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If, after a month's time, it becomes evident that a pupil is not yet fit for the class to which he has been assigned, or that he is further advanced than was thought, he may be either put back one class or advanced a step higher.
Quarterly reports of the conduct and diligence of the pupils are sent to the parents or guardians, who examine, sign, and return them to the school. The teachers are thus sure that the parents are well informed in regard to the standing of their children. The quarterly certificates also induce many parents to confer with the director or teachers of the school concerning the conduct, &c., of the pupils.
In Latin, grammar is taught and applied to the reading of the classics and to written exercises. The following authors are read: Cæsar; Ovid; Livy; Sallust; some of Cicero's orations, epistles, and philosophical writings; Virgil's Æneid; Horace's odes, satires, and epistles; Tacitus's Germania; Juvenal; Terence; Plautus; and Roman literature.
In Greek, grammar is completed and the following authors are read and translated: Xenophon, Homer, Herodotus, Plato, Sophocles, and Greek literature.
Hebrew is obligatory only for those who intend to study theology; it comprises grammar, etymology, and reading.
In German, grammar, etymology, prosody, and literature are taught, and exercises in German composition are continued through all the classes.
In French, the grammar is gone through. German pieces are translated into French, and French authors are read and translated into German and Latin. French composition and letter writing are likewise practised.
Instruction in mathematics comprises the whole of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, planimetry, stereometry, and trigonometry.
General history is taught, as well as the history of the state in which the school is situated, and of Germany, with special regard to social and literary development.
Geographical instruction includes the whole of physical, political, and mathematical geography, with map drawing in all the classes, especially rapid sketches on the blackboard and on slates.
Natural history comprises the general introduction and the elements of mineralogy, botany, and zoology.
In physics, the pupils pursue a very exhaustive course of mechanics, electricity, magnetism, light, and heat.
Drawing-free hand, geometrical, and ornamentalis taught in all the classes. Gymnastics and singing are obligatory throughout the course.
METHODS OF INSTRUCTION.
As to the methods of teaching there is great variety in the different schools, each teacher being allowed to pursue his own plan. The trans. lations from Latin or Greek into German, and vice versa, the grammatical exercises, Latin composition, and essays, the practice in versification, &c., are varied in amount in the different classes, according to the views of the teacher.
The following are some of the themes for essays written by students of secondary schools in 1876–77:
THEMES IN LATIN.
1. De virtutibus Romanorum ab Horatio laudatis. 2. Parum profici armis si incuriæ sequantur.
3. Ad provincias in officio continendas Romanorum literas artesque non minus quam arma virosque valuisse.
4. a. De Britannia in provinciæ formam redacta. b. Proprium est humani ingenii odisse quem læseris.
5. Bonos mores plus valere quam bonas leges. 6. a. Quæratur, utrum in Germanis an in Britannis virtutis indoles antiquis temporibus major fuerit. b. De Germanorum et Romanorum servis.
7. a. Homini vitam ad certam rationis normam esse dirigendam. b. In libertate defendenda Catoni prudentiam, Ciceroni constantiam defuisse.
8. Nibil gratiæ causa faciendum esse.
9. a. Multis parasse divitias non finis miseriarum fuit, sed mutatio. b. Omnis dies, omnis hora, quam nihil simus, ostendit et aliquo argumento recenti admonet fragilitatis oblitos, tum æterna meditatos respicere cogit ad mortem. c. Prosunt inter se boni.
10. Græcorum philosophia Romam translata omnia literarum genera ad artem redacta esse.
11. a. Epaminondas haud scio an summus vir universæ Græciæ fuerit. b. Marcus Tullius Cicero civis optimus.
12. a. Laudes Q. Fabii Maximi Cunctatoris.
Vos Cæsarem altum, militia simul
Pierio recreatis antro.
Gaudetis almæ. 13. a. Cato in senatu docet Karthaginem esse delendam. b. Caius Marius reciene conservator republica appeletur.
14. a. Triginta viri snum ipsi imperium everterunt. b. Explicetur, cur et quo jure Athenienses Socratem capitis damnaverint.
15. Quibus rebus Achillis ira excitata sit.
16. a. Mithradates rex populi Romani hostis acerrimus. b. App. Claudius Cæcus cum Pyrrho, Epirotarum rege, visi Italia excedat, pacem faciendam esse negat, (oratio.) c. Quibus potissimum virtutibus excellens fuerit Cicero.
17. Laudes Augusti imperatoris.
4. Diète de Worms.
THEMES IN ENGLISH.
HOME WORK. The general school regulations provide that at the beginning of each term there shall be a conference of the teachers to determine in detail the due amount of home work for the different classes. Each teacher keeps a book in which all the exercises actually given are accurately noted, so that the director of the school may see at any time how far the decisions of the conference have been regarded. The home work of the pupils must be regularly corrected by the teacher, and the results publicly announced in the class. German and Latin compositions are to receive especial attention.
FINAL EXAMINATION (ABITURIENTENPRÜFUNG). The students who desire to matriculate at a university must procure the certificate of maturity (Maturitätszeugniss) in the regular final examination, the object being to ascertain whether the candidate has made bimself master of the subjects required for successful entrance upon the academic course. The examination must be made in a Gymnasium, and takes place about six weeks before the close of the school year. To be adınitted to the examination the pupil must have been two years in the highest grade.
