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| in Germany are to be sought in the monastic
in the Upper German monasteries of St. Gall and Reichenau, and particularly in the educational reforms of Charles the Great. This new education which came in with Roman Christianity was for the Germans an exotic, and grafted upon an ancient Germanic culture, antedating our historical records. This old Germanic culture was an element with which the new institutions from the south had a long and bitter struggle for supremacy. While the early Germanic races had nothing which could properly be called schools, they did possess a form of cultural transmission, both tenacious and effective. The family and the clan were folk-units with their distinct political, social and religious institutions. It is not difficult to reconstruct, even from the scanty remains of this old culture, the old Germanic methods of teaching or perpetuating their time-honored traditions, manners and customs. In these primitive times the chief shared with his retainers the pride of ancestry, the triumphs and defeats of war, the solemn and festive observance of religious rites, and the crude forms of literature and art. It was in the great hall when the cup went round and the gleemen sang that the high and lofty inspirations were imparted, which fired the breasts of the Germanic heroes with loyalty to their divinities, their ancestors and their chief, and with an unguenchable zeal for fresh exploits. It would be impossible to explain the highly developed forms of poetic art found in the later fragmentary epic lays of the early Germans, such as the “ Hildebrand Lay” and in “ Widsith," " Waldere,” “ Beowolf” and the “ Heliand,” without assuming a traditional poetic art and a keenly intelligent appreciation of this art among these early Germans. Side by side with the idealism of this old poetry, went the realism of primitive Germanic life, that strenuous education for the bitter realities of the war-play, such as throwing the hammer, hurling the spear, running, leaping, wrestling and wielding the sword. All exercises which were prototypes of our scarcely less strenuous modern sports couched under the euphuistic name of “physical education.”
* This article, originally intended for the March number, was unavoidably delayed until now. We have preserved the numbering noted in our original announcement of the series.-Eds. EDUCATION,
The monastic schools of the eighth century grew up under the fostering care of the church. The immediate purpose of these schools was to teach novitiates the mysteries of the new religion and prepare them for the sacraments and service of the church. Thus sprang up the “ cloister schools.” It soon became necessary to establish schools in connection with the larger churches or cathedrals for the special training of diocesan clergy. These were the so-called “cathedral schools” (Domschulen). The subjects taught in the cloister schools were singing, reading, writing, grammar, chiefly of the church Latin, and calendar reckoning or calculating the feast days (computus). In these schools there were two classes of pupils ; those preparing for orders (interni), and those intending to enter secular occupations (externi).
In the cathedral or clergy schools a more advanced curriculum was pursued, including the seven liberal arts in two separate groups :
1. Artes sermonicales (grammar, rhetoric, dialectics) constituting the trivium of the Middle Ages.
2. Artes reales (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music) making up the quadrivium of the Middle Ages.
These seven liberal arts were, in the language of Alcuin, the great Anglo-Saxon preceptor of Germany in the reign of Charles the Great, the “ seven pillars ” upon which the edifice of theology was to be reared.
In addition to the cloister schools and the cathedral schools, Charles the Great established a special school for the training of prospective courtiers and the sons of the nobles assembled about him. This school, which seems to have had a prototype in Merovingian times, was under the supervision of Alcuin, and was in a certain sense the anticipation of the later university. Even the great king himself sat as a learner in this school, and gathered about him the greatest scholars of his time—Alcuin, the Anglo-Saxon; Peter, the Lombard; Paulus Diaconus, the Lombard, and Eginhard, his trusted scribe and biographer. This palace school (Schola Palatina) continued with some interruptions into the time of Otto the Great, when it again flourished as the representative of the best culture of the Holy Roman Empire, in that period of Latinized German culture which produced the Christianized Latin dramas of the nun-poetess, Hroswitha, of Gandersheim, who attempted to supplant Terence, and the Latinized German epic “Waltharius," in Latin hexametres.
But the era of feudalism brought with it the “ seven frivolities” (Frömmigkeiten), riding, swimming, archery, fencing, hunting, whist playing, rhyming, in place of the “ seven liberal arts.”
As the German cities grew in importance, under the protecting care of the citadels (Burgen), the burgher class took up the question of education and established city or burgher schools, after the general type or model of the monastic schools, and under the supervision of the church. Thus the old nominal division of the arts into what we now term humanistic and technical, had an opportunity to take a new course in the hands of the people, although the burgher schools, for at least three hundred years, made little progress in the direction of separate technical education.
