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mental qualities and capabilities of women in modern times, in the concluding chapters. The book has a distinct bearing upon many important problems of education and will take its place as an original and helpful contribution to educational literature. The University of Chicago Press.

Patriotism and the New Internationalism. By Lucia Ames Meade. A number of states, through Boards of Education, have requested superintendents and high school principals to observe May 18, the anniversary of the opening of the Hague Peace Conference, with patriotic celebrations. Mrs. Meade's little manual has been prepared with the idea of furnishing material of a suggestive nature for such programs. It will be found very helpful in showing the new relations and duties which the advanced civilization of the present day imposes upon the different members of the family of nations. The idea that there are such duties is a comparatively modern idea. It is quite proper to bring it to the attention of the children and make it a part of their education. This book is published by Ginn & Co. for the International Union.

Character Building in Home and School is the title of a paper-covered booklet published monthly by A. Flanagan Company, Chicago. Price, 25 cents. The volume in hand is the September number. It contains various brief talks and articles appropriate to the month and helpful in the formation of character.

In Macmillan's Pocket American and English Classics Series we have received Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales. Edited for school use by Robert H. Beggs. There is a frontispiece portrait of Hawthorne, and the text follows in the wellknown and attractive style of this useful and remarkably cheap series of English texts. Price, 25 cents.

Electro-Chemistry. By Max LeBlanc. This is a translation from the fourth enlarged edition of Le Blanc's German edition, by Willis R. Whitney, director of the research laboratory of the General Electric Company, and John W. Brown, of the National Carbon Company. The translators have practically made a revision and enlargement of the German edition, necessitating the rewriting of a large part of the book. Special attention has been given to the notation, a consistent system being used throughout the book; the nomenclature, which is made to conform to that of the best recent text-books of electricity and chemistry; and the illustrations, one half of which are new ones introduced by the translators. The work makes a complete text-book of the subject and may stand as the last word to date on the subject of electro-chemistry. The Macmillan Company.

The Greatest Fact in Modern History. By Whitelaw Reid. This is the title of the address Ambassador Reid delivered before the Cambridge University, wherein he told the English the reasons why they came to lose America. The address traces the chief forces which went into the building of a new nation, the zones of colonial development, and the merging of separate colonies into a single government which has rapidly risen to a position of commanding power in world politics. The great theme is viewed not from the plane of a historian, but from the vantage point of a trained diplomat, and is well worth studying on that account. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. Price, 75 cents.

Sheridan's Major Dramas. Edited by George H. Nettleton. This edition contains The Rivals, The School for Scandal, and The Critic, Sheridan's greatest plays, and now for the first time receiving complete annotation based on contemporary evidence. The editor, who is professor of English in Yale University, has seemingly provided everything necessary to the fullest understanding of these famous plays. Explanations and illustrations drawn largely from eighteenth century documents—memoirs, diaries, letters, novels, poems, essays, newspapers, and magazines-furnish interesting and original sidelights on the history and interpretation of the plays. The introduction is a veritable storehouse of information on the life of Sheridan and the times in which he lived, while the notes give the student and lover of the plays all needed knowledge respecting the sources of the dramas presented. This edition gives without doubt, the best appreciative study of Sheridan's work as a dramatist and of his place in the history of English drama. Ginn & Co.

Economics. By Frank W. Blackmar. Dr. Blackmar is professor of sociology and economics in the University of Kansas. His book, therefore, has the merit of having been tested in every particular in his own class room. The object of the book is to present a complete working manual for students and instructors, to cover the entire field of economics and to set forth all the elements of the science in a clear and concise manner. Dr. Blackmar has deliberately refrained from elaborating particular theories, believing that controverted points, involving long and tedious discussion and analysis, should be studiously avoided in a work for those making only a formal beginning of the subject of economics. The arrangement of the subject-matter in the book corresponds to the order of instruction in the class room. Dr. Blackmar's method of treatment is eminently logical and admirably adapted to the purpose for which the book is designed. His style is unlabored and lucid, a commendable feature in a work of this nature. The Macmillan Company.

