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Who is the county treasurer ?
Who is the district attorney?
Who are the coroners ?
Who are the superintendents of the poor?
Who are the justices of sessions ?
Who are the school commissioners ?

VACANCIES IN COUNTY OFFICES. Horo are vacancies in County Ofices filled ?

I. Vacancies in the offices of County Judge, Surrogate, Sheriff, District Attorney, and Coroners are filled by the Governor.

II. Vacancies in the office of County Treasurer, and Superintendents of the Poor are filled by the Board of Supervisors.

III. Vacancy in the office of School Commissioner is filled by the County Judge.

CITY.

What is a City!
By what authority Organized ?
By an act of the Legislature.
What instrument defines its Powers!

A Charter, which is an instrument granted by the legislature, defining the city's rights and privileges.

What are the Divisions of a city called ?
Wards.

NOTE.- For list of the cities in New York State, when incorporated, and the number of wards in each, see Table, page siv.

Horo populous must a village be, before it can be incorporated as a City ?

No definite number is required; whenever a large proportion of the voters desire it, the legislature will grant a city charter.

NOTE.-The constitution of Pennsylvania says, Cities may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors (voters) of any town or borough having a population of at least 10,000 inhabitants, shall vote at any election for the same.

What is the Executive Officer of a city called ?

The Mayor. His term of office is one year, unless otherwise ordered by the charter, as in New York, and some other cities, where it is two years.

What other important officers are elected ?

Aldermen and Supervisors; one each in every ward, unless otherwise ordered by the charter.

What officers form the Common Council?

The mayor and aldermen. They are the legislative body of the city, and have authority to appoint police officers.

What Courts exist in cities in addition to those established for the State at large ?

I. The Superior Court of the city of New York.

II. The Court of Common Pleas for the city and county of New York.

III. The Superior Court of Buffalo.

IV. The City Court of Brooklyn. Const., Art. VI., Sec. 12, page 182.

STATE.

Upon what is the State government based ?
Upon a Constitution adopted by the people.
When and where was the first State constitution framed ?
Horo many Departments are provided for by the constitution !
Three; the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
What are the Divisions of the Legislative department?
The Assembly and the Senate.

What is the number of members in each body, and their term of office?

128 members of the Assembly, elected for one year; 32 senators elected for two years.

See Art. III., Const., pages 160-167.

When, and how is the number of members of the Assembly apportioned among the several counties ?

Once in 10 years by the Legislature, immediately after taking the State census, and as nearly as can be, according to population, excluding aliens; but giving to every county except Hamilton at least one member.

When and how is the number of members of the Senate appor. tioned in the State ?

At the same time, by the Legislature; and as nearly as possible according to population. A Senatorial district sometimes embraces a portion of a county; sometimes a whole county; at other times two or more

counties; but no county can be divided, unless it can be equitably entitled to two or more members.

The following apportionment was made in 1879:

SENATE DISTRICTS.

I. Queens and Suffolk.

II. Wards 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 22 of Brooklyn, and the towns of Flatbush, Gravesend, and New Utrecht.

III. Wards 3, 4, 7, 11, 13, 19, 20, 21, 23 of Brooklyn.

IV. Wards 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25 of Brooklyn, and New Lots and Flatlands.

V. Richmond, Wards 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 14, and parts of 4 and 9 of New York, and Governor's, Bedloe's, and Ellis Islands.

VI. Wards 7, 11, 13, and part of 4 of New York.
VII. Wards 10, 17, parts of 15, 18, 21 of New York.

VIII. Wards 16, parts of 9, 15, 18, and 20 of New York.

IX. Wards 18, 19, 21, lying east of Third Avenue, New York, and Blackwell's Island.

X. Parts of wards 12, 19, 20, 21, 22, of New York, and Ward's and Randall's Islands.

XI. Wards 23, 24, and parts of 12, 20, and 22, of New York.

XII. Westchester and Rockland.
XIII. Orange and Sullivan.
XIV. Ulster, Schoharie, and Greene.
XV. Dutchess, Columbia, and Putnam.
XVI. Rensselaer, and Washington.
XVII. Albany.

XVIII. Saratoga, Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery, and Schenectady.

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