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Dynamic Factors in Education. By M. V. O'Shea. Dr. O'Shea holds the chair of the Science and Art of Education in the University of Wisconsin, and has contributed many articles on pedagogy to the profession. His utterances receive the fullest attention from all interested in the training of the young. Entire sympathy with the view that the motor and physical factors in teaching should receive more attention than they now do has led Dr. O'Shea to prepare a work in which he aims to show that in the early years motor expression is essential to all learning, and how the requirements of dynamic education can be provided for all departments of school work; to point out that there is a definite order in which the motor powers develop, and to show the relation between fatigue and activity. The headings of some of the chapters will disclose the topics treated: the development of inhibition; dynamic education; dynamic aspect of school studies; manual activities in education; method of acquiring adaptive activities; imitative activities; teaching of schoolroom arts; development of co-ordinated activities; activity as requiring the expenditure of energy; influence of fatigue on the efficiency of mind and body ; economy in the expenditure of energy; effect of esthetic influences upon mental tension ; some common wasteful practices; the eye in relation to nervous waste; the daily program in relation to nervous waste. These chapter headings will serve to show the extent of Dr. O'Shea's investigations and study. He brings to his discussion a wealth of illustration, secured by observation and test and testimony, and he finds conclusions of the utmost importance to all concerned in the right training of our youth. The chapter containing the résumé, consisting of less than six hundred words, is one that should be placarded in every schoolroom for teachers to read and inwardly digest. It contains a wealth of most pertinent truth with which every teacher should be enriched. The Macmillan Company.

Good Health for Boys and Girls. By Bertha Millard Brown. This is the first book in the Colton Physiologies series, and is an introduction to the Elementary Physiology, the second book in the series. Miss Brown is instructor in biology in the Hyannis (Mass.) Normal School, and her book has grown up from her teachings. The lessons are arranged as simple talks with children, the subjects being selected with infinite care and treated with rare tact and judgment. Little stories serve to emphasize the principles, frequent appeals to personal experiences make the lessons real, and new and clever pictures make each topic luminous and interesting. It is a fascinating and sensible little work on rational hygiene for young readers, a model of its kind. D. C. Heath & Co.

Elements of Latin. By Clifford H. Moore and John J. Schlicher. It is the claim of the authors of this book that experience proves that the time devoted to the elements of Latin should be not less than one full school year of at least nine months, and it is their aim in their book to help in accomplishing all that can be accomplished thoroughly in that time. To that end they have proceeded on the principle that the only genuine interest arises from the pupil's actually doing the work which that study involves, coupled with the feeling on his part that he is pursuing the study in a manner which will enable him to master its future problems as they may arise. The lessons are comfortably graded, the exercises suited to the deliberate progress of the student, and the grammar study is properly restricted to the actual work in hand. Altogether it is a practical, usable, serious text-book, and most admirably adapted to the purposes for which it is designed. American Book Company.

Elementary Pedagogy. By Levi Seeley, Ph.D. It is as evident as well on the last page as on the first of this work that it is an attempt to provide material for the beginner in the study of pedagogy. While in no manner either of arrangement or presentation is there any emasculation of the subject, there is yet a carefully devised plan by which the subject-matter of the science may be set forth to the tyro who haltingly and reluctantly takes up the study, generally regarded by young teachers with a certain amount of dread. The reason for this apprehension may be found in the fact that most works on general pedagogy have presupposed a development too advanced in educational thought on the part of the beginner, hence discouragement at the very outset. Dr. Seeley skilfully avoids all allurements to indulge in speculative and abstruse theories on the subjects; he holds himself firmly in hand and keeps the student's needs and conditions directly before him. The result is a work most admirably suited for students in normal schools, young teachers and even old · teachers. We know of no work on pedagogy that so succinctly sets forth to beginners the science, none employing the inductive method of treatment more felicitously. Hinds, Noble & Eldredge. Price, $1.25.

Experimental Physiology and Anatomy. By Walter Hollis Eddy. Dr. Eddy is chairman of the department of biology in the High School of Commerce in New York, and has made a comprehensive study of the subject, the importance of which is everywhere recognized, though hitherto little attempt has been made to place the subject on an experimental basis. The table of contents discloses the following general subjects treated in seventy-two experiments : exercises in physics and chemistry, study of nutrients, study of foods, histological studies, principles of digestion, blood and circulation, the body skeleton, muscles and motion, respiration, excretion, nervous system, special senses and bacteria. The work is designed for secondary schools, the exercises meeting the requirements for admission to colleges. American Book Company.

New Educational Music Course. By James L. McLaughlin and W. W. Gilcrist. With the publication of the Fifth Reader this notable series is completed. For years it has been in process of making, no pains having been spared to render it the completest series of music readers for' use in schools. The aim of the course is to inspire love of good music, develop a musical voice, teach sight singing, and induce musical interpretation. To secure these ends everything in the books-words, music, exercises, illustrations-have all been secured from the highest and best sources, and before being incorporated in the series have been submitted to specialists, musical, literary, and pedagogical. The songs are gems of verse as well as of melody, so excellent are they that most of them are worthy of being committed to memory; only the songs from the best writers have been included. The melodies are either from the great composers or have been prepared expressly for this course and are of the highest order of merit. Every melody has musical content, their singing power is their dominant characteristic. The exercises, which are a striking feature of the course, have been prepared with infinite care and steadiest judgment. Songs can be sung only when the pupils have had correct and thorough training in the art of singing. The exercises precede the songs and are so effective that when the song is attacked there must be little trouble in mastering it. So many are the excellences of the course that only in an examination of the books in the series may they be enumerated. It is sufficient here to state that the course provides a musical education adequate to meet the needs of students in schools and worthy of the attention now accorded to the study of music. Excellence of the highest degree is the characteristic of the series. Ginn & Co.

