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grade of science. Domestic economy and nutrition, sanitation, personal hygiene and many other clearly established branches of science, now stand ready to furnish woman with such a technical equipment for her life work as every man deems essential for his.
And yet, to-day, the majority of women's colleges stand aloof from these sciences to a remarkable degree. To a woman whose eagerness for a full equipment is born of her realization of its necessity, they seem fairly perverse in their studied avoidance of them. They will teach her languages of any known degree of antiquity, that she may be cultured; they will guide her through a maze of metaphysic, that she may learn to argue with subtlety; they will teach her art and architecture, science and mathematics, anything or everything, provided only that at no point does it too intimately concern itself with the concrete future before her. She may, for example, learn in detail how the German tribes lived, how they dressed, what they ate and drank, because that has outlived the offense of being utilitarian, and can be dignified by the name of Germanic antiquities; but how she herself and those dependent upon her should live-ah, that is a different matter, which has acquired not even the flavor of culture.
It is seemingly in vain for a woman to plead before the bar of the ordinary woman's college that she must know her future work in its technical aspect, since the material and mental welfare of a certain number of human beings waits on her knowledge. It is seemingly in vain for her to argue that general culture and ripened intellectual power do not in themselves furnish the concrete solution to the concrete problems which are set for her to answer. It is in vain that she points out that in spite of her culture and her education she constitutes to-day, by her ignorance of material values, one of the most serious sources of waste in the economic world, inasmuch as she is the purchasing agent for that most important unit of society, the family, which through her childlike ignorance is put at the mercy of the butcher, the baker and the candlestick maker. The untrained woman wastes on a conservative average twentyfive per cent of the purchasing power of the money of which
she has the spending, because she has, for example, no scientific knowledge of foods, their nutritive values, their varied and economic preparations, their qualities; because she has so little knowledge of clothing materials, their structure, composition and wearing qualities. In woman's unfitness for this form of her work lies the incentive to shoddiness, which taints the reputation of many American manufactures.
In material things the results of such ignorance are lamentable enough; but when the health, strength and happiness of the family are at issue, then it is well-nigh criminal. To the arms of a college educated woman a baby comes. Instantly begins the demand for concrete physiological knowledge. Anguished by the sense of her impotence, many a woman would fling away with one hand a goodly share of her academic knowledge, if with the other she might but grasp a few of those definite scientific facts which would teach her the ways of strong and healthful living.
In intrusting the most formative period of her life to the college, she has accepted, for better or for worse, its decision as to her training. If it elects to teach her as men are taught, and then bids her look for the technical training of her life work, not to a professional school, but to that school for which most women alone have time, life itself, then she must weigh well the question whether her college training has justified the heavy cost which the school of experience will exact of her ignorance.
Personally, I believe that it is worth the cost; that the knowledge and understanding of the broad outlines of human life which the college gives are so essential to the limited experience and view point of the average woman as to be of surpass-. ing value. And yet I believe none the less firmly that the time will come, and come right quickly, when in the woman's college general culture and careful scientific training for her life work will go hand in hand. Then the college woman graduate will add to the charm of the scholar and the skill of the teacher, the efficiency of the scientifically trained wife and mother. Then, and not until then, will the woman's college have established its full right to four of the most valuable years of a woman's life.
PROFESSOR WILLIAM WHITMAN BAILEY, PROVIDENCE, R. I.
B A HAT Nature's provision is in some cases vastly in
excess of her immediate needs may be exemplified at times in the fruit of the elm. These socalled “ seeds " litter our sidewalks and are the distraction of the housekeeper. They blow in at every open window, are tracked into the hallways, parlors and bedrooms, and enter in some way by
every chink and cranny.. The long-drawn aisle of the church even does not forbid them. A bushel-basketful could easily be gathered in one's back yard, where the wind drifts them about in heaps. And still they come.
As in the case of fish roe, the observer wonders what would happen if, say, but one half of them matured. The resultant grove would not leave standing room for man, in the case of the trees; and as regards the little fishes, he could cross the great ocean dry-shod. One tree, indeed, would colonize the earth, one fish people the everlasting seas. As a matter of fact, these little seeds or fruits are endowed with intense vitality. In ten days or less, if we have the usual amount of rain, they would be seen sprouting on our roofs, in our gutters, in flowerpots designed for other things, on front door mats, in chinks of pavement; in short, everywhere that the thin scale can insinuate itself.