The examining board (Prüfungscommission) consists of the director of the Gymnasium, the teachers of the higher classes, a member of the ecclesiastical authority, and a member of the provincial school board (Provinzial Schul-Collegium), who presides at the examination. Besides these, government commissioners are appointed to be present as inspectors.
The examinations are of two kinds, written and oral. The subjects are religion, history and geography, mathematics, physics, natural history, the German, Latin, Greek, French, English, and Hebrew lan. guages.
The subjects of the written examination are chosen by the royal commission from a list furnished by the director of the Gymnasium. All the candidates receive the same subjects for compo sition, which are given out at the beginning of the examination. The only books allowed them are dictionaries. The written examinations consist of, first, a Ger. man composition, the object of which is to discern the degree of intellectual development and the style of composition of the candidate; second, a Latin extempore exercise (an exercise in which the teacher speaks in German to the pupil, who has to render the German immediately into Latin in writing ) and a Latin composition on a subject which has been treated in the course; third, a translation from a Greek author and from Latin into Greek; fourth, a translation from German into French and English ; fifth, French and English compositions; sixth, the solution of four or five mathematical problems.
The time allowed for the several written examinations is as follows: For the compositions in Latin, Greek, German, French, and English, from 3 to 4 hours each; for translations, 2 to 3 hours each ; for mathematics, 5 hours.
The subjects of the oral examination are the principal epochs of the history of the church and questions upon Christian doctrine, the general grammar and prosody of the German language, the chief epochs of national history and literature, the German classics, oral translations of extracts from Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Virgil, and Horace, translations of Greek prose into German and Latin, and of portions of Homer, with questions upon Greek grammar, Greek history and mythology, translations from French and English classics, arithmetic, the elements of algebra, geometry, the binomial theorem, simple and quadratic equations, logarithms, and trigonometry, general history, Greek, Roman, and German history, physics, geography, natural history.
When the examination is closed, the examining board deliberates upon the notes which have been taken during its course by each member, Those students who have passed a satisfactory examination receive a certificate of maturity, (Maturitätszeugniss ;) the others are remanded to their class, and may present themselves, after an interval of six months, for another examination, unless they are deemed entirely incompetent to continue the course. The daily records of the classrooms are pre. sented to the examiners, as showing the progress and conduct of the candidates, and this is specially noted in the certificates.
The certificate of maturity is necessary to enable a youth to be ma. triculated in a university, to be admitted to the examinations for an academic degree, or to be appointed to office in state or church.
Young persons who have been educated privately, but who wish to enter the university, must apply to the provincial school board for leave to attend one of the examinations. They are required to bring testimonials and a curriculum vitæ, and they are then directed by the school board to a Gymnasium where they may be examined.
III.- PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF TEACHERS.
The foregoing exhibit of the organization and the subjects of study of secondary schools shows what an important work the teacher has to perform, and what a thorough preparation is required of one who desires to enter upon this field of labor. The school authorities are not satisfied to test only the intellectual ability of the graduates of the secondary schools, but they exact a rigorous test of the professional fitness of the future teacher. The candidate, after having finished his studies in a Gymnasium and a university, has to pass a state examination (Staatsprüfung) which is held by an examining committee (wissenschaftliche Prüfungscommission) composed of government representatives and professors of universities. The candidate sends in his certificate of maturity (Maturitätszeugniss), a certificate of a three years' attendance at the university, and a curriculum vitæ. The applications for admission to the Staatsprüfung are ordinarily written in Latin.
The subjects of examination are divided into four classes: first, the ancient languages and German; second, mathematics and natural sciences; third, history and geography; fourth, religion and Hebrew. After a satisfactory examination the candidate must pass a year's trial course (Probejahr) at a secondary school, unless he has attended one of the higher pedagogical seminaries connected with the different universities, in which case this is not required.
The most prominent pedagogic seminaries are those at Berlin, Bonn, Breslau, Halle, Königsberg, and Stettin. Besides these there are several philological and historical seminaries, where the candidates may acquire a more profound knowledge in those branches. The time allowed to lectures on pedagogy in the German universities is as follows: Berlin, 6 hours a week; Bonn, 4; Breslau, 3; Erlangen, 2; Freiburg, 2; Giessen, 2, Göttingen, 4; Greifswald, 3; Halle, 5; Heidelberg, 3; Jena, 6; Kiel, 3; Leipzig, 8; Münster, 4; Tübingen, 3; and Würzburg, 4. The subjects of the lectures are the history of education, scientific princi. ples of education, physical training of the child, school discipline, methods of instruction, school hygiene, school legislation, school architecture, ancient and modern languages, comparative philology, logic, metaphysics, and other branches of instruction which the teacher has to teach in his professional career.
There are various kinds of examinations, namely: Pro facultate docendi, pro loco, pro ascensione, and pro rectoratu. The subjects of examination are, first, German, Latin, Greek, French, and Hebrew languages; second, mathematics, natural philosophy, history and geography, philosophy and pedagogy. It is, however, not forbidden to any candidate to be examined in other languages and sciences, to