supreme Court held, in effect, that

We fully recognize the fact that the wisdom the clause in question meant precisely what

of one generation may well become utter it said, and included all contracts, executed

folly in the next—that all human institutions

should be made to conform to the progresand executory.? In 1819, in the Dartmouth College Case, the fons et origo of the subse

sive spirit of the age-we only insist that all quent stream of adjudications, the court made

changes should he made in the proper mantwo concessions; that the Constitution only

4 Boston Beer Company v. Massachusetts, 97 U.S. 25. 1 Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 5 New Orleans etc. Co v. Louisiana etc. Co., 115 U. S. Wheat. 518.

650; New Orleans Water Works v. Rivers, 115 U. S. ? Fletcher v. Peck, 6 Cranch. 87.

674; Louisville Gas Co. v. Citizens Gas Co. 115 U. S. Supra. Vol. 23.-No. 15.

3

683.

ness.

ner and by the prescribed authority. With erty. “I have never realized,” said Judge this proviso, we fully concur with Sydney Shipman, "what a help it is to have a good Smith, who said, doubtless in view of the om counsel in matters of deeds and settlement nipotence of Parliament: “Whenever a man of business matters until yesterday. Such talks to me about an unalterable law, the only men are valuable partners in a firm's busiimpression he makes upon me is that he is an

I have just settled an estate or found unalterable fool.”

it all settled by a joint deed which left a fine property to the wife without any court proceedings-simply by looking ahead in sea

son.'' FEES AND PRACTICE.—The following excel

These two men have grown eminent and lent article was written by Mr. Donovan, at

well-off by kind, fair, and ingenious treatthe request, made through this office, by one

ment of clients—many others drive away cusof our subscribers, a Minnesota lawyer, who tom by overcharging and carelessness. If desired to know how one should fix his fees the example of the first named is a lesson, it and yet retain his clients. ED. C. L. J. is certainly a wise one. But every one must A learned and able advocate, lately sent

use his own weapons. One may be small, on a foreign mission after a fine career in

like Spurgeon—then let him be as earnest practice, in which he acquired a fortune, once

and he will approach this wonderful speaker. told me that he began by low fees and guaged

Another may be plain and practical, with few his charges in proportion to the ability of the

gifts of oratory or eloquence-such men are client to pay and the benefit derived from his

more useful as judges or corporation counsel. services. His method of stating his bill was

Still another may be poor and just struggling quite taking. To the question of "How

for a foot-hold-let him use the ladder of inmuch will that be?” he would say ; “It will

tegrity, for it will soon bear him higher, while depend very much on the work required, say

the quality of his work, the extent of his ac$50 a day, with one day in advance for look

quaintance, must influence his business. It ing up the facts before trial.” "I will give may be he can form in the procession by joinyou a receipt for a part of it now if conven

ing a firm and watching for an opening. If ient.” Thus he decided for the halting cli- ingenious and determined that will help him. ent and settled the whole matter; striking

Let him make an honest measure of his abilwhile the iron was hot and pleasing his cus

ity and go forward on the right road in contomer. Ten dollars for justice cases, and $30

fidence. per day for the Circuit and $50 for Supreme

Practice is always precarious, for a few Court, with extra for outside cases, were his

years at least, and never afterwards if one is first fees in a city practice—à fair rate for

prepared for it. It is the beginning that young lawyers.

counts in law, letters, or farming. As a tree In fixing counsel fees he was equally skill

grows larger from all branches, so law busi

ness increases by the good name given you by full. “We'll make it $10—if that will be about right!” or “You may write me a check

your clients. Live and labor for a good name and

you for a hundred,” or “You may leave me $5,

will find it a fee, a retainer, and if you have it handy," in such a mild form

fortune. Don't give up too easily. In your

section-in the great Northwest, are firms his money would be cheerfully paid over and he never failed to treat the subject with deli

forming contracts to make, wills to draw,

men to defend, money to handle. Mingle cate courtesy-leaving room to revise his

with the world with frankness—the friendly charges if required by a stubborn client, but

will have friends everywhere—and success degenerally saying to such, “O, yes, certainly,

pends on how many you can grapple to you you can hire such lawyers, but I am too busy

with hooks of steel. Every man that gives at present to take very low priced practice.” This is an instance of a wise man's course.

you a good name is a client.

J. W. Donovan. Law practice opens many doors of paying business outside of court rooms-he took advantage of them and bought and sold prop

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