“Look at the wasted seeds that autumn scatters;
The myriad germs that nature shapes and shatters." How many of the little creatures are produced that one may survive! What determines the selection of the favored ones? To us it often looks like blind chance, but the scientific mind is apt to exclude accident from a problem, or, at least to subordinate it to a wise design. All seeds have many enemies, for they are rich in food materials, starch, oil, sugar, as the case may be. The thin wafer of the elm appears to contain as little as any, but some of them are palatable even to man. This more so in certain foreign species.
We look with wonder at the sturdy oak as the product of the acorn. Still more marvelous, perhaps, is a giant elm. Says Dr. Holmes, “Nobody knows New England who is not on terms with one of its elms. The elm comes nearer to having a soul than any other vegetable creature among us. It loves man as man loves it. It is modest and patient. It has a small flake of a seed, which blows in everywhere and makes arrangements for coming up by and by. So, in spring, one finds a crop of baby elms among his carrots and parsnips, very weak and small compared to those succulent vegetables. The baby elms die, most of them slain, unrecognized or unheeded, by hand or hoe, as meekly as Herod's innocents. One of them gets overlooked, perhaps, until it has established a kind of right to stay. Three generations of carrot and parsnip consumers have passed away, yourself among them, and now let your great grandson look for the baby elm. Twenty-two feet of clear girth, three hundred and sixty feet in the line that bounds its leafy circle, it covers the boy with such a canopy as neither glossy-leaved oak nor insect-haunted linden ever lifted in the summer skies.”
The ovary of the elm is from one to two celled, each cell containing a single pendulous ovule. One of the cells aborts with its contents. The surviving ovule then usurps and occupies the remaining space, and the fruit is consequently one celled and one seeded. What we commonly call the “ seeds” are really the fruits—a sort of samara or hay-fruit, much like those possessed by ailantus, ash, box elder and maple. We mean like in function, not shape. The purpose of such winged fruits is in all cases to distribute the offspring outside the circle of immediate home influence. In the case of the elm there is a papery or membranaceous wing all around the seed, and a little notch in the apex. This papery part, especially in the wych-elm, is prettily veined. The fruition of the elm follows very quickly after the blooming of the tiny but charming brown flowers.
PROFESSOR FRANKLIN B. SAWVEL, GREENVILLE, PA.
each would do it in terms of individual observaU tion and inference, as the sandy, shell soil of
Lake Erie, the reddish brown limestone soil of the Cumberland Valley, the rich, dark walnut of Western Missouri, or the alluvium of the riyer valleys. . The same would be true in describing
uprightness of character; it would be in words which stand for certain definite qualities and states or conditions. So, in art, taking the well-known picture of Hoffman's “Christ Among the Doctors” to illustrate; the artist shows the physiognomy and the physiological embodiment of the Christ character in terms of the social, historical and religious experiences of mankind. In the midst of surprise, questioning doubt, taunting unbelief, Mosaic legalism and honest, open-minded inquiry, the artist painted a youth as the beginning of all knowledge, truth and virtue. Character is its message. The child-like, obedient, believing Christ character, which is not alone the embodiment of truth, but its reality, because he is the truth as well as the way and the life.
My contention is not for less mathematics, science and history, but for relatively more art; for less diversified, veneering science, focusing the work more on the essential or fundamental processes, and for increasing, by the time gained, the studies that make for beauty and symmetry. It is not all of life to exist, or to be president of a life insurance company, an oil gambling corporation, beef embalming trust or a politely veneered school-book trust.
The education of the conscience, and those nobler impulses that make for character and fidelity, for love of beauty and virtue for their own sakes, for the inner, higher sense of business integrity and honor is not keeping pace with the training of the intellect. And, again, not that the intellect as broadly understood has been exalted too much, but out of proportion to powers that are just as vital and deep seated in the process of mass building, society building and nation building. The