The strife between the Nominalists and the Realists among the scholastics of the eleventh century kept alive the interest in learning, and prepared the way for the great universities. The schoolmen shook with their discussions the foundation of philosophy, theology and the Church itself. The world-renowed Abelard laid the foundations of the University of Paris, although his memory is best perpetuated by the Gothic tomb that marks the resting place of himself and his Héloise in Père la Chaise. As the University of Paris became center for theology and philosophy, so Bologna in Italy had the great university for law, and Salerno, in Spain, that for medicine. These three institutions drew thousands of eager students to their halls from Germany and other lands of Western Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and were the forerunners of the German universities.
In the year 1348 the first German university was founded in the city of Prag, then the residence of the German Emperor. The Emperor, Charles the Fourth, received the charter from the Pope for the establishment of the new university, but the institution was modeled rather after the University of Paris than that of Bologna. Other German universities were founded in quick succession. The University of Vienna, 1384; Heidelberg in 1386; Cologne, 1388 ; Erfurt, 1392 ; Würzburg, 1402 ; Leipzig, by a large migration of students from Prag, 1409; Rostock, 1419. These universities were church institutions, erected by the authority of the Pope, and students and teachers were clericals until the dawn of the new humanism in the middle of the fifteenth century. The instruction given by the faculty of philosophy was about analogous to that of the upper classes of the gymnasium of the present day.
The humanistic impulse given by the fugitive Greek scholars in Western Europe after the fall of Constantinople, 1453, introduced a new spirit into European learning. The study of the great masters of antique literature in the original texts brought about a reform in the Latin idiom of the German schools. Here, as elsewhere, Latin had seriously deteriorated in the hands of the clericals. Attacks were made by the humanists upon the barbarized Latin, even of the universities, by such men as Petrus Luder and Conrad Celtis, and more successfully by the exemplary Latin style of the two greatest humanists, Erasmus and Reuchlin. The humanistic movement wrought a reform in German schools, and led to the founding of the new universities : Greifswald, 1456; Freiburg, 1457 ; Basel, 1460 ; Ingolstadt, 1472 ; Trier, 1473; Mainz, 1477 ; Tübingen, 1477 ; Wittenberg, 1502; and Frankfurt, 1506. Classical Latin style became the ideal to which now both teacher and pupil aspired. The great Latin and Greek writers were studied in the original and unlocked the mysteries of antique philosophy, literature and art. The spirit of humanism made for larger liberty of inquiry and for enlightenment, and was bitterly hostile to the dogmatism of the mediæval church, as is clearly seen in the famous.“ Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum.” It prepared the way and offered the weapons for the Reformation.
With the Reformation and the humanistic school reform came new universities, embodying the principles and expressing the impulses of the new time. Out of this period grew the Protestant universities : Marburg, 1529; Königsberg, 1544; Jena, 1556; Helmstädt, 1576; Altdorf, 1573 (1622); Giessen, 1607; Rinteln, 1621 ; Strassburg, 1621 ; Duisburg, 1655 : Kiel, 1665: and the Catholic universities : Dillingen, 1549; Würzburg, 1582; Paderborn, 1615; Salzburg, 1623; Osnabrück, 1630 ; Bamberg, 1648; Olmütz, 1581; Gratz, 1586; Linz, 1636; Innsbruck, 1672; the last four being outside of Germany proper. Unfortunately the Reformation inaugurated the era of particularism in education, changing the universities from international to provincial and confessional institutions.
The lower schools of the Humanistic-Reformation period as well as the universities underwent a great change, both in attitude and in curriculum. Some of Melanchthon's best efforts lay in the improvement of the instruction of the lower schools, which prepared for the university. New text-books and new methods were introduced, and the pupils drew their knowledge of the classics from the originals themselves.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century a new cultural revival began in Germany, resulting in the formation of patriotic speech societies (sprachgesellschaften) such as the Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft of 1617. But the Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618 and retarded this movement for more than half a century.
It was not until the rise of Pietism under Spener, about 1670, that the signs of a new educational epoch began to appear. The pietistic movement found a university center at Halle, and