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TABLE XIII.- PROVINCES OF BRANDENBURG, POSEN, SAXONY, WESTPHALIA, AND
The Bavarian regulations prescribe that those who intend to devote themselves to the profession of teaching shall not only acquire the nec. essary knowledge, but be subjected to a thorough training of the character. The mere instruction is to be reduced and the training to be rendered more permanent in effect. The design of the whole course of instruction is to educate teachers true to their faith and their country, obedient to the laws, and interested in their profession. The education of the teacher includes the preliminary training, the seminary course, and the continuation of professional studies after the seminary course. The preliminary course is to begin at the end of the thirteenth year, or not later than the end of the fifteenth, and lasts three years. The can. didates are admitted to it upon an examination by the joint commission of the districts, and are taught in the preparatory seminaries of the districts, or by teachers selected for this purpose by the school author. ities. In most cases teachers living in the country and in smaller towns are selected, in order that the young students may be accustomed to simple habits. The course of instruction includes, besides the ordinary branches of the elementary schools, music, drawing, horticulture, and agriculture. Between the ages of 17 and 20, the candidate who is physically sound and able to furnish the necessary testimonials of capacity and good character may be admitted to the regular teachers' seminary, upon special examination before a board composed of a government commissioner, a delegate of the church authorities, the director, and two teachers of a seminary. The seminary course is of two years' duration. The branches of study are: Religion, language, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, penmanship, music, history of education, science of education, natural history, general history, agriculture, gymnastics, and drawing. The pupils all live in the seminary buildings. Examinations. The graduating examinations take place at the end
of each scholastic year. The graduates receive diplomas, marked I, II, or III, according to their standing. Those receiving diplomas may be employed as assistant teachers, and after two years' professional service as regular teachers.
Appointments. The appointment of teachers, as well as their suspen. sion and dismissal, is in the hands of the departmental school boards. Nominations can be made only of those who have passed an examination, and for cities only those marked I. Appointments to united school and church service (teacher and sexton) must also have the approval of the church authorities. A teacher who is once definitely appointed cannot be removed unless he is physically or morally unfit to continue his services.
Salaries and pensions.—The salaries of teachers in cities range from 400 to 800 florins, and those of country teachers from 200 to 500 florins. They receive besides a dwelling and fuel. Disabled teachers receive a retiring pension from their last place. The old and sick are frequently allowed an assistant, and thus occupy their places until death.
Statistics.— Bavaria has 35 preparatory seminaries to which graduates of the elementary schools are admitted. The total number of teachers in the preparatory seminaries in 1875 was 161, and the number of pupils 1,276. The expenditure amounted to 208,682 florins. The regular teachers' seminaries numbered 89, and the number of students 786; total expenditure, 255,261 florins.
Statistics.-Würtemberg had, in 1873, 2,085 teachers. For the train. ing of teachers there were 2 Protestant state seminaries, with 52 teachers; a Catholic state seminary, with 7 teachers; 6 Protestant private seminaries, with 34 teachers; and a Catholic private seminary, with 5 teachers. The total number of students was 658, of whom 55 were females.
Method of training teachers. The usual method of training teachers is this: The candidates are subjected to a preliminary examination before a committee specially appointed for this purpose. If they pass creditably, they receive permission to begin the preparatory course, either with or without the promise of receiving pecuniary assistance from the government. This preparatory course lasts three years, the first of which is the so-called trial course. They are then subjected to another examination, and when they have passed receive further instruction in the seminary in the following branches: Religion, pedagogics, a thorough knowledge of man as to body and mind, logic, physical and mental faculties of children, and the best methods of developing them, fundamental principles of education, historical development of elementary
1 The Bavarian florin = 41.17 cents, gold.
schools in Würtemberg and Germany, language, grammar, composition, speeches, history of literature, method of teaching the mother tongue, mathematics, arithmetic, algebra and geometry, natural history, the natural productions of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, natural philosophy, elements of chemistry and physics, geography, maps and globes, physical, mathematical, and political geography, history, Greek and Roman history, general history, and special history of Wür. temberg and Germany, agriculture, penmanship, drawing, music, and gymnastics.
Examinations.-The teachers must pass the following examinations: first, the preliminary examination for admission to the preparatory course; second, the examination for admission to the normal course; third, the first examination for office, to obtain appointment as assistant; fourth, the second examination for office, to obtain permanent appointment. To the first examination those candidates are admitted who are at least 15 years of age, of sound health and good character. To pass this examination the candidate must have the accomplishments of a good pupil of an elementary school. The conditions for admission to the teachers' seminary are, age sixteen years, and a certificate of having satisfactorily completed the preparatory course. The candidates are examined in religion, German, arithmetic, natural history, music, penmanship, geometry, and drawing. The first examination for office takes place at the end of the seminary course, and is conducted on the Prussian system. In the second examination for office, to which no one is admitted before he has passed his twenty-second year and before he has been at least two years in active service, the candidate must master the subjects of examination more thoroughly; he must be better acquainted with the science and methods of teaching and discipline, and must possess more extensive knowledge of natural science, history, and geography.
