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learn three or four times as much as the one who makes the least progress. How much he will learn depends upon several things—his preparation for the work of the year; his physical health ; his natural ability ; his efforts; his life outside of school; his regular attendance. Over some of these things you have no control; over others, especially the last two, you should have almost absolute control. You will see, therefore, that your children's preparation for useful and honorable lives depends very much more upon you than upon the schools. For your assistance in performing your part, I have made a little pamphlet which I shall be very glad to send you if you wish it, telling you how you may be of the greatest possible assistance to your child in his preparation for a worthy life. There is a separate pamphlet for each grade, and it contains a list of books which will help you much in training your child, suggestions for helpful home work, and warnings respecting the methods in which the education received at school may be injured or destroyed by other forces. I would like to hear from you frequently concerning your child's progress. Especially if anything seems to be going wrong, I wish to be informed at once. If it seems to you that the teacher is unwise or unfaithful, remember her limitations; she has only about five minutes a day to give to one child, at best. But if you cannot persuade yourself that she is doing as well as she ought, see her at your earliest convenience. Ask her to call at your house, if you cannot go to hers. A cup of tea and large lumps of sugar will make the interview pleasanter for both. Occasionally the teacher will send you a report of your child's work as it appears to her. If it is good, rejoice with your child. If it is poor, don't blame anyone till you know who is at fault. Both teacher and child may be doing their best. If the reports continue poor and my little pamphlet does not explain the cause, see the teacher. You can trust every teacher every time. If you and the teacher fail to overcome the difficulty, go with her to the principal. Last of all, come to me. We'll conquer everything that can be conquered.”
Not in just these words, but in this sense I would send my little proclamation. I would get parents and teachers together.
I would try to make all see that home and school need each the other's help at every point. My next step would be to form a coalition of the schools and the various other educational and semi-educational forces in the community--the libraries, the clubs, the Sunday schools, the private schools, the lecture courses, the art exhibits, the athletic organizations, the maternal associations.
My next would be to secure the best thoughts of the best thinkers and the best leadership of the best leaders in creating the right atmosphere for my schools to grow and do their work in. With convenient and healthful school buildings, with a good supply of school apparatus, with the best teachers that money can procure, with the aid and support of the home, with the co-operation of all other educational forces, with friendly public appreciation of the work attempted and the work done, the schools of any city will be a mighty power for good. Toward this ideal let us all look as that which the future holds in store for some generation of children.
In the Rice Grass
Where the Swan shines within the great white way
I note twin stars-
The rice grass rustles in the summer breeze.
I see the cottage where my loved one dwells,
Her eyes glow there,
LEWIS A. KALBACH, BUREAU OF EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, D. C.
States may be divided into three general classes :
trolled by self-perpetuating boards of trustees, without charter restriction as to the selection of successors, have gradually passed from the control of persons belonging to any one religious denomination and have thus become, in fact, non-denominational in control. Others have become non-sectarian in control through changes in their charters.
Nearly all of the colleges have had a continuous struggle to secure the funds necessary to carry on their work. The source of the support of the institutions varies largely according to the agency by which they were established. All of the older institutions owe their origin to private initiative and continue to derive their main support, outside of what is contributed by students in the form of tuition fees, to the liberality of their alumni and of other philanthropic persons. It is a well-known fact that in the institutions for higher education, taken as a whole, students' fees amount to only about one third of the total income, the balance required to meet the expenses being derived from endowment funds, state appropriations, collections, etc.
In the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1904, there are included six hundred and seven institutions in the chapter devoted to universities, colleges, and technological schools. The institutions vary greatly in the grade and scope of the instruction given, in the class of students admitted, in the number enrolled in the faculties, in their material equipment, and in their endowment. We find there institutions like Harvard, Columbia, Cornell, Stanford, and others, with endowment funds of millions of dollars; we find some institutions with magnificent buildings but no interest-bearing funds; state institutions with very small or no invested funds of their own, but with all of the taxable property in the state to furnish funds for their maintenance; there is also a class of institutions which depend for support almost wholly upon tuition fees and the profit realized from the boarding departments.
Notwithstanding the millions of dollars that are flowing annually into the treasuries of the institutions for higher education, the reports of the presidents of such institutions emphasize annually the great need for more funds to avoid recurring deficits caused by a constantly decreasing rate of interest on invested funds, by great extension and specialization in certain branches of work, by the inauguration of new lines of work to meet the needs of an ever-expanding civilization, by the large increase in the number of students in attendance upon the institutions, and by the necessary increase in the salaries of teachers. The large amount of instruction in pure and applied science demanded by the students at the present time renders necessary special buildings equipped with costly machinery and apparatus for illustrative purposes.
The total value of property possessed by institutions for higher education amounts to over $500,000,000, the invested or incomeproducing funds being about $235,000,000, an increase of fortyone per cent in five years. The great bulk of these large sums has been contributed by private individuals, although in late years considerable sums have been furnished annually by the several state governments to the institutions under their control.
The Federal government, also, has been an important factor in the development of higher education. While the military and naval academies and its other service schools are the only higher institutions that it controls, the policy of the Federal government has been to assist in the establishment and maintenance of such institutions by the several states. This policy had its origin in, and dates from, the ordinance of 1787 for the government of the Northwest Territory by which two townships of land were granted for the support of a literary institution. After the year 1800 each state admitted into the Union, with the exception of Maine, Texas, and West Virginia, received not less than two townships (46,080 acres) of land for the establishment of a
university. In pursuance of this policy, twenty-nine states and territories have received 1,774,080 acres of land from the general government.
The next important step taken by the Federal government in aid of higher education was the passage of the act of July 2, 1862, granting to each state 30,000 acres of land for each representative to which it was entitled in Congress for the establishment of one or more institutions where the leading object should be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, “ to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." Under this act there have been allotted to, the several states 10,320,843 acres of land. The smallest amount to which any one state was entitled was 90,000 acres, and the greatest amount was 990,000 acres received by the state of New York.
This was a most munificent grant, and, if properly managed, would have created a large endowment fund in each state, as under the terms of the act the income only of the funds derived from the sale of the lands could be expended, excepting only that not exceeding ten per cent of the amount received could be expended in the purchase of land for sites or experimental farms. It was provided also that no part of the funds or of the income therefrom could be used for the purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of any buildings. While a few of the states like California, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, and Minnesota managed the sale of their lands so as to obtain a fair price for them, and, in consequence, a considerable endowment fund, the great majority of the states realized very small sums. Rhode Island, for instance, sold its land scrip for less than fifty cents per acre, realizing but $50,000 from scrip for 120,000 acres, while California, which received 150,000 acres, has thus far received $732,083 with 4,074 acres still to be sold. The total amount of the 1862 land-grant fund reported in 1904 was $11,334,760, with 878,870 acres remaining unsold.
Each state and territory in the Union has at least one institution endowed by the 1862 grant. In the early history of the institutions comparatively little attention was given to instruction in agriculture for the reason, undoubtedly, that there was