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the general college course, with specialization in economic and commercial courses. The commercial course may or may not, usually does not, represent a separate school. Some of these institutions introduce the particular commercial courses into all four years of the undergraduate course, some into the last three years, some into the last two only. In all the institutions organized on this general plan, the ideal of giving a cultural education remains dominant; and the ideal of promoting industrial efficiency secondary. The other type is represented by one institution which is organized on a different plan, with a different ideal. It presents all its strictly commercial courses in a compact mass in the graduate year. The ideal is to leave to the college the function of mental discipline, and then to take the mentally disciplined product of the college and concentrate its energy on technical training for business. Its dominant ideal is training for industrial efficiency. Accepting the work of the college in the matter of mental discipline, it makes its chief function that of training for business as for a highly specialized profession.

It is our belief that both of these types of institutions of higher commercial education will survive. That type which represents the undergraduate college course modified by the introduction of business courses, will survive because it is more efficient for its purpose than the college course not so modified, and because, not requiring as much preliminary training as the other type, it will be accessible to a larger body of men. That type which represents the professional or graduate idea will survive because, although its requirements of longer preliminary training will make it accessible to fewer men, it gives a more efficient training. The experience on which these assertions are based is not such as to make possible present statistical or other proofs; our experience, however, seems to warrant such positive assertions.

The present industrial régime, with its complex and delicate organization of business institutions in their relations with one another; with large institutions involving complex and delicate internal organization; a régime in which in every institution problems of management arise requiring quick and accurate solutions, will present an increasing demand for men of the quickness of mind and largeness of view and wide knowledge of details imparted by the training of the college and of the institution of higher commercial education.

RACHEL KENT FITZ, BOSTON, MASS.*
N this paper I shall confine myself to the ordinary
X college woman, the woman who has not entered

any of the professions, who has not in any wise
achieved distinction; and my excuse, if excuse
be needed, for thus limiting my subject, is that al-
though obscure, she is by the force of her numbers
and the importance of her work the typical col-

lege woman graduate. The professional woman graduate, moreover, is not in need of mention at my hands. She cannot escape being discovered, analyzed and compared, for she is too shining a mark; and yet she is the exception and not the rule. She is not, and never will be, the college woman graduate in any broad and general sense. Even our statistics, however little value they may have because of their youth, would seem to show conclusively that the professions at the present time are not largely recruited from among the ranks of college women.

The lists of alumnæ from two of our leading women's collegest, Smith and Radcliffe, for example, one of which has graduated 3,000 women, the other 800, show that out of the 3,800 women but 33 have become doctors, 7 lawyers and 2 ministers. Twenty-one have become nurses, 50 are interested in journalistic or literary work, 100 are engaged in philanthropy, 85 are doing library work, 5 are on the stage, and 2 are architects. Of the 3,800 graduates, probably a total of less than 16 per cent are in the above or similar professions.

The great majority of college graduates remains, therefore, to be accounted for. Of the larger college, 800, or 27 per cent, are teachers; 800, or 27 per cent, are married ; and goo, or 30 per cent, have no occupation, that is, they are in all probability present or future home makers. In the smaller college 350, or 44 per cent, are teachers ; 180, or 22 per cent, are

* See editorial on page 645Editors.

+ The following statistics are to be regarded as only approximately accurate. For the statistics from Radcliffe I am indebted to its secretary, Miss Coes. · The statistics from Smith have been compiled from the List of Graduates from 1875 to 1905, published by the Smith Alumnæ Association, 1906.

employed.

330, or 41 per ong essentially per cent of its

married; and 150, or 19 per cent, are technically unemployed. From one college 1,700, or 57 per cent of its graduates, are thus seen to belong essentially to the home; from the other, 330, or 41 per cent. Thus about 84 per cent of the graduates of the two colleges are either home makers or teachers. As the two colleges chosen are pre-eminent for their standards of scholarship, it would seem to be a fair inference that the college woman graduate of to-day is in general either a home maker or a teacher. Many teachers, however, are but teachers in passing, since, notably through marriage, they subsequently become home makers. The home, even more than teaching, is therefore seen to be the ultimate goal and fruition of the life of the majority of college women.