Salaries.—The salaries of teachers range from 800 to 1,800 marks. Most of the teachers receive besides a dwelling and a garden.
Pensions.—The following is a summary of the pension law of 1865 : No teacher has a right to a pension. School authorities, however, are authorized to pension a teacher after nine years' service, if the appli. cant is either 70 years of age or disabled by disease. If a teacher recovers from disease that made him a pensioner, he must be reappointed to a teacher's place where his salary is not less than before. After nine years' service the pension amounts to 40 per cent. of the regular salary. With every additional year of service the pension increases 17 per cent. if the salary was less than 2,400 marks, and 13 per cent. if the salary exceeded that amount.
The government grant to the pension fund in 1876 amounted to 345,300 marks. The number of pensioners was 2,110.
1 The Prussian mark
23.8 cents, gold.
OTHER GERMAN STATES.
The systems of training teachers in the other German states differ very little from that in Prussia, where the teachers' seminaries originated. The number of schools, teachers, and pupils in each of the sev. eral states reported for 1877 is given below.
Table showing the condition of teachers' seminaries in different German countries in 1877.
Statistics of 1876. I.- SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS. A person who aspires to a teachership in a secondary school is required to go through a nine years' preparatory course and an academic triennium before he is admitted to the professional examination, without which no one is allowed to teach. As the secondary school is not only one of the most important factors in the training of the teacher, but is also his future field of labor, a brief description of this institution will greatly aid in forming a correct idea of the German training sys. tem.
Secondary schools in Germany are for boys from about 9 to 18 years of age, and are commonly styled “higher institutions of learning” (Höhere Lehranstalten:). They are not a continuation of the primary or elementary schools, but exist independently of them. They are divided into 6Gymnasien” and “Progymnasien,” “Realschulen” of the first and second order, and “Höhere Bürgerschulen." Their common object is to give the foundation of a general scientific and literary culture, and to develop the moral power of the student. The Gymnasium is at the head of all the secondary schools, and leads directly to the university, while the Realschule leads to the higher technical schools. Both the Gym.
1 German educators are making great efforts to obtain for graduates of the Realschule the same privileges that those of the Gymnasium enjoy, and some universities have already expressed their willingness to admit the graduates of both institutions to the academic course.
nasium and the Realschule of the first order have a nine years' course; but the Progymnnasium, the Realschule of the second order, and the Höhere Bürgerschule have only a six or seven years' course, and their graduates are not entitled to matriculation in a university.
The general division and management of the Gymnasium and the Realschule are alike. Their courses of study extend over nine years. A complete Gymnasium or Realschule has at least six grades. The three lower grades, styled Sexta, Quinta, and Quarta, have a course of one year each; and each of the higher grades, styled Tertia, Secunda, and Prima, is subdivided into two divisions, with a course of one year each The different grades and subdivisions are as follows:
Prima A, (highest grade,) Prima B, Secunda A, Secunda B, Tertia A, Tertia B, Quarta, Quinta, Sexta, (lowest grade.)
The largest number of pupils in one class is fifty in the three lower grades, and, as a rule, thirty in the higher. Each class has one chief teacher, called the “ordinarius” of that class, who gives most of the lessons in it and who is responsible for its discipline.
Each teacher is generally engaged in school from twenty to twentyfive hours, and the director from fourteen to sixteen hours a week.
The Gymnasien are intended for those who desire to study especially the ancient languages and mathematics, and whose aim is to prepare for higher situations in the service of the state or the church. The students pass from the Gymnasium to the university to finish their studies in the different courses they may select.
The Realschulen are intended for those who desire to study the natural sciences, mathematics, and modern languages. The pupils are to become the managers of manufactories, civil engineers, architects, &c. They therefore do not pass to the university, but finish their education in the schools of architecture, engineering, manufactures, commerce, or other higher technical institutions.
The secondary schools are under the special care and control of the provincial school boards (Provinzial Schul-Collegien), composed of the presidents of the provinces and several experienced educators; and there is also a central school board at the capital of each state.
ADMISSION OF PUPILS.
Every candidate for admission to a secondary school must uudergo an examination which decides in what class he is to be placed. For entering Sexta (the lowest grade) the pupil must be at least nine years of age, be able to read German, know the parts of speech, write legibly, be able to write from dictation without making bad orthographical mis. takes, be well versed in the four fundamental rules of arithmetic, and be thoroughly conversant with the history of the Bible. Higher qualifications are required for entering the higher classes.