Orthodox Socialism. By James Edward Le Rossignol. This is a brief exposition and criticism of the essential points of Marxian Socialism, the author presenting a critical examination of socialistic theory in a form not objectionable to the professional economist and yet intelligible to such of the laity as are interested in social problems, and entitled to form opinions of their own with regard to all important public questions. The first chapter defines the creed of socialism and traces its historic rise. Then come discussions of the labor-cost theory of value; the iron law of wages; surplus value; the use of machinery and its effect upon skilled labor; panics, strikes, and industrial crises; the struggle of mass with class; and the social revolution which has been threatened. In the opinion of the author socialism is more utopian than scientific, it is a religion, a faith, and not a science, and thus it is calculated to divert society from its efforts to secure a gradual tmprovement of present conditions to the dangerous pursuit of an intangible and impracticable ideal. The book is a thoughtful, earnest, calm attempt to set forth the principles of orthodox socialism to the end that disciples of Marx and readers of “Capital” may have somewhat clearer notions, in the face of the facts and conditions as they are to day, of the faith in which they believe. It is an invigorating work, strong with the meat of deep thought and rich with honest convictions. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co.

A Talk with Girls About Themselves and a Talk with Boys About Themselves, by Edward Bruce Kirk, and The Wonder of Life, by Mary Tudor Pole, are brief, sensible conversations by a well qualified teacher on much-avoided sex questions. The books are bound in paper covers, and sold by the Fowler & Wells Co., New York City, at 50 cents net for the first two and 25 cents for the third.

A Song Garden for Children. A collection of children's songs, adapted from the French and German. By Harry Graham and Rosa Newmarch; the music edited and arranged by Norman O'Neill. Germany and France are extremely rich in children's songs. It is well that English-speaking children should be given the benefit of some of the best of these. Many of the songs in this volume are very ancient; the fact that they have survived through many generations guarantees their quality. The words have been translated into appropriate English verse, and the music will be appreciated by all lovers of the real thing in this line. London: Edward Arnold. Two shillings sixpence net.

The Third School Year. By Ellen Reif. A course of study with detailed description of lesson material, arranged by months, and correlated for use in the third school year, is presented in this little volume by an experienced teacher. It belongs to a series of books edited by Theodore B. Noss, Ph.D. The book makes the effort to select and group various lines of subject-matter, 80 that the child in passing from one grade to another will not feel that he is making a break. It will prove suggestive to teachers and helpful to the pupils. It is founded on a sound pedagogical idea. It is one of a series of five books published by A. Flanagan Company at 60 cents each, or the set of five for $2.50.

Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Development, a study in social psychology. By James Mark Baldwin. This is the fourth edition of a work which has established the reputation of its author and proved a most acceptable addition to the thoughtful books on psychology and ethics, so large a number of which have appeared in the past five years. The work was crowned with the gold medal of the royal academy of Denmark." The author says that his volume is a continuation of his psychological studies begun in his Mental Development in the Child and the Race." It is, however, quite independent of the former book except so far as the matter contained in it leads to an occasional reference to the earlier volume. It is suggested that it can be used in universities in connection with courses in psychology, ethics and social science. The fundamental ideas of sociology are clearly stated. In this edition there is a careful revision of the previous editions, with the addition of some literary references and notes. The book is brought out by the Macmillan Company in substantial and attractive binding. Price, $2.60 net.