If it is true that the college woman graduate is, broadly speaking, either a teacher or a home maker, then I would further claim that the two terms, while often convertible by circumstance, are, as a matter of fact, primarily interchangeable. Every woman by nature is an instinctive home maker. All that the world professes to fear from college education for women in the assumption of a mannish independence, the consciousness of superiority to less cultured men, the dedication to pure learning, is usually nothing but a pose, and in the eyes of women themselves an exceedingly patent pose at that. If college women would but make an honest confession, the fear that four years of study could change a woman's heart would be recognized once for all as the absurdity which it is. Fortunately a woman's heart cannot be unsexed by a woman's mind. And the longing for a home of her own is the cry of every woman's heart. Of course that home must be in the deepest and fullest sense a home, built to the measure of the woman's dreams and aspirations, more spacious spiritually as her mind and spirit are more broadly trained by college and by life.

If the specifications are not filled, and the home is not built, the woman will not wear her heart upon her sleeve, but usually with sweet courage and fitting pride, sometimes it is true with foolish denial and assumed superiority, she will turn her hand to that which it is best trained to do, and that is for the most part teaching. And then she finds, as I have said, that teaching is but a modified form of home making, requiring a somewhat different form of technical training, but demanding her essentially home-making qualities of industry, tact and sympathy.

From the amalgamation, therefore, of the woman who looks to the college to make her a worthy home maker or an efficient teacher, and of the college which professes itself ready to fulfill her demands, we have, broadly speaking, the college woman graduate as she stands to-day.

However, even when my field is thus limited, I find my subject still further pressing for definition. The college woman graduate—to what a variety of concepts each word gives birth! Every sort of a college for American education boasts of an amazing number of breeds; every sort of a woman, for no two women are quite alike; and the result, every sort of a graduate. And we are to consider the processes and changes involved in the evolution of the college graduate from the woman. How and why does the fact of her college education distinguish her from the woman without it? Obviously the question is so complex, involving as it does the most intimate as well as the most superficial differences, that any discussion must of necessity be suggestive rather than exhaustive. It can have value only as it rigidly excludes all glittering generalities, and confines itself to an honest statement of fact based upon observation and experience. I shall, therefore, have no apology to make for the fact that all I may say is from the point of view of my own limited horizon.

If the college woman graduate has been, for financial reasons or otherwise, plainly destined to a teacher's life, and if marriage does not enter to change her destination, it is in general to be conceded that the majority of colleges are well fitted to her needs. It is true that she may choose through ignorance subjects for which she has less natural aptitude, and neglect those which would have lightened the drudgery of her teaching by their direct appeal to her interest. This, however, is an unfortunate chance, which must be run at the present time in a world where even education is still more or less of a lottery.

But if one does not see one's way unmistakably to the teacher's profession, as is the case with an ever-increasing percentage of students, if one definitely hopes to be a cultured wife and mother, then on what does the college base its claim to four years of a woman's life? How, in other words, will the college graduate prove a more cultured, more efficient, more cheerful and sturdy wife and mother than the woman whose technical education is finished at eighteen, but whose practical education continues with her expanding domestic and social experience and responsibility ?

There can be no question to which the answer is more difficult and complex. It is comparatively easy to say whether a given education fits one to be an adequate lawyer, a skillful doctor, an honorably successful minister. The end is definite; the standard for determining the adaptation of college and university training as a means to this end is, on the whole, sufficiently clear and simple of application. But to say whether a life from the point of view not only of its own development, but of its constructive influence upon other lives, has been more fundamentally valuable because of one sort of training or another, is indeed difficult. It involves of necessity the somewhat arbitrary setting up of a standard of life which will be accepted by some but rejected by others.

For those who seek the fulfillment of a woman's life in a humble, dependent docility, a sweet innocence rooted in ignorance, a plodding acceptance of domestic responsibilities; who look on her as a necessary buffer to material annoyances, a purveyor of comforts, a living embodiment of rest and of recreation; who in short consider her in the good old-fashioned light of Adam's supplementary rib pleasantly transformed and modified to his advantage. The standard which I must offer would seem to make a fair consideration of the question impossible, inasmuch as I would claim for every woman the potential right to a life as full, and in essentials as independent, as that of a man.

Such a life would seem always to have been within woman's grasp, its possibility inherent in Nature's scheme of existence; for to woman she has given the most important function which

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