The Second Reader. By Geoffrey Buckwalter. The Buckwalter Readers are taking a foremost place in the schools where reading is taught. They are founded on well-established pedagogical principles such as the following: Reading is thought getting; oral reading is thought expression; there is a distinction between learning to read and reading to learn; easy reading makes reading easy; the reading of primary pupils should be extensive rather than intensive; general rather than critical; the pupil may read without knowing or before knowing how to spell; in other words, the eye may grasp a whole word and its meaning may be comprehended before the mind learns to analyze it and the memory to retain its separate letters in their proper order. The Readers of this series are made up of choice English, and each selection is in itselt interesting to the chilren. The pages are prettily illustrated. Incidentally the pupil is familiarized with much good literature. The books are graded by easy stages so that there is a continuous progress toward a complete education in this essential art of good reading. The publisher is to be congratulated on the neat and attractive appearance of the book. Parker P. Simmons, New York.

School Days in the Fifties. By William Giffin, A.M., Ph.D. This is an interesting little volume which will make excellent supplementary reading. The title page tells us it is a true story with some untrue names of persons and places." It gives a true picture of the school life of half a century ago, showing both the strength and the weakness of the educational methods of those days. A. Flanagan Company. Price, 50 cents.

Periodical Notes

The Century promises at least seventy-five short stories throughout the coming year.-"When trial, failure and disappointment come, get what salvage you can from the wreck and begin again. If it has not been your fault, fight harder next time; if it has been your fault, charge it to experience and begin again. In every failure is wrapped up the secret of a possible success," William George Jordan in the November Delineator.-There are three capital Thanksgiving stories, and some excellent bits of Thanksgiving verse in the November Designer. Among many other things, The Youth's Companion announces for 1907 two hundred practical papers, serviceable to young people who have their way to make in the world, helpful in their insistence on worthy ideals in every relation of life, useful in the home, particularly the regular series, « Till the Doctor Comes."--Ossian H. Lang writes in the current number of The Forum con. cerning the workings of the Carnegie Pension Fund for Educators,-"The Autobiography of an Only Child” is the title of a suggestive article in Everybody's for November.-The Kindergar. ten Magazine and Pedagogical Digest for November contains a continuation of the admirable series of articles by Miss Harriette D. Mills upon the “ Program as related to the child-his nature and needs." The illustrated Art series, by Robert Dulk, offers valuable suggestions to all teachers, and that upon Recreative Games and Plays for the Schoolroom, by Miss Marie Ruef Hofer, is a practical Harvest number, The Digest department pays special attention this month to certain agencies, such as settlements, vacation schools, etc., which supplement the work of the public schools.

Devoted to the Science, Art; Philosophy and Literature

of Education

Vol. XXVII

DECEMBER, 1906

No. 4

Some Practical Suggestions toward a Program

of Ethical Teaching in Our Schools

WINTHROP D. SHELDON, GIRARD COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

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I
HERE is a widespread feeling-growing into a

conviction-among many educators and other
thoughtful people that, however efficient our
schools may be in cultivating the mental powers
and in imparting knowledge, they are not made
as effective as they might be and are not doing
as much as they ought to do for the moral train-

ing of the young. This dissatisfaction with present conditions finds utterance in the newspaper and periodical press, on the lecture platform, in conferences for the interchange of views upon the subject, and in the increasing number of essays and books treating of moral education. And it has been accentuated by the startling disclosures of moral delinquency that have recently given a rude shock to our complacent faith in public and private honesty and rectitude, committed, as this malfeasance has been, in quarters where it was least suspected, and indicating that the lowering of moral standards in the business world had become far more prevalent than was generally realized.

In this abrupt and rough awakening to a situation both disgraceful and dangerous it is not surprising that a portion of the blame for existing moral conditions has been laid at the door of the school, as well as of the home and the church.

It is the conviction of many that the ethical function of the school has been so far overshadowed by the intellectual that the former has not received due recognition as the very heart of the mission of the school, the vital purpose for which it exists. The moral faculty, or side, of human nature it is felt needs to be educated and trained just as thoughtfully and persistently as the mental powers; and this training should proceed pari passu with that of the intellect and be co-ordinated with it. And many of the pedagogical principles and methods employed in the latter may be used to advantage in moral education as well.

It is contended that, while the daily routine of school discipline and duty is indispensable for moral as well as intellectual growth and should in nowise be undervalued or depreciated, moral education in any profound and comprehensive sense means far more than the unreasoning, mechanical cultivation of good habits through the enforcement of mere discipline and formal routine. The pupil should be carried back of the habits to the ethical principles which underlie them and give a rational basis to all right character and moral practice. And the primary aim of moral training should be to arouse and stir into steady and continuous action in the individual life the dynamic moral forces of high aspiration and motive, of duty and honor and the love of what is true and good. The moral ideas and conceptions that are but dimly outlined in the background of the child's consciousness require to be brought forward into the vivid foreground of his thought and activity and made clear and distinct to his mind, that they may become influential in the conduct of life.

It is not our purpose to argue the question here, but these are some of the considerations which have led many thoughtful persons to the conclusion that instruction in practical, applied ethics should have a definite and recognized place in school education, just as truly as any other study, and should be planned and conducted with equal care and forethought, under a deep sense of responsibility for the upbuilding of character, -not character consisting of a body of good habits merely, essential as this is, but of habits based upon and inspired and

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