We acknowledge the receipt from the New York State Education Department ot Bulletin No. 108, the same being a Digest of Governors' Messages from October 1, 1905, to October 1, 1906. Edited by Robert H. Whitten, Sociology Librarian. These messages relate to law, finance, public order, public health and safety, commerce and industry, banking, insurance, agriculture, labor, charities, education, etc., etc.; Year Book of Legislation, Vol. VII, 1905, from the same source; the Rhode Island School Reports for 1905, printed at Providence, by E. L. Freeman Co., state printers. This volume is especially valuable because of the excellent portrait of the late Hon. Thomas B. Stockwell, Commissioner of Public Schools in Rhode Island from 1875 to 1905; from the Bureau of Education, Washington, Bulletin No. 3, 1906, State School Systems, Legislation and Judicial Decisions Relating to Public Education, by Edward C. Elliott; a pamphlet by Frank Arthur Scott, A.B., First Assistant at the Grammar School of New Britain, Conn., bearing the title, A Study in Departmental Organization and Management; Conditions and Needs of Iowa Rural Schools, by John F. Riggs, Superintendent of Public Instruction; A Four Years' Course in German for Secondary Schools, published by the Committee of the Cali. fornia Association of Teachers of German; A Brief Outline of My Geography Lessons, a blank book with suitable page headings, published by Hinds, Noble & Eldredge; Vol. IV, No. 1, of the University of Colorado Studies, by Francis Ramaley, containing four studies : first, the Epigram and its Greatest Master, Martial; second, a New Master of English Prose and Some Theories of Value; third, Shakespeare and Psychognosis, this essay being a study of the major characters of The Tempest; fourth, The Mathemetics of Life Insurance; German Views of American Education, with Particular Reference to Industrial Development, by William N. Hailmann, published by the Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C.; Retirement Fund for Teachers, a volume of addresses delivered before the Philadelphia Teachers' Association, in 1906; Old South Leaflets, Nos. 164, 165 and 174, being respectively the Body of Liberties, The Law of Nature in Government and The Discovery of Pike's Peak. A Manual of Common American and European Insects, and A Manual of Common Butterflies and Moths, prepared under the supervision of William Beutenmüller, Curator of the Department of Entomology, American Museum of Natural History, New York City; Wisconsin Arbor Day Annual, compiled by Maud Barnett and C. P. Cary, State Superintendent, Madison, Wis.; Report upon Schools for the Deaf and Blind,—the Reformatory Schools for Boys and Girls, for the Feeble Minded, and County Truant Schools, by John T. Prince, Agent of State Board of Education, Massachusetts; Educational Agriculture, by W. R. Hart, A.M., Professor of Education and Psychology, Nebraska State Normal School, at Peru, Neb.; The Gilman Renewable Copy Book, a writing book with distinctive features, especially valuable for economy, published by Thompson, Brown & Co.; Report of the Minister of Education, Province of Ontario, for the years 1903 and 1905; Catalogues of Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Watertown, Mass., Public Schools; Springfield, Mass., Public Schools; the City of Wilmington, Del., Public Schools; Calendar of the Uni: versity of Michigan; and last but not least, two large volumes containing the Reports of the Commissioner of Education for 1904. These Reports are as inclusive and valuable as usual, the series making a magnificent volume of educational reference, published by the Government Printing Office, at Washington, D. C.

Periodical Notes

“Modern Masters of Music" by Lawrence Gilman is an attractive illustrated feature of Every. body's for May.-Those who are concerned with the ph ysical welfare of the schools should read Mrs. Isaac L. Rice's article in the current Forum on “ Our Most Abused Sense--the Sense of Hearing."-An interesting feature of The Designer is “The Mothers' Advisory Club," which is full of practical hints for mothers, -"Emerson, the Anarchist" is the startling title of an article by Bolton Hall in The Arena for April. Two articles in The World's Work for May will particularly interest educators, viz., "A College Professor's Confessions,” by H. W. Rolfe, and “ Solving Life's Mystery," by Edgar Allen Forbes.

Devoted to the Science, Art, Philosophy and Literature

of Education

Vol. XXVII

JUNE, 1907

No. 10

The College Graduate in Trade and Industry

PROFESSOR HARLOW S. PERSON, DIRECTOR AMOS TUCK SCHOOL,

DARTMOUTH COLLEGE

W

HILE it is impossible to determine definitely whether or not the proportion of college graduates to all other young men who enter business life is increasing, it is a matter of record that the proportion of college graduates who enter business

life to all other college graduates is increasing. Las

It has not been very long since the law claimed

the largest number of college men; before that it was the church; now, however, it is business. According to the Supplement to the General Catalogue of Dartmouth College, published in 1906, the following were the percentages of graduates of that college entering upon different professions :

Clergymen Lawyers Physicians Teachers Others First 25 years . . . 40 First 50 years . . : 30

14 Second 50 years 30 years, closing with 190

The class “ Others” consists chiefly of those entering business life. For the class of 1906 those entering business are classified separately, and constitute 50 per cent of the entire class. A similar story is told by the records of other institutions.

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